Oakland is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, United States. A major West Coast port city, Oakland is the largest city in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, the third largest city overall in the San Francisco Bay Area, the eighth most populated city in California, the 45th largest city in the United States. With a population of 425,195 as of 2017, it serves as a trade center for the San Francisco Bay Area. An act to incorporate the city was passed on May 4, 1852, incorporation was approved on March 25, 1854, which made Oakland a city. Oakland is a charter city. Oakland's territory covers what was once a mosaic of California coastal terrace prairie, oak woodland, north coastal scrub, its land served as a rich resource when its hillside oak and redwood timber were logged to build San Francisco. Oakland's fertile flatland soils helped. In the late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the western terminal of the Transcontinental Railroad. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, many San Francisco citizens moved to Oakland, enlarging the city's population, increasing its housing stock and improving its infrastructure.
It continued to grow in the 20th century with its busy port, a thriving automobile manufacturing industry. The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun Indians; the Huchiun belonged to a linguistic grouping called the Ohlone. In Oakland, they were concentrated around Lake Merritt and Temescal Creek, a stream that enters the San Francisco Bay at Emeryville. In 1772, the area that became Oakland was colonized, with the rest of California, by Spanish settlers for the King of Spain. In the early 19th century, the Spanish crown granted the East Bay area to Luis María Peralta for his Rancho San Antonio; the grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic upon its independence from Spain. Upon his death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his four sons. Most of Oakland fell within the shares given to Antonio Vicente; the portion of the parcel, now Oakland was called Encinal—Spanish for "oak grove"—due to the large oak forest that covered the area, which led to the city's name. During the 1850s—just as gold was discovered in California—Oakland started growing and developing because land was becoming too expensive in San Francisco.
The Chinese were struggling financially, as a result of the First Opium War, the Second Opium War, the Taiping Rebellion, so they began migrating to Oakland in an effort to provide for their families in China. However, the Chinese struggled to settle because they were discriminated against by the white community and their living quarters were burned down on several occasions; the majority of the Chinese migrants lived in unhealthy conditions in China and they had diseases, so plague spread into San Francisco though the Chinese were inspected for diseases upon their arrival to San Francisco. In 1851, three men—Horace Carpentier, Edson Adams, Andrew Moon—began developing what is now downtown Oakland. In 1852, the Town of Oakland became incorporated by the state legislature. During this time, Oakland had 75-100 inhabitants, two hotels, a wharf, two warehouses, only cattle trails. Two years on March 25, 1854, Oakland re-incorporated as the City of Oakland, with Horace Carpentier elected the first mayor, though a scandal ended his mayorship in less than a year.
The city and its environs grew with the railroads, becoming a major rail terminal in the late 1860s and 1870s. In 1868, the Central Pacific constructed the Oakland Long Wharf at Oakland Point, the site of today's Port of Oakland. A number of horsecar and cable car lines were constructed in Oakland during the latter half of the 19th century; the first electric streetcar set out from Oakland to Berkeley in 1891, other lines were converted and added over the course of the 1890s. The various streetcar companies operating in Oakland were acquired by Francis "Borax" Smith and consolidated into what became known as the Key System, the predecessor of today's publicly owned AC Transit. Oakland was one of the worst affected cities in California, impacted by the plague epidemic. Quarantine measures were set in place at the Oakland ports requiring the authorities at the port to inspect the arriving vessels for the presence of infected rats. Quarantine authorities at these ports inspected over a thousand vessels per year for plague and yellow fever.
By 1908, over 5,000 people were detained in quarantine. Hunters were sent to poison the affected areas in Oakland and shoot the squirrels, but the eradication work was limited in its range because the State Board of Health and the United States Public Health Service were only allotted about $60,000 a year to eradicate the disease. During this period Oakland did not have sufficient health facilities, so some of the infected patients were treated at home; the State Board of Health along with Oakland advised physicians to promptly report any cases of infected patients. Yet, in 1919 it still resulted in a small epidemic of Pneumonic plague which killed a dozen people in Oakland; this started when a man killed a squirrel. After eating the squirrel, he fell ill four days and another household member contracted the plague; this in turn was passed on either indirectly to about a dozen others. The officials in Oakland acted by issuing death certificates to monitor the spread of plague. At the time of incorporation in 1852, Oaklan
San Francisco Department of Public Works
San Francisco Public Works is responsible for the care and maintenance of San Francisco’s streets and infrastructure. The department designs, builds and cleans streets. Public Works serves San Francisco residents and visitors 24 hours a day and seven days a week with a workforce of 1,200 employees. San Francisco Public Works was created on January 8, 1900 with the name of Board of Public Works, its first task was to organize and regulate street construction and paving projects throughout the city. The original four bureaus were: Streets, Lighting and Light & Water Services. Over the next century and nearly two decades the roles have shifted and expanded dramatically. In 2014, after a year-long rebranding process, the department switched its name from the San Francisco Department of Public Works, or DPW, to San Francisco Public Works; the budget for the first year of operations was $637,194.00. Today, the operating budget for Fiscal Year 2015-16 is $256 million. 1969 - The Gateway Arch to Chinatown, San Francisco was completed in September at a project cost of $76,790.
- DPW Annual Report dubbed the increase in litter as “a modern phenomenon”, blaming it on “unsolicited advertising leaflets, handbills and so-called newspapers for which no charge is made…paper and plastic in the form of product containers or wrappings.” 1974 - DPW implemented the Controlled Parking Program, which enacted scheduled parking prohibitions on streets during certain hours to clear the way for mechanical street sweepers. It began as a pilot program in the Richmond District; the Board of Supervisors approved $56,700 for 2,200 signs to be posted throughout the neighborhoods. The program expanded to a new district each year after. 1976 - San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center opens. This $30 million construction project was awarded in 1971. After many construction difficulties the medical facility opens. 1980 - Bureau of Engineering completes a $726,382 contract to develop and rehabilitate the music concourse in Golden Gate Park. - Clean Water Program begins. The CWP was responsible for the design and construction of the largest capital improvement program undertaken at the time, to bring the City's sewerage system into compliance with State and Federal water pollution control laws, such as the Clean Water Act.
Miles of tunnels, storage systems, pump stations were completed to improve the receiving water quality including beaches and the Bay front by reducing combined sewage overflows. The estimated costs at the time were $800 million by 1985. Many other wastewater agencies in the nation are still carrying out such programs today. 1988 - Voters pass $27 million Street Improvement Bond Issue to improve streets and traffic signals. 1989 - Within 72 hours of the October 17th San Francisco earthquake, DPW performed 1,600 building inspections. In all that year, over 15,000 inspections were made, classifying buildings Red and Green. 1994 - The graffiti abatement program begins with two painters from the Bureau of Building repair and ten young people form the Mayor's Youth Worker Program. 1997 - $70.5 million Civic Center Courthouse for the San Francisco Superior and Municipal Civil Courts is completed. 1998 - The $56 million War Memorial Opera House Seismic Upgrade and Improvement Project construction was completed.
1999 - $220 million San Francisco City Hall Seismic Upgrade project was completed. San Francisco Department of Public Works Official Site
Fisherman's Wharf, San Francisco
Fisherman's Wharf is a neighborhood and popular tourist attraction in San Francisco, California. It encompasses the northern waterfront area of San Francisco from Ghirardelli Square or Van Ness Avenue east to Pier 35 or Kearny Street; the F Market streetcar runs through the area, the Powell-Hyde cable car lines runs to Aquatic Park, at the edge of Fisherman's Wharf, the Powell-Mason cable car line runs a few blocks away. San Francisco's Fisherman's Wharf gets its name and neighborhood characteristics from the city's early days of the mid to 1800s when Italian immigrant fishermen came to the city by the bay to take advantage of the influx of population due to the gold rush. One, Achille Paladini, found success wholesaling local fish as owner of the Paladini Fish Company, came to be known as the "Fish King". Most of the Italian immigrant fishermen settled in the North Beach area close to the wharf and fished for the local delicacies and the now famed Dungeness crab. From until the present day it remained the home base of San Francisco's fishing fleet.
Despite its redevelopment into a tourist attraction during the 1970s and 1980s, the area is still home to many active fishermen and their fleets. In 2010, a $15 million development plan was proposed by city officials hoping to revitalize its appearance for tourists, to reverse the area's downward trend in popularity among San Francisco residents, who have shunned the locale over the years. One of the busiest and well known tourist attractions in the western United States, Fisherman's Wharf is best known for being the location of Pier 39, the Cannery Shopping Center, Ghirardelli Square, a Ripley's Believe it or Not museum, the Musée Mécanique, Wax Museum at Fishermans Wharf, the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park. Seafood restaurants are plenty in the area; some include the floating Forbes Island restaurant at Pier 39 to stands that serve fresh seafood, most notably Dungeness crab and clam chowder served in a sourdough bread bowl. Some of the restaurants, including Fishermen's Grotto, Pompei's Grotto and Alioto's, go back for three generations of the same family ownership.
Other restaurants include chains like Bubba Gump Shrimp Co.. The area has an In-N-Out Burger. Nearby Pier 45 has a chapel in memory of the "Lost Fishermen" of San Francisco and Northern California. There is a sea lion colony next to Pier 39, they "took-up" residence months before the Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989. The sea lions lie on wooden docks that were used for docking boats. Fisherman's Wharf plays host to many San Francisco events, including a world-class fireworks display for Fourth of July, some of the best views of the Fleet Week air shows featuring The Blue Angels. In 1985, the wharf was used as a filming location in the James Bond film A View to a Kill, where Bond met with CIA agent Chuck Lee in his quest to eliminate the villain of the film, Max Zorin. Hyde Street Pier old automobile ferry site made obsolete by the Golden Gate and Bay Bridges 49-Mile Scenic Drive Fisherman's Wharfs in other places F Market, the San Francisco Municipal Railway historic streetcar linking the Wharf to Market Street Pier 39 Musée Mécanique Red and White Fleet Bay Cruises San Francisco's Fisherman's Wharf, Alessandro Baccari Jr. Arcadia Publishing Fisherman's Wharf Merchants Association JB Monaco Fisherman's Wharf Photo Gallery
Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century; the oldest Latin texts with traces of Spanish come from mid-northern Iberia in the 9th century, the first systematic written use of the language happened in Toledo capital of the Kingdom of Castile, in the 13th century. Beginning in 1492, the Spanish language was taken to the viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire, most notably to the newly-discovered Americas, as well as territories in Africa and the Philippines. Around 75% of modern Spanish vocabulary is derived from Latin and, through Latin, Ancient Greek. Spanish vocabulary has been in contact with Arabic from an early date, having developed during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula.
With around 8% of its vocabulary being Arabic in origin, this language is the second most important influence after Latin. It has been influenced by Basque, Celtiberian, by neighboring Ibero-Romance languages. Additionally, it has absorbed vocabulary from other languages the Romance languages—French, Portuguese, Catalan and Sardinian—as well as from Quechua and other indigenous languages of the Americas. Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations, it is used as an official language by the European Union, the Organization of American States, the Union of South American Nations, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the African Union and many other international organizations. Despite its large number of speakers, the Spanish language does not feature prominently in scientific writing, with the exception of the humanities, it is estimated that more than 437 million people speak Spanish as a native language, which qualifies it as second on the lists of languages by number of native speakers.
Instituto Cervantes claims that there are an estimated 477 million Spanish speakers with native competence and 572 million Spanish speakers as a first or second language—including speakers with limited competence—and more than 21 million students of Spanish as a foreign language. Spanish is the official or national language in Spain, Equatorial Guinea, 19 countries in the Americas. Speakers in the Americas total some 418 million, it is an optional language in the Philippines as it was a Spanish colony from 1569 to 1899. In the European Union, Spanish is the mother tongue of 8% of the population, with an additional 7% speaking it as a second language. Spanish is the most popular second language learned in the United States. In 2011 it was estimated by the American Community Survey that of the 55 million Hispanic United States residents who are five years of age and over, 38 million speak Spanish at home. According to a 2011 paper by U. S. Census Bureau Demographers Jennifer Ortman and Hyon B. Shin, the number of Spanish speakers is projected to rise through 2020 to anywhere between 39 million and 43 million, depending on the assumption one makes about immigration.
Most of these Spanish speakers will be Hispanic, with Ortman and Shin projecting between 37.5 million and 41 million Hispanic Spanish speakers by 2020. In Spain and in some other parts of the Spanish-speaking world, Spanish is called not only español but castellano, the language from the kingdom of Castile, contrasting it with other languages spoken in Spain such as Galician, Asturian, Catalan and Occitan; the Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the term castellano to define the official language of the whole Spanish State in contrast to las demás lenguas españolas. Article III reads as follows: El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado.... Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas... Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State.... The other Spanish languages shall be official in their respective Autonomous Communities... The Spanish Royal Academy, on the other hand uses the term español in its publications, but from 1713 to 1923 called the language castellano.
The Diccionario panhispánico de dudas states that, although the Spanish Royal Academy prefers to use the term español in its publications when referring to the Spanish language, both terms—español and castellano—are regarded as synonymous and valid. Two etymologies for español have been suggested; the Spanish Royal Academy Dictionary derives the term from the Provençal word espaignol, that in turn from the Medieval Latin word Hispaniolus,'from—or pertaining to—Hispania'. Other authorities attribute it to a supposed mediaeval Latin *hispaniōne, with the same meaning; the Spanish language evolved from Vulgar Latin, brought to the Iberian Peninsula by the Romans during the Second Punic War, beginning in 210 BC. Several pre-Roman languages —unrelated to Latin, some of them unrelated to Indo-European—were spoken in the Iberian Peninsula; these languages included Basque, Iberian and Gallaecian. The first documents to show traces of what is today regarded as the precursor of modern Spanish are from the 9th century.
Throughout the Middle Ages and into the modern era, the most important influences on the Spanish lexicon came from neighboring Romance languages—Mozarabic (Anda
Oracle Park is a baseball park located in the South Beach neighborhood of San Francisco, California. Since 2000, it has served as the home of the San Francisco Giants, the city's Major League Baseball franchise. Named Pacific Bell Park SBC Park in 2003 after SBC Communications acquired Pacific Bell, the stadium was christened AT&T Park in 2006, after SBC acquired AT&T and took on the name; the current name was adopted in 2019. The park stands along the San Francisco Bay, a segment of, named McCovey Cove in honor of former Giants player Willie McCovey. Oracle Park has played host to both professional and collegiate American football games; the stadium was the home of the annual college postseason bowl game now known as the Redbox Bowl from its inaugural playing in 2002 until 2013, served as the temporary home for the University of California's football team in 2011. Professionally, it was the home of the San Francisco Demons of the XFL and the California Redwoods of the United Football League.
Public transit access to the stadium is provided within San Francisco by Muni Metro or Muni Bus, from the Peninsula and Santa Clara Valley via Caltrain, from parts of the Bay Area across the water via various ferries of San Francisco Bay. The Muni 2nd and King Station is directly outside the ballpark, the 4th & King Caltrain station is 1.5 blocks from the stadium, the Oracle Park Ferry Terminal is outside the east edge of the ballpark beyond the center field bleachers. Designed to be a 42,000-seat stadium, there were slight modifications before the final design was complete; when the ballpark was brought to the ballot box in the fall of 1996 for voter approval, the stadium was 15° clockwise from its current position. The center-field scoreboard was atop the right-field wall and the Giants Pavilion Building were two separate buildings. Groundbreaking on the ballpark began on December 11, 1997, in the industrial waterfront area of San Francisco known as China Basin in the up-and-coming neighborhoods of South Beach and Mission Bay.
The stadium cost $357 million to build and supplanted the Giants' former home, Candlestick Park, a multi-use stadium in southeastern San Francisco, home to the National Football League's San Francisco 49ers until 2014, when they relocated to Levi's Stadium in Santa Clara. A team of engineers from UC Davis was consulted in the design process of the park, resulting in wind levels that are half those at Candlestick. Fans had shivered through 40 seasons at "The'Stick" and looked forward to warmer temperatures at the new ballpark, but because Oracle Park, like its predecessor, is built right on San Francisco Bay, cold summer fog and winter jackets in July are still not unusual at Giants games, despite the higher average temperature. When it opened on March 31, 2000, the ballpark was the first Major League Baseball ballpark built without public funds since the completion of Dodger Stadium in 1962. However, the Giants did receive a $10 million tax abatement from the city and $80 million for upgrades to the local infrastructure.
The Giants have a 66-year lease on the 12.5-acre ballpark site, paying $1.2 million in rent annually to the San Francisco Port Commission. The park opened with a seating capacity of 40,800, but this has increased over time as seats have been added. In April 2010, the stadium became the first MLB ballpark to receive LEED Silver Certification for Existing Buildings and Maintenance. On April 3, 1996, Pacific Bell, a telephone company serving California based in San Francisco, purchased the naming rights for the planned ballpark for $50 million for 24 years; the stadium was named Pac Bell Park for short. Just days before the sponsorship was announced, SBC Communications had announced their intention to acquire Pacific Bell's parent company, Pacific Telesis, a deal which closed in April 1997. SBC stopped using the Pacific Bell name for marketing, reached an agreement with the Giants to change the stadium's name to SBC Park on January 1, 2004. After SBC bought AT&T Corporation on November 18, 2005, the name of the merged company became AT&T Inc.
As a result, in 2006 the stadium was given its third name in six years: AT&T Park. On January 9, 2019, it was reported that AT&T had given the Giants the option of ending the naming deal a year early, if the team could find a new partner; the Giants and Oracle Corporation came to a rapid agreement, with the old AT&T Park signs being replaced with temporary Oracle Park banners on January 10. Some fans still refer to the stadium as Pac Bell Park, as it was the first name given to the stadium. Others have nicknamed the stadium "The Phone Booth" or "Telephone Park", in response to its multiple name changes, while some referred to the stadium as "Some Big Corporation Park" during the SBC years. Others yet refer to it as "Mays Field" in honor of Giants great Willie Mays or "The Bell". Many refer to the stadium as "China Basin" or "McCovey Cove" after its location, which would be immune to changes in sponsorship naming; the stadium contains 68 luxury suites, 5,200 club seats on the club level, an additional 1,500 club seats at the field level behind home plate.
On the facing of the upper deck along the left-field line are the retired numbers of Bill Terry, Mel Ott, Carl Hubbell, Monte Irvin, Willie Mays, Barry Bonds, Juan Marichal, Orlando Cepeda, Jackie Robinson, Willie McCovey, Gaylord Perry, as well as the retired uniforms, denoted "NY", of Christy Mathewson and John McGraw who played or managed in the pre-number era. These two pre-number–era retired uniforms are among only six such retired uniforms in all of the Major Leagues. Oracle Park has a reputation of being a pitcher's park and the most pitc
Kearny Street in San Francisco, California runs north from Market Street to The Embarcadero. Toward its south end, it separates the Financial District from the Union Square and Chinatown districts. Further north, it passes over Telegraph Hill, interrupted by a gap near Coit Tower. Kearny Street was named "La Calle de la Fundacion" by the Spanish, meaning "street of the foundation." The origin of the present name, Kearny Street, is assumed to be Stephen Watts Kearny, the first military governor of California under U. S. rule. Another possible namesake is General Philip Kearny, it is sometimes erroneously assumed to be named after the labor leader Denis Kearney, known for his racist anti-Chinese agitation. At Kearny and Clay was the lower end of the first cable car line in America, launched by Andrew S. Hallidie on August 2, 1873, climbing five blocks up Clay Street hill toward Nob Hill. During the early 20th century, "running north from Market Street to the Barbary Coast, was an avenue of honky-tonks and saloons frequented by racetrack tipsters and other shady professionals.
On election nights it was the scene of torch-light parades and brass bands", as summarized in the 1940 WPA guide to San Francisco. From the turn of the twentieth century until 1977, the area around the intersection of Kearny and Jackson Streets was home to a large Filipino population, earned the nickname Manilatown. Located at 848 Kearny Street, the International Hotel served as the heart of Manilatown. In its heyday of the 1920s and 1930s the estimated population of Manilatown was between 20,000 and 40,000 people. In 1968 the hotel was sold to developers intending to replace it with more profitable commercial property. After a protracted court battle, the remaining two hundred odd tenants were forcibly evicted on 4 August 1977; the hotel and other buildings to the south of it on that block were torn down, after which the land lay vacant for over a quarter of a century. On 27 July 2004, a two block stretch of Kearny Street was declared to be Manilatown; the San Francisco Chronicle's urban design critic John King observed in 2006 that while Kearny Street's "architectural mish-mash" includes a number of skyscrapers, "several blocks survive ramshackle and low, delightful blurs of pre-World War II architecture that mix their styles but maintain sturdy-looking masonry facades These low blocks exist because of city efforts in the 1970s and'80s to preserve older buildings and keep the Financial District from devouring everything around it.
That protective foresight is what good planning is all about." Landmarks along Kearny Street include Lotta's Fountain at Market Street, where 1906 earthquake commemorations are held. "Kearny Street" is a song by American composer Rod McKuen. O'Brien, This is San Francisco. 1948. 1994 Chronicle Books ISBN 0-8118-0578-6
Financial District, San Francisco
The Financial District is a neighborhood in San Francisco, that serves as its main central business district. It is home to the city's largest concentration of corporate headquarters, law firms, insurance companies, real estate firms and loan banks, other financial institutions. All six San Francisco Fortune 500 companies—McKesson, Wells Fargo, PG&E, Charles Schwab, Salesforce.com— are located in the district. The area is marked by the cluster of high-rise towers in the triangular area east of Kearny Street, south of Washington Street, west of the Embarcadero that rings the waterfront, north of Market Street; the city's tallest buildings, including 555 California Street and the Transamerica Pyramid, many other tall buildings, such as 101 California Street and 345 California Street are located there. Montgomery Street is the traditional heart of the district. Since the 1980s, restrictions on high-rise construction have shifted new development to the adjacent South of Market area surrounding the Transbay Transit Center.
This area is sometimes called the South Financial District by real estate developers, or included as part of the Financial District itself. Under Spanish and Mexican rule, the area was the site of a harbor named Yerba Buena Cove with a small civilian outpost named Yerba Buena that served to support the military population of the Presidio and the Mission Dolores; the sandy, marshy soils of the tip of the San Francisco Peninsula discouraged the Spanish, Mexican governments from establishing a preeminent town there, who focused their pueblo settlement efforts in the Pueblo of San José with its fertile land. It was not until 1835 that the first settlers established themselves on the shore of Yerba Buena Cove, with the first town plan surveyed in 1839. Yerba Buena's potential as a seaport made it the eventual center for European and American settlement. After gold was discovered in the Sierra Nevada Foothills in 1848, Yerba Buena's location on the natural harbor of San Francisco Bay acted as a magnet for European and American settlers, as well as gold and job seekers from a multitude of countries.
Following Californian independence and American annexation and the California Gold Rush, the area boomed and the Bay shoreline, which ended near Montgomery Street, was filled in and extended to The Embarcadero. Gold Rush wealth and business made it the financial capital of the west coast as many banks and businesses set up in the neighborhood; the west coast's first and only skyscrapers, were built in the area along Market Street. The neighborhood was destroyed in the 1906 Earthquake and Fire. By 1910, the area was rebuilt with low-rise, masonry-clad buildings ranging from six to twelve stories in height. During the late 1920s, several Neo-Gothic high rises, reaching three to four hundred feet in height, were constructed, including the Standard Oil Building, Russ Building, Hunter-Dulin Building, Shell Building, the Pacific Telephone Building. With the onset of the Great Depression and statewide height restrictions due to earthquake fears, few new buildings were constructed, the district remained low-rise until the late 1950s.
Due to new building and earthquake retrofitting technologies, the height restrictions were lifted, fueling a skyscraper building boom. This boom accelerated under mayor Dianne Feinstein during the 1980s, something her critics labelled as "Manhattanization"; this caused widespread opposition citywide leading to the "skyscraper revolt" similar to the "freeway revolt" in the city years earlier. The skyscraper revolt led to the city imposing strict, European-style height restrictions on building construction citywide. Due to these height restrictions, lack of buildable lots, changes in the local real estate market, new development in the area has shifted to South of Market Street since the 1980s; the area south of Market, east of Third Street, north of Folsom Street, west of the Embarcadero is sometimes called the South Financial District, or included as part of the Financial District itself. To encourage new development south of Market, to help fund the replacement for the Transbay Terminal, many height limits were raised in the area.
As a result, nearly all new high rise construction since the 1980s has taken place South of Market. Notable examples include the JPMorgan Chase Building, 555 Mission Street, 101 Second Street, the Four Seasons Hotel, The Paramount, the Millennium Tower. According to TRI Commercial, the traditional Financial District provides 30,000,000 sq ft of office space, the South Financial District offers about 28,000,000 sq ft. Altogether, the combined Financial District employs over 220,000 office workers. Adjacent to the Financial District to the west is the Union Square shopping district. To the northwest is Chinatown, to the north is North Beach and Jackson Square. To the east lies the Embarcadero waterfront and the Ferry Building. To the south lies Market Street and the South of Market district; the Financial District is served by more than two dozen Muni bus and rail lines, including one cable car line, as well as Montgomery Street Station and Embarcadero Station in the BART system. The nickname "FiDi" is employed, analogous to nearby SoMa.
The area is referred to as "Downtown" as well, although "Downtown" may include the broader Union Square, Tenderloin, SoMa districts as well. The District is home to numerous corporate headquarters, including all six San Francisco Fortune 500 companies—McKesson Corporation, Wells Fargo, PG&E, Charles Schwab, Salesfor