San Francisco Department of Public Works
San Francisco Public Works is responsible for the care and maintenance of San Francisco’s streets and infrastructure. Public Works serves San Francisco residents and visitors 24 hours a day, San Francisco Public Works was officially created on January 8,1900 with the name of Board of Public Works. Its first task was to organize and regulate street construction and paving projects throughout the city, the original four bureaus were, Lighting and Light & Water Services. Over the next century and nearly two decades later, the roles have shifted and expanded dramatically, in 2014, after a year-long rebranding process, the department switched its name from the San Francisco Department of Public Works, or DPW, to San Francisco Public Works. The budget for the first year of operations was $637,194.00, the operating budget for Fiscal Year 2015-16 is approximately $256 million. 1969 - The Gateway Arch to Chinatown, San Francisco was completed in September at a project cost of $76,790. ”1974 - DPW implemented the Controlled Parking Program and it began as a pilot program in the Richmond District.
The Board of Supervisors approved $56,700 for 2,200 signs to be posted throughout the neighborhoods, the program eventually expanded to a new district each year after. 1976 - San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center opens and this $30 million construction project was awarded in 1971. After many construction difficulties the medical facility eventually opens,1980 - Bureau of Engineering completes a $726,382 contract to develop and rehabilitate the music concourse in Golden Gate Park. The estimated costs at the time were $800 million by 1985,1988 - Voters pass $27 million Street Improvement Bond Issue to improve streets and traffic signals. 1989 - Within 72 hours of the October 17th San Francisco earthquake, in all that year, over 15,000 inspections were made, classifying buildings Red and Green. 1994 - The graffiti abatement program begins with two painters from the Bureau of Building repair and ten young people form the Mayors Youth Worker Program,1997 - $70.5 million Civic Center Courthouse for the San Francisco Superior and Municipal Civil Courts is completed.
1998 - The $56 million War Memorial Opera House Seismic Upgrade, San Francisco Department of Public Works Official Site
San Joaquin Valley
Although a majority of the valley is rural, it does contain urban cities such as Fresno, Stockton, Turlock, Visalia and Hanford. Unlike the Sacramento Valley, the system for which the San Joaquin Valley is named does not extend very far along the valley. Most of the south of Fresno, drains into Tulare Lake. The valleys primary river is the San Joaquin, which drains north through half of the valley into the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta. The Kings and Kern Rivers are in the endorheic basin of the valley. The San Joaquin Valley began to form about 66 million years ago during the early Paleocene era, broad fluctuations in the sea level caused various areas of the valley to be flooded with ocean water for the next 60 million years. About 5 million years ago, the outlets began to close due to uplift of the coastal ranges. Starting 2 million years ago, a series of glacial episodes periodically caused much of the valley to become a fresh water lake, Lake Corcoran was the last widespread lake to fill the valley about 700,000 years ago.
At the beginning of the Holocene there were three major lakes remaining in the part of the Valley, Tulare Lake, Buena Vista Lake. In the late 19th and in the 20th century, agricultural diversion of the Kern River eventually dried out these lakes and its rainy season normally runs from November through April, but since 2011 when a drought became evident it generally received minimal to no rain at all. The drought was still extant by mid-August 2014 with scientists saying it would continue indefinitely. Research from NASA shows that parts of the San Joaquin Valley sank as much as 8 inches in a four-month period, the sinking has destroyed thousands of groundwater well casings and has the potential to damage aqueducts, roads and flood-control structures. In the long term, the caused by extracting groundwater could irreversibly reduce the underground aquifers water storage capacity. The National Weather Service Forecast Office for the San Joaquin Valley is located in Hanford, Weather forecasts and climatological information for the San Joaquin Valley are available from its official website.
The total population of the eight counties comprising the San Joaquin Valley at the time of the 2010 U. S. Census was 3,971,659. Grapes—table, and to a lesser extent wine—are perhaps the valleys highest-profile product, but equally important are cotton, nuts and vegetables. Though it has been called The food basket of the World, oranges, garlic, tomatoes, hay and numerous other crops have been harvested with great success. DeRuosi Nut, a large processing plant in Escalon, has been in the valley since 1947
Oakland /ˈoʊklənd/ is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, United States. The city was incorporated in 1852, Oaklands territory covers what was once a mosaic of California coastal terrace prairie, oak woodland, and north coastal scrub. Its land served as a resource when its hillside oak and redwood timber were logged to build San Francisco. In the late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the terminal of the Transcontinental Railroad. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, many San Francisco citizens moved to Oakland, enlarging the citys population, increasing its housing stock and it continued to grow in the 20th century with its busy port, and a thriving automobile manufacturing industry. Oakland is known for its sustainability practices, including a top-ranking for usage of electricity from renewable resources, in addition, due to a steady influx of immigrants during the 20th century, along with thousands of African-American war-industry workers who relocated from the Deep South during the 1940s.
Oakland is the most ethnically diverse city in the country. The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun Indians, who lived there for thousands of years, the Huchiun belonged to a linguistic grouping called the Ohlone. In Oakland, they were concentrated around Lake Merritt and Temescal Creek, in 1772, the area that became Oakland was claimed, with the rest of California, by Spanish settlers for the King of Spain. In the early 19th century, the Spanish crown granted the East Bay area to Luis María Peralta for his Rancho San Antonio, the grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic upon its independence from Spain. Upon his death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his four sons, Most of Oakland fell within the shares given to Antonio Maria and Vicente. The portion of the parcel that is now Oakland was called encinal—Spanish for oak grove—due to the oak forest that covered the area. In 1851, three men—Horace Carpentier, Edson Adams, and Andrew Moon—began developing what is now downtown Oakland, on May 4,1852, the Town of Oakland incorporated.
Two years later, on March 25,1854, Oakland re-incorporated as the City of Oakland, with Horace Carpentier elected the first mayor, the city and its environs quickly grew with the railroads, becoming a major rail terminal in the late 1860s and 1870s. In 1868, the Central Pacific constructed the Oakland Long Wharf at Oakland Point, a number of horsecar and cable car lines were constructed in Oakland during the latter half of the 19th century. The first electric streetcar set out from Oakland to Berkeley in 1891, at the time of incorporation, Oakland consisted of the territory that lay south of todays major intersection of San Pablo Avenue and Fourteenth Street. The city gradually annexed farmlands and settlements to the east and the north, Oaklands rise to industrial prominence, and its subsequent need for a seaport, led to the digging of a shipping and tidal channel in 1902. This resulted in the town of Alameda being made an island
A seawall is a form of coastal defense constructed where the sea, and associated coastal processes, impact directly upon the landforms of the coast. The purpose of a sea wall is to protect areas of habitation and leisure activities from the action of tides, waves. As a seawall is a feature it will conflict with the dynamic nature of the coast. The coast is generally a high-energy, dynamic environment with spatial variations over a range of timescales. The coast is exposed to erosion by rivers and winds as well as the sea, because of these persistent natural forces, sea walls need to be maintained to maintain their effectiveness. Sea walls are hard engineering shore-based structures which protect the coast from erosion, but various environmental problems and issues may arise from the construction of a sea wall, including disrupting sediment movement and transport patterns. Combined with a construction cost, this has led to an increasing use of other soft engineering coastal management options such as beach replenishment.
Sea walls may be constructed from various materials, most commonly reinforced concrete, steel, other possible construction materials are, wood, fibreglass composite, and large biodegrable sandbags made of jute and coir. In the UK, sea wall refers to a bank used to create a polder. A seawall works by reflecting incident wave energy back into the sea, sea walls have two specific weaknesses. First, wave reflection from the wall may result in scour, sea walls may accelerate erosion of adjacent, unprotected coastal areas because they affect the littoral drift process. Different designs of man-made tsunami barriers include building reefs and forests to above-ground, in 2005, India began planting Casuarina and coconut saplings on its coast as a natural barrier against future tsunamis like the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. Studies have found that a tsunami wall could reduce tsunami wave heights by up to 83%. The design and type of sea wall that is appropriate depends on aspects specific to the location, a Japanese study of this tsunami in Sri Lanka used satellite imagery modelling to establish the parameters of coastal resistance as a function of different types of trees.
Natural barriers, such as reefs and mangrove forests, prevent the spread of tsunamis. A cost benefit approach is a way to determine whether a seawall is appropriate. Besides controlling erosion, consideration must be given to the effects of hardening a shoreline on natural coastal ecosystems, a seawall is a static feature which can conflict with the dynamic nature of the coast and impede the exchange of sediment between land and sea. The table below summarises some positive and negative effects of seawalls which can be used when comparing their effectiveness with other coastal management options, such as beach nourishment
Pier 39 is a shopping center and popular tourist attraction built on a pier in San Francisco, California. At Pier 39, there are shops, restaurants, an arcade, street performances, the Aquarium of the Bay, virtual 3D rides. The marina is home to the floating Forbes Island restaurant. A two-story carousel is one of the more dominant features, although it is not directly visible from the street. The family-oriented entertainment and presence of marine mammals make this a popular tourist location for families with kids, the pier is located at the edge of the Fishermans Wharf district and is close to North Beach and the Embarcadero. The area is accessible via the historic F Market streetcars. From the pier one can see Angel Island, the Golden Gate Bridge, blue & Gold Fleets bay cruises leave from Pier 39. Pier 39 was first developed by entrepreneur Warren Simmons and opened October 4,1978, California sea lions have always been present in San Francisco Bay. They started to haul out on docks of Pier 39 in September 1989, before that they mostly used Seal Rock for that purpose.
Ever since September 1989 the number of sea lions on Seal Rock has been steadily decreasing, some people speculate that sea lions moved to docks because of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, but the earthquake occurred months after the first sea lions had arrived at Pier 39. It is likely that the sea lions feel safer inside the Bay, once the project was completed, boat owners returned, but did their best to navigate around the sea lions, no efforts were made to encourage the new guests to leave. By the end of year, less than a dozen sea lions frequented the docks at Pier 39. By January 1990, their numbers had increased to 150 animals, owners of the 11 boats docked there began to complain about having to avoid the animals who can weigh up to half a ton, and odor and noise complaints began to pour in. Press releases caught national attention, and the sea began to attract tourists. Advice from The Marine Mammal Center was to abandon the docks to the animals and staff at The Marine Mammal Store and Interpretive Center monitor the sea lion population each day, and educational information is provided to tourists who visit from around the world.
Scientists continue to collect information there, adding to knowledge about sea lion health, dietary habits, a handful of sea lions did return in February, and by late May several hundred could once again be seen on Pier 39. It remains unknown exactly where they went and why, 49-Mile Scenic Drive The World Famous Bushman Official site
Market Street (San Francisco)
Market Street is a major thoroughfare in San Francisco, California. Beyond this point, the roadway continues as Portola Drive into the southwestern quadrant of San Francisco, Portola Drive extends south to the intersection of St. Francis Boulevard and Sloat Boulevard, where it continues as Junipero Serra Boulevard. Market Street is the boundary of two street grids, Streets on its southeast side are parallel or perpendicular to Market Street, while those on the northwest are nine degrees off from the cardinal directions. Market Street is a major artery for the city of San Francisco, and has carried in turn horse-drawn streetcars, cable cars, electric streetcars, electric trolleybuses. Today Munis buses and heritage streetcars share the street, while below the street the two-level Market Street Subway carries Muni Metro and Bay Area Rapid Transit. While cable cars no longer operate on Market Street, the cable car lines terminate to the side of the street at its intersections with California Street.
Market Street cuts across the city for three miles from the waterfront to the hills of Twin Peaks and it was laid out originally by Jasper OFarrell, a 26-year-old trained civil engineer who emigrated to Yerba Buena. The town was renamed San Francisco in 1847 after it was captured by United States troops during the Mexican-American War, OFarrell first repaired the original layout of the settlement around Portsmouth Square and established Market Street as the widest street in town,120 feet between property lines. It was described at the time as an arrow aimed straight at Los Pechos de la Chola, a friend warned OFarrell, before the crowd had dispersed. He rode with all haste to North Beach, took a boat for Sausalito and he found it discreet to remain some time in the country before venturing to return to the city. The city soon filled in the ground between Portsmouth Square and Happy Valley at First and Mission Street, the dunes were leveled and the sand used for fill. The first horsecar-powered railway line to open in San Francisco commenced running down the thoroughfare on July 4,1860, the two Union Railroad tracks were on the inside and the two San Francisco Municipal Railway tracks were on the outside.
In 1892 The Owl Drug Company was established at 1128 Market Street, Market Street underwent major changes in the late 1960s and early 1970s, when Muni Metro service was moved underground in concert with the development of the Bay Area Rapid Transit system. Construction of the Market Street Subway commenced in July 1967, prolonged disruption to what had traditionally been the social and economic center of the city contributed to the decline of the mid-Market shopping district in years. In 1980, Munis surface operations were partially routed underground with full service changes occurring in 1982, in the days of the first United Nations conferences, Anthony Eden, Molotov and Bidault rode up Market Street, waving to the crowds of hopefuls. On Christmas Eve 1910, opera singer Luisa Tetrazzini sang a free concert to a crowd some estimated at 250,000. Another historic Market Street event was the New Years Eve celebration at the Ferry Building on December 31,1999, over 1.2 million people jammed Market Street and nearby streets for the raucous and peaceful turn-of-the-century celebration.
The San Francisco Gay Pride parade runs down Market Street, attracting many people every year, victory parades celebrating the San Francisco Giants World Series titles were held on Market Street in 2010,2012, and 2014
Mission Street is a north-south arterial thoroughfare in Daly City and San Francisco, California that runs from Daly Citys southern border to San Franciscos northeast waterfront. The street and San Franciscos Mission District through which it runs were named for the Spanish Mission Dolores, only the southern half is historically part of El Camino Real, which connected the missions. Part of Mission Street in Daly City is signed as part of State Route 82, from the south, Mission Street begins as a continuation of SR 82/El Camino Real at the Colma-Daly City border, just south of San Pedro Road. Mission Street runs north to the Top of the Hill district, where SR82 splits as San Jose Avenue to the northeast and it crosses the San Francisco city limits mid-block between Templeton Avenue in Daly City and Huron Avenue in San Francisco. Near Van Ness Avenue, the road turns northeast again and travels through Mid-Market, regis Museum Tower,555 Mission Street, Millennium Tower,535 Mission Street,350 Mission Street, and the Salesforce Tower
Kearny Street in San Francisco, California runs north from Market Street to The Embarcadero, with a gap on Telegraph Hill. Toward its south end, it separates the Financial District from the Union Square, further north, it passes over Telegraph Hill. Kearny Street was originally named La Calle de la Fundacion by the Spanish, this means street of the foundation. The origin of the present name, Kearny Street, is assumed to be Stephen Watts Kearny. Another possible namesake includes General Philip Kearny, at Kearny and Clay, the first cable car in America, invented by Andrew S. Hallidie on August 2,1873, climbed five blocks up the Clay Street hill. From the turn of the century until 1977 the area around the intersection of Kearny and Jackson Streets was home to a large Filipino population. Located at 848 Kearny Street, the International Hotel served as the heart of Manilatown, in its heyday of the 1920s and 1930s the estimated population of Manilatown was between 20,000 and 40,000 people. In 1968 the hotel was sold to developers intending to replace it with more profitable commercial property, after a protracted court battle, the remaining two hundred odd tenants were forcibly evicted on 4 August 1977.
The hotel and other buildings to the south of it on that block were quickly torn down, on 27 July 2004, a two block stretch of Kearny Street was officially declared to be Manilatown. Kearny Street is a song by American composer Rod McKuen, oBrien, This is San Francisco
Muni Metro is a light rail/streetcar hybrid system serving San Francisco, operated by the San Francisco Municipal Railway, a division of the San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency. With an average ridership of 128,500 passengers as of the fourth quarter of 2014. Muni Metro operates a fleet of 151 light rail vehicles made by Breda, Muni Metro is the modern incarnation of the traditional streetcar system that had served San Francisco since the late 19th century. Recently, the system has undergone expansion, most notably the Third Street Light Rail Project, completed in 2007, other projects, such as the Central Subway, are underway. Muni Metro descended from the traditional streetcar system started on December 28,1912. The first streetcar line, the A Geary, ran from Kearny and Market Streets in the Financial District to Fulton Street, the system slowly expanded, opening the Twin Peaks Tunnel in 1917, allowing streetcars to run to the southwestern quadrant of the city. By 1921, the city was operating 304 miles of trolley lines and 25 miles of cable car lines.
The last line to service before 2007 was the N Judah. However, five heavily used streetcar lines traveled for at least part of their routes through tunnels or otherwise reserved right-of-way, as a result, these lines, running PCC streetcars, continued in operation. The new tunnel would be connected to the existing Twin Peaks Tunnel, the new underground stations would feature high platforms, and the older stations would be retrofitted with the same, which meant that the PCCs could not be used in them. Hence, a fleet of new rail vehicles was ordered from Boeing-Vertol. The K and M lines were extended to Balboa Park during this time, on February 18,1980, the Muni Metro was officially inaugurated, with weekday N line service in the subway. The Metro service was implemented in phases, and the subway was served only on weekdays until 1982. The K Ingleside line began using the Metro subway on weekdays on June 11,1980, the L Taraval and M Ocean View lines on December 17,1980, and lastly the J Church line on June 17,1981.
Meanwhile, weekend service on all five lines continued to use PCC cars operating on the surface of Market Street through to the Transbay Terminal, finally, on November 20,1982, the Muni Metro subway began operating seven days a week. At the time, there were no plans to revive any service on the surface of Market Street or return PCCs to regular running. However, tracks were rehabilitated for the 1983 Historic Trolley Festival, Muni criticism had been something of a feature of life in San Francisco, and not without reason. The Boeing trains were sub-par and grew crowded quickly, Muni did take steps to address these problems