The Times is a British daily national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, adopting its current name on 1 January 1788; the Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, itself wholly owned by News Corp. The Times and The Sunday Times do not share editorial staff, were founded independently, have only had common ownership since 1967. In 1959, the historian of journalism Allan Nevins analysed the importance of The Times in shaping the views of events of London's elite: For much more than a century The Times has been an integral and important part of the political structure of Great Britain, its news and its editorial comment have in general been coordinated, have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its whole emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain.
To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in close touch with 10 Downing Street. The Times is the first newspaper to have borne that name, lending it to numerous other papers around the world, such as The Times of India and The New York Times. In countries where these other titles are popular, the newspaper is referred to as The London Times or The Times of London, although the newspaper is of national scope and distribution; the Times is the originator of the used Times Roman typeface developed by Stanley Morison of The Times in collaboration with the Monotype Corporation for its legibility in low-tech printing. In November 2006 The Times began printing headlines in Times Modern; the Times was printed in broadsheet format for 219 years, but switched to compact size in 2004 in an attempt to appeal more to younger readers and commuters using public transport. The Sunday Times remains a broadsheet; the Times had an average daily circulation of 417,298 in January 2019. An American edition of The Times has been published since 6 June 2006.
It has been used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the digitised paper, up to 2010, is online from Gale Cengage Learning; the Times was founded by publisher John Walter on 1 January 1785 as The Daily Universal Register, with Walter in the role of editor. Walter had lost his job by the end of 1784 after the insurance company where he worked went bankrupt due to losses from a Jamaican hurricane. Unemployed, Walter began a new business venture. Henry Johnson had invented the logography, a new typography, reputedly faster and more precise. Walter bought the logography's patent and with it opened a printing house to produce a daily advertising sheet; the first publication of the newspaper The Daily Universal Register in Great Britain was 1 January 1785. Unhappy because the word Universal was omitted from the name, Walter changed the title after 940 editions on 1 January 1788 to The Times. In 1803, Walter handed editorship to his son of the same name.
In spite of Walter Sr's sixteen-month stay in Newgate Prison for libel printed in The Times, his pioneering efforts to obtain Continental news from France, helped build the paper's reputation among policy makers and financiers. The Times used contributions from significant figures in the fields of politics, science and the arts to build its reputation. For much of its early life, the profits of The Times were large and the competition minimal, so it could pay far better than its rivals for information or writers. Beginning in 1814, the paper was printed on the new steam-driven cylinder press developed by Friedrich Koenig. In 1815, The Times had a circulation of 5,000. Thomas Barnes was appointed general editor in 1817. In the same year, the paper's printer James Lawson and passed the business onto his son John Joseph Lawson. Under the editorship of Barnes and his successor in 1841, John Thadeus Delane, the influence of The Times rose to great heights in politics and amongst the City of London.
Peter Fraser and Edward Sterling were two noted journalists, gained for The Times the pompous/satirical nickname'The Thunderer'. The increased circulation and influence of the paper was based in part to its early adoption of the steam-driven rotary printing press. Distribution via steam trains to growing concentrations of urban populations helped ensure the profitability of the paper and its growing influence; the Times was the first newspaper to send war correspondents to cover particular conflicts. W. H. Russell, the paper's correspondent with the army in the Crimean War, was immensely influential with his dispatches back to England. In other events of the nineteenth century, The Times opposed the repeal of the Corn Laws until the number of demonstrations convinced the editorial board otherwise, only reluctantly supported aid to victims of the Irish Potato Famine, it enthusiastically supported the Great Reform Bill of 1832, which reduced corruption and increased the electorate from 400,000 people to 800,000 people.
During the American Civil War, The Times represented the view of the wealthy classes, favouring the secessionists, but it was not a supporter of slavery. The third John Walter, the founder's grandson, succeeded his father in 1847; the paper continued as more or less independent, but from t
Iris is a genus of 260–300 species of flowering plants with showy flowers. It takes its name from the Greek word for a rainbow, the name for the Greek goddess of the rainbow, Iris; some authors state that the name refers to the wide variety of flower colors found among the many species. As well as being the scientific name, iris is widely used as a common name for all Iris species, as well as some belonging to other related genera. A common name for some species is'flags', while the plants of the subgenus Scorpiris are known as'junos' in horticulture, it is a popular garden flower. The often-segregated, monotypic genera Belamcanda and Pardanthopsis are included in Iris. Three Iris varieties are used in the Iris flower data set outlined by Ronald Fisher in his 1936 paper The use of multiple measurements in taxonomic problems as an example of linear discriminant analysis. Irises are perennial plants, they have long, erect flowering stems which may be simple or branched, solid or hollow, flattened or have a circular cross-section.
The rhizomatous species have 3–10 basal sword-shaped leaves growing in dense clumps. The bulbous species have basal leaves; the inflorescences contain one or more symmetrical six-lobed flowers. These grow on a peduncle; the three sepals, which are spreading or droop downwards, are referred to as "falls". They expand from their narrow base, into a broader expanded portion and can be adorned with veining, lines or dots. In the centre of the blade, some of the rhizomatous irises have a "beard", which are the plants filaments; the three, sometimes reduced, petals stand upright behind the sepal bases. They are called "standards"; some smaller iris species have all six lobes pointing straight outwards, but limb and standards differ markedly in appearance. They are united at their base into a floral tube; the styles divide towards the apex into petaloid branches. The iris flower is of interest as an example of the relation between flowering plants and pollinating insects; the shape of the flower and the position of the pollen-receiving and stigmatic surfaces on the outer petals form a landing-stage for a flying insect, which in probing for nectar, will first come into contact with the perianth with the stigmatic stamens in one whorled surface, borne on an ovary formed of three carpels.
The shelf-like transverse projection on the inner whorled underside of the stamens is beneath the overarching style arm below the stigma, so that the insect comes in contact with its pollen-covered surface only after passing the stigma. Thus, an insect bearing pollen from one flower will, in entering a second, deposit the pollen on the stigma; the iris fruit is a capsule. In some species, the seeds bear an aril. Iris is the largest genus of the family Iridaceae with up to 300 species – many of them natural hybrids. Modern classifications, starting with Dykes, have subdivided them. Dykes referred to the major subgroupings as sections. Subsequent authors such as Lawrence and Rodionenko have called them subgenera, while retaining Dykes' groupings, using six subgenera further divided into twelve sections. Of these, section Limneris was further divided into sixteen series. Like some older sources, Rodionenko moved some of the bulbous subgenera into separate genera, but this has not been accepted by writers such as Mathew, although the latter kept Hermodactylus as a distinct genus, to include Hermodactylus tuberosus, now returned to Hermodactyloides as Iris tuberosa.
Rodionenko reduced the number of sections in subgenus Iris, from six to two, depending on the presence or absence of arils on the seeds, referred to as arilate or nonarilate. Taylor provides arguments for not including all arilate species in Hexapogon. In general, modern classifications recognise six subgenera, of which five are restricted to the Old World; the two largest subgenera are further divided into sections. Iris Limniris Xiphium Nepalensis Scorpiris Hermodactyloides Nearly all species are found in temperate Northern hemisphere zones, from Europe to Asia and across North America. Although diverse in ecology, Iris is predominantly found in dry, semi-desert, or colder rocky mountainous areas, other habitats include grassy slopes, meadowlands and riverbanks. Iris is extensively grown as ornamental plant in botanical gardens. Presby Memorial Iris Gardens in New Jersey, for example, is a living iris museum with over 10,000 plants, while in Europe the most famous iris garden is arguably the Giardino dell'Iris in Florence which ev
André Courrèges was a French fashion designer. He was known for his streamlined 1960s designs influenced by modernism and futurism, exploiting modern technology and new fabrics. Courrèges defined the go-go boot and along with Mary Quant, is one of the designers credited with inventing the miniskirt. Courrèges was born in the city of Pau within the Basque region of the Pyrenees, he wanted to pursue design in art school but his father, a butler disapproved his passion as he wanted him to be an engineer. Courrèges attended École Nationale des Ponts-et-Chaussées. During World War II, he became a pilot for the French Air Force. At 25, after studying to be a civil engineer, Courrèges went to Paris to work at the fashion house Jeanne Lafaurie. A few months he went to work for Cristóbal Balenciaga. Courrèges worked for Balenciaga for 10 years mastering the construction of garments. In 1961, Courrèges launched his own fashion house, he became known for simple, modern designs, including the "little white dress" and pants for women.
They were paired with low-heeled white ankle boots, a style that became known as the Courrèges boot, evolved into the popular go-go boot. His clientele were conservative woman with high disposable income, his designs style was shaped by Balenciaga with garments. Courrège's autumn 1964 collection evolved the fashion industry with modern, futuristic designs that were unheard of during the time; the collection included tailored tunics and trousers which were paired with his version of the miniskirt. "He paired his shorter skirts with white or colored leather, calf-high boots that added a confident flair to the ensemble. This look became one of the most important fashion developments of the decade and was copied." Controversy over who created the idea for the miniskirt revolves around Mary Quant. He explicitly claimed to have invented, accusing his London rival to the claim, Mary Quant of "commercialising" it. Courrèges presented short skirts in January 1965 for that year's Spring/Summer collection.
He had presented "above-the-knee" skirts in the previous year, with his August 1964 haute couture presentation proclaimed the "best show seen so far" for that season by The New York Times. Valerie Steele has stated that Courrèges was designing short skirts as early as 1961, although she champions Quant's claim to have created the miniskirt first as being more convincingly supported by evidence. Others, such as Jess Cartner-Morley of The Guardian explicitly credit Courrèges with having invented the miniskirt; the Independent stated that "Courreges was the inventor of the miniskirt: at least in his eyes and those of the French fashion fraternity... The argument came down to high fashion vs street fashion and to France versus Britain – there's no conclusive evidence either way." Alongside short skirts, Courrèges was renowned for his trouser suits, cut-out backs and midriffs, all designed for a new type of athletic, active young woman. Steele has described Courrèges's work as a "brilliant couture version of youth fashion."
One of Courrèges's most distinctive looks, a knit bodystocking with a gabardine miniskirt slung around the hips, was copied and plagiarised, much to his chagrin, it would be 1967 before he again held a press showing for his work. Courrèges's favoured materials included plastics such as stretch fabrics like Lycra. While he preferred white and silver, he used flashes of citrus colour, the predominantly white designs in his August 1964 show were tempered with touches of his signature clear pink, a "bright stinging" green, various shades of brown from dark to pale, poppy red. In 1967 Courrèges married Coqueline Barrière, his design assistant, they had met while working together at Balenciaga, worked together as a husband and wife team for the rest of his life. In 1968 Courrèges sold a share of his company to L'Oréal in order to finance his expansion, which, by 1972, included 125 boutiques around the world; that year, Courrèges was commissioned to design staff uniforms for the Munich Olympics that year.
He began offering menswear in 1973. In early 1983, Courrèges worked with the Japanese motor company Honda to design special editions of their TACT motor scooter. By 2005, Itokin held the Japanese ready-to-wear license for the Courrèges brand, with a retail value of €50 million. By this point, Madame Courrèges had succeeded her husband as artistic director for the brand, Courrèges having retired in 1995 following their successful reclamation of the brand in 1994 despite several ownership changes; as of 2012, 50% of the firm's total income was from license royalties. In 2011 Andre and Coqueline Courrèges sold the Courrèges brand to two advertising executives, Jacques Bungert and Frédéric Torloting. After a long absence from Paris Fashion Week, September 2015 saw the presentation of a new Courrèges collection designed by new creative directors Sébastien Meyer and Arnaud Vaillant. Courrège's Spring 1964 collection established his impact on the fashion industry and named him the Space Age designer.
The line consisted of "architecturally-sculpted, double-breasted coats with contrasting trim, well-tailored, sleeveless or short-sleeved minidresses with dropped waistlines and detailed welt seaming, tunics worn with hipster pants". A notable look was the linear minidresses with revolutionary tailoring with cut-out panels that displayed waists and backs. Courrège had strong beliefs within the liberation of fashion, he emphasized that "A woman's body must be not soft and harnessed. The harness – the girdle and bra – is the chain of the slave." Which is why his cut-out panel
Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds and solvents, used to give the human body, food and living-spaces an agreeable scent. It is in liquid form and used to give a pleasant scent to a person's body. Ancient texts and archaeological excavations show the use of perfumes in some of the earliest human civilizations. Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds such as vanillin or coumarin, which allowed for the composition of perfumes with smells unattainable from natural aromatics alone; the word perfume derives from the Latin perfumare, meaning "to smoke through". Perfumery, as the art of making perfumes, began in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, or maybe Ancient China, was further refined by the Romans and the Arabs; the world's first-recorded chemist is considered a woman named Tapputi, a perfume maker mentioned in a cuneiform tablet from the 2nd millennium BC in Mesopotamia. She distilled flowers and calamus with other aromatics filtered and put them back in the still several times.
In India and perfumery existed in the Indus civilization. One of the earliest distillations of Ittar was mentioned in the Hindu Ayurvedic text Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita. In 2003, archaeologists uncovered what are believed to be the world's oldest surviving perfumes in Pyrgos, Cyprus; the perfumes date back more than 4,000 years. They were discovered in an ancient perfumery, a 300-square-meter factory housing at least 60 stills, mixing bowls and perfume bottles. In ancient times people used herbs and spices, such as almond, myrtle, conifer resin, bergamot, as well as flowers. In May 2018, an ancient perfume “Rodo” was recreated for the Greek National Archaeological Museum's anniversary show “Countless Aspects of Beauty”, allowing visitors to approach antiquity through their olfaction receptors. In the 9th century the Arab chemist Al-Kindi wrote the Book of the Chemistry of Perfume and Distillations, which contained more than a hundred recipes for fragrant oils, aromatic waters, substitutes or imitations of costly drugs.
The book described 107 methods and recipes for perfume-making and perfume-making equipment, such as the alembic. The Persian chemist Ibn Sina introduced the process of extracting oils from flowers by means of distillation, the procedure most used today, he first experimented with the rose. Until his discovery, liquid perfumes consisted of mixtures of oil and crushed herbs or petals, which made a strong blend. Rose water was more delicate, became popular. Both the raw ingredients and the distillation technology influenced western perfumery and scientific developments chemistry; the art of perfumery was known in western Europe from 1221, taking into account the monks' recipes of Santa Maria delle Vigne or Santa Maria Novella of Florence, Italy. In the east, the Hungarians produced in 1370 a perfume made of scented oils blended in an alcohol solution – best known as Hungary Water – at the behest of Queen Elizabeth of Hungary; the art of perfumery prospered in Renaissance Italy, in the 16th century the personal perfumer to Catherine de' Medici, Rene the Florentine, took Italian refinements to France.
His laboratory was connected with her apartments by a secret passageway, so that no formulae could be stolen en route. Thanks to Rene, France became one of the European centers of perfume and cosmetics manufacture. Cultivation of flowers for their perfume essence, which had begun in the 14th century, grew into a major industry in the south of France. Between the 16th and 17th centuries, perfumes were used by the wealthy to mask body odors resulting from infrequent bathing. Due to this patronage, the perfume industry developed. In 1693, Italian barber Giovanni Paolo Feminis created a perfume water called Aqua Admirabilis, today best known as eau de cologne. By the 18th century the Grasse region of France and Calabria were growing aromatic plants to provide the growing perfume industry with raw materials. Today and France remain the center of European perfume design and trade. Perfume types reflect the concentration of aromatic compounds in a solvent, which in fine fragrance is ethanol or a mix of water and ethanol.
Various sources differ in the definitions of perfume types. The intensity and longevity of a perfume is based on the concentration and longevity of the aromatic compounds, or perfume oils, used; as the percentage of aromatic compounds increases, so does the intensity and longevity of the scent. Specific terms are used to describe a fragrance's approximate concentration by the percent of perfume oil in the volume of the final product; the most widespread terms are: parfum or extrait, in English known as perfume extract, pure perfume, or perfume: 15–40% aromatic compounds.
Aix-en-Provence, or Aix, is a city and commune in Southern France, about 30 km north of Marseille. A former capital of Provence, it is in the region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, in the department of Bouches-du-Rhône, of which it is a subprefecture; the population of Aix-en-Provence numbers 143,000. Its inhabitants are called Aixois or, less Aquisextains. Aix was founded in 123 BC by the Roman consul Sextius Calvinus, who gave his name to its springs, following the destruction of the nearby Gallic oppidum at Entremont. In 102 BC its vicinity was the scene of the Battle of Aquae Sextiae, where the Romans under Gaius Marius defeated the Cimbri and Teutones, with mass suicides among the captured women, which passed into Roman legends of Germanic heroism. In the 4th century AD it became the metropolis of Narbonensis Secunda, it was occupied by the Visigoths in 477. In the succeeding century, the town was plundered by the Franks and Lombards, was occupied by the Saracens in 731 and by Charles Martel in 737.
Aix, which during the Middle Ages was the capital of Provence, did not reach its zenith until after the 12th century, under the houses of Barcelona/Aragon and Anjou, it became an artistic centre and seat of learning. Aix passed to the crown of France with the rest of Provence in 1487, in 1501 Louis XII established there the parliament of Provence, which existed until 1789. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the town was the seat of the Intendance of Provence. Current archeological excavations in the Ville des Tours, a medieval suburb of Aix, have unearthed the remains of a Roman amphitheatre. A deposit of fossil bones from the Upper Continental Miocene gave rise to a Christian dragon legend. Aix-en-Provence is situated in the south of France, in a plain overlooking the Arc river, about a mile from the right bank of the river; the city slopes from north to south and the Montagne Sainte-Victoire can be seen to the east. Aix's position in the south of France gives it a warm climate, though more extreme than Marseille due to the inland location.
It has an average January temperature of 5 °C and a July average of 23 °C. It has an average of only 91 days of rain. While it is protected from the Mistral, Aix still experiences the cooler and gusty conditions it brings. Unlike most of France which has an oceanic climate, Aix-en-Provence has a Mediterranean climate; the Cours Mirabeau is a wide thoroughfare, planted with double rows of plane trees, bordered by fine houses and decorated by fountains. It follows the line of the old city wall, divides the town into two sections; the new town extends to the west. Situated on this avenue, lined on one side with banks and on the other with cafés, is the Deux Garçons, the most famous brasserie in Aix. Built in 1792, it was frequented by the likes of Émile Zola and Ernest Hemingway; the Cathedral of the Holy Saviour is situated to the north in the medieval part of Aix. Built on the site of a former Roman forum and an adjacent basilica, it contains a mixture of all styles from the 5th to the 17th century, including a richly decorated portal in the Gothic style with doors elaborately carved in walnut.
The interior contains 16th-century tapestries, a 15th-century triptych, depicting King René and his wife on the side panels, as well as a Merovingian baptistery, its Renaissance dome supported by original Roman columns. The archbishop's palace and a Romanesque cloister adjoin the cathedral on its south side; the Archbishopric of Aix is now shared with Arles. Among its other public institutions, Aix has the second most important Appeal Court outside of Paris, located near the site of the former Palace of the Counts of Provence; the Hôtel de Ville, a building in the classical style of the middle of the 17th century, looks onto a picturesque square. It contains tapestries. At its side rises a handsome clock-tower erected in 1510. On the Place de l'Hôtel de Ville is the former Corn Exchange; this ornately decorated 18th-century building was designed by the Vallon brothers. Nearby are the remarkable thermal springs, containing lime and carbonic acid, that first drew the Romans to Aix and gave it the name Aquae Sextiae.
A spa was built in 1705 near the remains of the ancient Roman baths of Sextius. South of the Cours Mirabeau is the Quartier Mazarin; this residential district was constructed for the gentry of Aix by Archbishop Michele Mazzarino brother of Cardinal Jules Mazarin in the last half of the 17th century and contains several notable hôtels particuliers. The 13th-century church of Saint-Jean-de-Malte contains valuable pictures and a restored organ. Next to it is the Musée Granet, devoted to European sculpture. Aix is referred to as the city of a thousand fountains. Among the most notable are the 17th-century Fontaine des Quatre Dauphins in the Quartier Mazarin, designed by Jean-Claude Rambot, three of the fountains down the central Cours Mirabeau: At the top, a 19th-century fountain depicts the "good king" René holding the Muscat grapes that he introduced to Provence in the 15th century.
Chrysopogon zizanioides known as vetiver is a perennial bunchgrass of the Poaceae family, native to India. Vetiver is most related to Sorghum but shares many morphological characteristics with other fragrant grasses, such as lemongrass and palmarosa. Vetiver grows to 150 centimetres high and form clumps as wide. Under favorable conditions, the erect culms can reach 3m in height; the stems are tall and the leaves are long and rather rigid. The flowers are brownish-purple. Unlike most grasses, which form horizontally spreading, mat-like root systems, vetiver's roots grow downward, 2 metres to 4 metres in depth; the vetiver bunch grass grows in tufts. Shoots growing from the underground crown make the plant frost and wildfire resistant, allow it to survive heavy grazing pressure; the leaves can become up to 300 centimetres 8 millimetres wide. The panicles are 15 centimetres to 30 centimetres long and have whorled, 25 millimetres to 50 millimetres long branches; the spikelets are in pairs, there are three stamens.
The plant stems are stiff. They can survive deep water flow. Under clear water, the plant can survive up to two months; the root system of vetiver is finely structured and strong. It can grow 3 metres to 4 metres deep within the first year. Vetiver rhizomes; because of all these characteristics, the vetiver plant is drought-tolerant and can help to protect soil against sheet erosion. In case of sediment deposition, new roots can grow out of buried nodes. Though it originates in India, C. zizanioides is cultivated in tropical regions. The major vetiver producers include Haiti, Indonesia, Réunion; the most used commercial genotypes of vetiver are sterile, because vetiver propagates itself by small offsets instead of underground stolons, these genotypes are noninvasive and can be controlled by cultivation of the soil at the boundary of the hedge. However, care must be taken. All vetiver grown worldwide is vegetatively propagated, bioengineering has shown them as the same nonfertile cultigen by DNA profiling.
In the United States the cultivar is named ` Sunshine,' after the town of Louisiana. Vetiver grass is grown for many purposes; the plant helps to stabilise soil and protects it against erosion, but it can protect fields against pests and weeds. Vetiver has favourable qualities for animal feed. From the roots, oil is extracted and used for cosmetics, herbal skincare and ayurvedic soap. Due to its fibrous properties, the plant can be used for handicrafts and more. Vetiver has been used to produce perfumes and soaps, it is used for its antiseptic properties to treat acne and sores. Several aspects of vetiver make it an excellent erosion control plant in warmer climates. Vetiver's roots grow exclusively downward, 2 metres to 4 metres, deeper than some tree roots; this makes vetiver an excellent stabilizing hedge for stream banks and rice paddies, protects soil from sheet erosion. The roots bind to the soil, therefore it can not dislodge. Vetiver has been used to stabilize railway cuttings/embankments in geologically challenging situations in an attempt to prevent mudslides and rockfalls, such as the Konkan railway in western India.
The plant penetrates and loosens compacted soils. The Vetiver system, a technology of soil conservation and water quality management, is based on the use of the vetiver plant; the close-growing culms help to block surface water runoff. It increases the amount absorbed by the soil, it can withstand water velocity up to 5 metres per second. Vetiver mulch increases water infiltration and reduces evaporation, thus protects soil moisture under hot and dry conditions; the mulch protects against splash erosion. In west African regions, such as Mali and Senegal, vetiver roots were traditionally used to reduce bacteria proliferation in water jugs and jars. In Indonesia, the roots of vetiver are used in the production of fragrant mats. In the Philippines and India, the roots are woven to make fragrant-smelling fans called "sandal root fans". Vetiver can be used for crop protection, it attracts the stem borer. Due to the hairy architecture of vetiver, the larvae can not move on the leaves, fall to the ground and die.
Vetiver's essential oil has anti-fungal properties against Rhizoctonia solani. As a mulch, vetiver is used for weed control in coffee and tea plantations, it builds a barrier in the form of a thick mat. When the mulch breaks down, soil organic matter is built up and additional crop nutrients become available. Vetiver extracts can repel termites. However, vetiver grass alone, unlike its extracts, cannot be used to repel termites. Unless the roots are damaged, the anti-termite chemicals, such as nootkatone, are not released; the leaves of vetiver are a useful byproduct to feed cattle, goats and horses. The nutritional content depends on growth stage and soil fertility. Under most climates, nutritional values and yields are best. Vetiver is used as a flavoring agent as khus syrup. Khus syrup is made by adding khus essence to sugar and citric acid syrup. Khus essence is a dark green thick syrup made from the roots, it has a scent characteristic of khus. The syrup is
Balsam of Peru
Balsam of Peru known and marketed by many other names, is a balsam derived from a tree known as Myroxylon balsamum var. pereirae, grown in Central America and South America. Balsam of Peru is used in food and drink for flavoring, in perfumes and toiletries for fragrance, in medicine and pharmaceutical items for healing properties, it has a sweet scent. In some instances, Balsam of Peru is listed on the ingredient label of a product by one of its various names, but it may not be required to be listed by its name by mandatory labeling conventions, it can cause allergic reactions, with numerous large surveys identifying it as being in the "top five" allergens most causing patch test reactions. It may cause inflammation, swelling, soreness and blisters, including allergic contact dermatitis, cheilitis, hand eczema, generalized or resistant plantar dermatitis and conjunctivitis. Balsam of Peru is an aromatic viscous resin obtained by scorching or inflicting V-shaped wounds on the bark of the trunk of the tree Myroxylon balsamum var. pereirae.
In response, the Balsam of Peru – oily, resin-like, aromatic fluid – exudes to heal the tree's lesions, the liquid is collected. An essential oil is distilled from the balsam. Balsam of Peru contains 25 or so different substances, including cinnamein, cinnamic acid, cinnamyl cinnamate, benzyl benzoate, benzoic acid, vanillin, it contains cinnamic acid alcohol and aldehyde and nerolidol. A minority of it 30–40%, contains resins or esters of unknown composition. Balsam of Peru is used in food and drink for flavoring, in perfumes and toiletries for fragrance, in medicine and pharmaceutical items for healing properties. In some cases, it is listed on the ingredient label of a product by one of its various names. Occurring ingredients may contain substances identical to or closely related to Balsam of Peru, it has four primary uses: flavoring in foods and drinks such as coffee, flavored tea, beer, liqueurs, apéritifs, soft drinks including cola, citrus, citrus fruit peel, marmalade and tomato-containing products and Italian foods with red sauces, spices, chili sauce, barbecue sauce, pickles, pickled vegetables, vanilla, baked goods and pastries, ice cream, chewing gum, candy fragrance in perfumes and toiletries, such as perfumes, deodorants, shampoos, after-shave lotions, lipsticks, lotions, baby powders and suntan lotions in medicinal products such as hemorrhoid suppositories and ointment, cough medicine/suppressant and lozenges, diaper rash ointments and lip ointments, tincture of benzoin, wound spray, calamine lotion, surgical dressings, dental cement, eugenol used by dentists, some periodontal impression materials, in the treatment of dry socket in dentistry.
Optical properties as a glue as a mounting medium for microscope specimens due to purified Balsam of Peru's transparency and refractive index of 1.597 being close to that of many glasses used in opticsIt can be found in toothpaste, scented tobacco, cleaning products, insect repellants, air fresheners and deodorizers, scented candles, oil paint. A number of national and international surveys have identified Balsam of Peru as being in the "top five" allergens most causing patch test reactions in people referred to dermatology clinics. A study in 2001 found. Many flavorings and perfumes contain components identical to Balsam of Peru, it may cause redness, swelling and blisters. People allergic to Balsam of Peru, or other chemically related substances, may experience a contact dermatitis reaction. If they have oral exposure, they may experience stomatitis, cheilitis. If they ingest it, they may experience pruritus and contact dermatitis in the perianal region due to unabsorbed substances in the feces.
It can cause a flare-up of hand eczema. Among the other allergic reactions to Balsam of Peru are generalized or resistant plantar dermatitis and conjunctivitis, In a case study in Switzerland, a woman, allergic to Balsam of Peru was allergic to her boyfriend's semen following intercourse, after he drank large amounts of Coca-Cola. A positive patch test is used to diagnose an allergy to Balsam of Peru. Positive patch test results indicate that the person may have problems with certain flavorings and perfumed products. Among foods, the most implicated are spices and tomatoes. People allergic to Balsam of Peru may benefit from a diet in which they avoid ingesting foods that contain it. Occurring ingredients may contain substances identical to or closely related to Balsam of Peru, may cause the same allergic reactions. In some instances, Balsam of Peru is listed on the ingredient label of a product by one of its various names, but it may not be required to be listed by its name by mandatory labeling conventions.