A bicycle-sharing system, public bicycle system, or bike-share scheme, is a service in which bicycles are made available for shared use to individuals on a short term basis for a price or free. Many bike share systems allow people to borrow a bike from a "dock" and return it at another dock belonging to the same system. Docks are special bike racks that lock the bike, only release it by computer control; the user enters payment information, the computer unlocks a bike. The user returns the bike by placing it in the dock. Other systems are dockless. For many systems, smartphone mapping apps show open docks; the first bike sharing projects were initiated by local community organisations, or as charitable projects intended for the disadvantaged, or to promote bicycles as a non-polluting form of transport, or they were business enterprises to rent out bicycles. Ernest Callenbach's novel Ecotopia illustrated the idea. In the utopian novel of a society that does not use fossil fuels, Callenbach describes a bicycle sharing system, available to inhabitants and is an integrated part of the public transportation system.
The earliest well-known community bicycle program was started in the summer of 1965 by Luud Schimmelpennink in association with the group Provo in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The group Provo painted fifty bicycles white and placed them unlocked in Amsterdam for everyone to use freely; this so-called White Bicycle Plan provided free bicycles that were supposed to be used for one trip and left for someone else. Within a month, most of the bikes had been stolen and the rest were found in nearby canals; the program is still active in some parts of the Netherlands. It existed as one in a series of White Plans proposed in the street magazine produced by the anarchist group PROVO. Years Schimmelpennink admitted that "the Sixties experiment never existed in the way people believe" and that "no more than about ten bikes" had been put out on the street "as a suggestion of the bigger idea"; as the police had temporarily confiscated all of the White Bicycles within a day of their release to the public, the White Bicycle experiment had lasted less than one month.
In an attempt to overcome losses from theft, the next innovation adopted by bike sharing programs was the use of so-called'smart technology'. One of the first'smart bike' programs was the Grippa™ bike storage rack system used in Portsmouth's Bikeabout scheme; the Bikeabout scheme was launched in October 1995 by the University of Portsmouth, UK as part of its Green Transport Plan in an effort to cut car travel by staff and students between campus sites. Funded in part by the EU's ENTRANCE program, the Bikeabout scheme was a "smart card" automated system. For a small fee, users were issued'smart cards' with magnetic stripes to be swiped through an electronic card reader at a covered'bike store' kiosk, unlocking the bike from its storage rack. CCTV camera surveillance was installed at all bike stations in an effort to limit vandalism. Upon arriving at the destination station, the smart card was used to open a cycle rack and record the bike's safe return. A charge was automatically registered on the user's card if the bike was returned with damage or if the time exceeded the three hour maximum.
Implemented with an original budget of £200,000, the Portsmouth Bikeabout scheme was never successful in terms of rider usage, in part due to the limited number of bike kiosks and hours of operation. Seasonal weather restrictions and concerns over unjustified charges for bike damage imposed barriers to usage; the Bikeabout program was discontinued by the University in 1998 in favor of expanded minibus service. In 1995 a system of 300 bicycles using coins to unlock the bicycles in the style of shopping carts was introduced in Copenhagen, it was initiated by Ole Wessung. The idea was developed by both Copenhageners after they were victims of bicycle theft one night in 1989. Copenhagen's ByCylken program was the first large-scale urban bike share program to feature specially designed bikes with parts that could not be used on other bikes. To obtain a bicycle, riders pay a refundable deposit at one of 100 special locking bike stands, have unlimited use of the bike within a specified'city bike zone'.
The fine for not returning a bicycle or leaving the bike sharing zone exceeds US $150, is enforced by the Copenhagen police. The program's founders hoped to finance the program by selling advertising space on the bicycles, placed on the bike's frame and its solid disc-type wheels; this funding source proved to be insufficient, the city of Copenhagen took over the administration of the program, funding most of the program costs through appropriations from city revenues along with contributions from corporate donors. Since the City Bikes program is free to the user, there is no return on the capital invested by the municipality, a considerable amount of public funds must be re-invested to keep the system in service, to enforce regulations, to replace missing bikes. One of the first community bicycle projects in the United States was started in Portland, Oregon in 1994 by civic and environmental activists Tom O'Keefe, Joe Keating and Steve Gunther, it took the approach of releasing a number of bicycles to the streets for unrestricted use.
While Portland's Yellow Bike Project was successful in terms of publicity, it proved unsustainable due to theft and vandalism of the bicycles. The Yellow Bike Project was terminated, replaced with the Create A Commuter pro
A tourist trolley called a road trolley, is a rubber-tired bus designed to resemble an old-style streetcar or tram. The vehicles are fueled by diesel, or sometimes compressed natural gas; the name refers to the American English usage of the word trolley to mean an electric streetcar. As these vehicles are not trolleys, to avoid confusion with trolley buses, the American Public Transportation Association refers to them as "trolley-replica buses". Tourist trolleys are used by both municipal and private operators. Municipal operators may mix tourist trolleys in with the regular service bus fleet to add more visitor interest or attract attention to new routes. In many cities tourist trolleys are used as circulators. Tourist trolleys are run by private operators to carry tourists to popular destinations. In San Francisco, tourist trolleys mimic the city's famous cable cars. Tourist trolleys sometimes operate in places which have streetcars. For example, tourist trolleys operate in Philadelphia, which has actual trolley service.
Notable operators of tourist-trolley buses: New York Trolley Company Williamsburg Area Transit Authority – Local shopping centers and points of interest, including Merchants Square in Williamsburg, Virginia Capital Metropolitan Transit Authority – Dillo Routes in downtown Austin, Texas Erie Metropolitan Transit Authority – Bayliner Route in downtown Erie, Pennsylvania Gray Line Worldwide Kingston Citibus in Kingston, New York Montgomery Area Transit Service – Lightning Route Trolleys in Montgomery, Alabama Pace – circulator in the Chicago area Chicago Trolley & Double Decker Co. – Largest sightseeing/charter company in the Midwest Red Rose Transit Authority – circulator in downtown Lancaster, Pennsylvania Rhode Island Public Transit Authority – Providence LINK in downtown Providence, Rhode Island Transit Authority of River City – Louisville, Kentucky VIA Metropolitan Transit – VIA Streetcar in San Antonio, Texas Ollie the Trolley in Scottsdale, AZ circulator in Downtown Scottsdale Riverside Transit Agency – shuttle service in downtown Riverside, CA, Temecula, CA and around UC Riverside Molly's Trolley in West Palm Beach, Florida I-Ride Trolley in Orlando, Florida TANK operates Southbound Shuttle, which circles the riverfront cities of Newport, Covington and Cincinnati, Ohio.
Wave Transit operates a circular tourist route in downtown Wilmington, NC. Capital Area Transportation Authority – Lansing, Michigan: Under the name "Route 4 Entertainment Express", limited-stop late-night weekend service between Downtown Lansing and downtown East Lansing catering to nightlife. Capital District Transportation Authority – Saratoga Visitors Trolley Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority. Housatonic Area Regional Transit in the past had a trolley service in downtown Danbury, but service was suspended. HARTransit purchased a new trolley-replica bus in June 2014. Cable Car Classics, Inc. Dupont Industries Gillig Corporation Optima Bus Corporation Hometown Trolley Specialty Vehicles Trackless train — tram in U. S. English. Trolleybus Heritage streetcar Duck tour — uses an amphibious vehicle for sightseeing. List of buses
Oklahoma City shortened to OKC, is the capital and largest city of the U. S. state of Oklahoma. The county seat of Oklahoma County, the city ranks 27th among United States cities in population; the population grew following the 2010 Census, with the population estimated to have increased to 643,648 as of July 2017. As of 2015, the Oklahoma City metropolitan area had a population of 1,358,452, the Oklahoma City-Shawnee Combined Statistical Area had a population of 1,459,758 residents, making it Oklahoma's largest metropolitan area. Oklahoma City's city limits extend into Canadian and Pottawatomie counties, though much of those areas outside the core Oklahoma County area are suburban or rural; the city ranks as the ninth-largest city in the United States by total area when including consolidated city-counties. Lying in the Great Plains region, Oklahoma City has one of the world's largest livestock markets. Oil, natural gas, petroleum products and related industries are the largest sector of the local economy.
The city is in the middle of an active oil field and oil derricks dot the capitol grounds. The federal government employs large numbers of workers at Tinker Air Force Base and the United States Department of Transportation's Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center. Oklahoma City is on the I-35 Corridor, one of the primary travel corridors south into neighboring Texas and Mexico and north towards Wichita and Kansas City. Located in the state's Frontier Country region, the city's northeast section lies in an ecological region known as the Cross Timbers; the city was founded during the Land Run of 1889 and grew to a population of over 10,000 within hours of its founding. The city was the scene of the April 19, 1995 bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, in which 168 people died, it was the deadliest terror attack in the history of the United States until the attacks of September 11, 2001, remains the deadliest act of domestic terrorism in U. S. history. Since the time weather records have been kept, Oklahoma City has been struck by thirteen strong tornadoes.
Since 2008, Oklahoma City has been home to the National Basketball Association's Oklahoma City Thunder, who play their home basketball games at the Chesapeake Energy Arena. Oklahoma City was settled on April 22, 1889, when the area known as the "Unassigned Lands" was opened for settlement in an event known as "The Land Run"; some 10,000 homesteaders settled the area. The town grew quickly. Early leaders of the development of the city included Anton Classen, John Shartel, Henry Overholser and James W. Maney. By the time Oklahoma was admitted to the Union in 1907, Oklahoma City had surpassed Guthrie, the territorial capital, as the new state's population center and commercial hub. Soon after, the capital was moved from Guthrie to Oklahoma City. Oklahoma City was a major stop on Route 66 during the early part of the 20th century. Before World War II, Oklahoma City developed major stockyards, attracting jobs and revenue in Chicago and Omaha, Nebraska. With the 1928 discovery of oil within the city limits, Oklahoma City became a major center of oil production.
Post-war growth accompanied the construction of the Interstate Highway System, which made Oklahoma City a major interchange as the convergence of I-35, I-40, I-44. It was aided by federal development of Tinker Air Force Base. In 1950, the Census Bureau reported city's population as 8.6 % 90.7 % white. Patience Latting was elected Mayor of Oklahoma City in 1971. Latting was the first woman to serve as mayor of a U. S. city with over 350,000 residents. Like many other American cities, center city population declined in the 1970s and 1980s as families followed newly constructed highways to move to newer housing in nearby suburbs. Urban renewal projects in the 1970s, including the Pei Plan, removed older structures but failed to spark much new development, leaving the city dotted with vacant lots used for parking. A notable exception was the city's construction of the Myriad Gardens and Crystal Bridge, a botanical garden and modernistic conservatory in the heart of downtown. Architecturally significant historic buildings lost to clearances were the Criterion Theater, the Baum Building, the Hales Building, the Biltmore Hotel.
In 1993, the city passed a massive redevelopment package known as the Metropolitan Area Projects, intended to rebuild the city's core with civic projects to establish more activities and life to downtown. The city added a new baseball park. Water taxis transport passengers within the district, adding activity along the canal. MAPS has become one of the most successful public-private partnerships undertaken in the U. S. exceeding $3 billion in private investment as of 2010. As a result of MAPS, the population living in downtown housing has exponentially increased, together with demand for additional residential and retail amenities, such as grocery and shops. Since the MAPS projects' completion, the downtown area has seen continued
Oklahoma City metropolitan area
The Oklahoma City Metropolitan Area is an urban region in Central Oklahoma. It is the largest metropolitan area in the state of Oklahoma and contains the state capital and principal city, Oklahoma City, it is known as the Oklahoma City Metro, Oklahoma City Metroplex, or Greater Oklahoma City in addition to the nicknames Oklahoma City is known for. Seven counties make up the Oklahoma City Metropolitan Area: Canadian, Grady, Logan, McClain, Oklahoma. According to the 2010 U. S. Census, the region had a population of 1,252,987; the micro urban area of Shawnee is included in Oklahoma City's Combined Statistical Area which brings the area population to 1,430,327. The Oklahoma City – Shawnee CSA is included as part of the I-35 Megalopolis. Major Cities Oklahoma City Shawnee *CSASuburbs Exurbs Stillwater KingfisherCounties As of the 2010 Census, there were 1,252,987 people, 539,077 housing units, 489,654 households, 320,335 families in Greater Oklahoma City; the metropolitan area's racial makeup was: 71.9% White 10.4% Black 4.1% Native American 2.8% Asian 0.1% Pacific Islander 5.5% from other races 5.2% from two or more races 11.3% Hispanic or Latino of any raceAs of 2016, the U.
S. Census Bureau estimated the median household income in the MSA was $55,065, the median family income was $68,797; the per capita income for the MSA in 2015 was $27,316. For the population age 25 years and over, 88.4% was a high school graduate for higher, 29.8% had a Bachelor's degree or higher. The following communities are suburbs and exurbs of Oklahoma City with populations of at least 1,000 found within the bounds of State Highway 33 to the north, State Highway 18 and US-177 to the east, State Highway 39 and State Highway 9 to the south, US-81 to the west. A separate city, surrounded by Oklahoma City and the Village, Nichols Hills, is just north of Belle Isle, is an enclave of the affluent with many historic homes and parks. Edmond is a suburb of around 90,000 people northeast of and adjacent to Oklahoma City; the famous U. S. Route 66 ran through downtown Edmond before turning southward into Oklahoma City. Edmond is a pioneer in Oklahoma education, with the University of Central Oklahoma, the state's first place of higher education, the first public school building constructed in the state.
Edmond was home to the first Junior League Roller Derby Team, The Snooty Dogs. Edmond is the hometown of 1996 Olympic gold medal-winner Shannon Miller. Edmond is one of the fastest growing cities in Oklahoma; this area of the metro has great access to the Broadway Extension and I-35. Guthrie the first capital of the State of Oklahoma, lies to the north of Edmond in Logan County. Guthrie is home to the drive-in theater used in the movie Twister, as well as some Victorian homes, which tend to be uncommon in Oklahoma. In 2005, Guthrie entered into a partnership with Edmond to co-sponsor the Guthrie–Edmond Regional Airport. Jones is a small community of around 3,000 a few miles south of I-44, its location east of Edmond is convenient to Oklahoma City at large. Chandler is a city of about 3,000 located east of Edmond and north Oklahoma City on U. S. Route north of Shawnee on Highway 18 in Lincoln County; the Turner Turnpike provides shoppers easy access to Oklahoma City. Located along the famous U. S. Route 66, Chandler is rich with a popular stop on cruises and biker runs.
Chandler offers a number of attractions to devotees of "The Mother Road". These include the Route 66 Interpretive Center, The Oklahoma Law Enforcement Museum and Hall of Fame, The Lincoln County Museum of Pioneer History, several Route 66-themed murals, the newly restored old cottage-style Phillips 66 gas station, P. J.'s Bar-B-Que, the last remaining painted barn adverting Meramec Caverns west of town. Other attractions in Chandler include the Lincoln County Farmers Market and the annual Ice Cream Festival in the summer. Chandler is experiencing growth, including the opening of a Wal-Mart Supercenter, addition of new banks and restaurants, construction of upscale housing out of city limits. Stillwater, OK is an exurb of Oklahoma City, home to the state's second largest university, Oklahoma State University; the US Census bureau does not include Stillwater in the population statistics of the Oklahoma City - Shawnee CSA. Strung out along US-62 to the east of Oklahoma City are Choctaw, Nicoma Park and Meeker.
These towns are nowhere near as densely populated as Oklahoma City, but as with most other areas that surround the City, they are experiencing rapid growth. Meeker was home to an American baseball player and Hall of Famer. Bordered by southeast Oklahoma City and adjacent to Tinker Air Force Base, Del City is home to about 22,000 residents; the city maintains a strong link to the military, serving as home to many base personnel and military retirees. After hard times due to regional economic decline and the devastating effects of the May 3, 1999 tornado, Del City is experiencing significant growth and redevelopment. A new Wal-Mart Supercenter and several new chain stores serve as the groundwork for economic development. Continued expansion at several major employers, including the opening of the international corporate headquarters of Midwest Trophy/MTM Recognition and dramatic expansion at Mayco are bringing quality jobs to the city. Easy commuting access to Interstate 40 and Interstate 35, strong community organizations and neighborhood watch groups, an
Passenger rail terminology
Various terms are used for passenger rail lines and equipment-the usage of these terms differs between areas: A rapid transit system is an electric railway characterized by high speed and rapid acceleration. It uses passenger railcars operating singly or in multiple unit trains on fixed rails, it operates on separate rights-of-way from which all other foot traffic are excluded. It uses sophisticated signaling systems, high platform loading; the term rapid transit was used in the 1800s to describe new forms of quick urban public transportation that had a right-of-way separated from street traffic. This set rapid transit apart from horsecars, streetcars and other forms of public transport. Though the term was always used to describe rail transportation, other forms of transit were sometimes described by their proponents as rapid transit, including local ferries in some cases; the term bus rapid transit has come into use to describe bus lines with features to speed their operation. These have more characteristics of light rail than rapid transit.
Metros, short for metropolitan railways, are defined by the International Association of Public Transport as urban guided transport systems "operated on their own right of way and segregated from general road and pedestrian traffic. They are designed for operations in tunnel, viaducts or on surface level but with physical separation in such a way that inadvertent access is not possible. In different parts of the world Metro systems are known as the underground, the subway or the tube. Rail systems with specific construction issues operating on a segregated guideway are treated as Metros as long as they are designated as part of the urban public transport network." Metropolitan railways are used for high capacity public transportation. They can operate in trains of up to 10 cars. In Germany, the terms U-Bahn and S-Bahn are used; some metro systems run on rubber tires but are based on the same fixed-guideway principles as steel wheel systems. Subway used in a transit sense refers to either a rapid transit system using heavy rail or a light rail/streetcar system that goes underground.
The term may refer only to the full system. Subway is most used in the United States and the English-speaking parts of Canada, though the term is used elsewhere, such as to describe the SPT Subway in Glasgow, in translation of system names or descriptions in some Asian and Latin American cities; some lines described. Notably, Boston's Green Line and the Newark City Subway, each about half underground, originated from surface streetcar lines; the Buffalo Metro Rail is referred to as "the subway", while it uses light rail equipment and operates in a pedestrian mall downtown for half of its route and underground for the remaining section. Sometimes the term is qualified, such as in Philadelphia, where trolleys operate in an actual subway for part of their route and on city streets for the remainder; this is locally styled subway-surface. In some cities where subway is used, it refers to the entire system. Naming practices select one type of placement in a system where several are used. Historic posters referred to Chicago's Red & Blue lines as "the subway lines".
When the Boston subway was built, the subway label was only used for sections into which streetcars operated, the rapid transit sections were called tunnels. In some countries, subway refers to systems built under roads and the informal term tube is used for the deep-underground tunnelled systems – in this usage, somewhat technical nowadays and not used much in London, underground is regardless the general term for both types of system. Bus subways are uncommon but do exist, though in these cases the non-underground portions of route are not called subways; until March 2019, Washington had a bus subway downtown in which diesel-electric hybrid buses and light rail trains operated in a shared tunnel. The hybrid buses ran in electrical-only mode while traveling through the tunnel and overhead wires power the light rail trains which continue to operate in the tunnel. Bus subways are sometimes built to provide an exclusive right-of-way for bus rapid transit lines, such as the MBTA Silver Line in Boston.
These are called by the term bus rapid transit.'Subway' outside the USA, in Europe refers to an underground pedestrian passageway linking large road interconnections that are too difficult or dangerous to cross at ground level. In Canada, the term subway may be used in either sense; the usage of underground is similar to that of subway, describing an underground train system. In London the colloquial term tube now refers to the London Underground and is the most common word used for the underground system, it is used by Transport for London the local government body responsible for most aspects of the transport system throughout Greater London; however speaking, it should only refer to those deep lines which run in bored circular tunnels as opposed to those constructed near to the surface by'cut-and-cover' methods. The Glasgow metro system is known as the Glasgow Subway or colloquial as "the subway"; the word Metro is not use
Downtown Oklahoma City
Downtown Oklahoma City is located at the geographic center of the Oklahoma City metropolitan area and contains the principal, central business district of the region. The CBD has over 12,000,000 sq ft of leasable office space to-date. Downtown Oklahoma City is the legal, economic and entertainment center of the region. Downtown Oklahoma City consists of several urban districts. Unofficial/new areas of downtown OKC include "Lower Bricktown", MidTown urban neighborhood, SOSA, WestTown, Film Row urban district, Farmer's Market, the new Downtown South "Core-2-Shore" neighborhoods. Artspace at Untitled Automobile Alley Historic District BC Clark, Oklahoma's oldest jeweler Bricktown Entertainment District Academy of Contemporary Music At University of Central Oklahoma American Banjo Museum Bass Pro Shops Bricktown Canal Riverwalk Bricktown Fountain Bricktown Riverwalk Park Chickasaw Bricktown Ballpark Harkins Theatres Oklahoma Land Run statue Central Park, to be developed in the Core-2-Shore/Downtown South Century Center Chesapeake Energy Arena Cox Business Services Convention Center Deep Deuce Historic Neighborhood Individual Artists of Oklahoma Gallery Kerr Park Midtown Oklahoma City Myriad Botanical Gardens and Crystal Bridge Conservatory Oklahoma City 89'Er Museum Park Oklahoma City Civic Center Bicentennial Park City Hall Civic Center Music Hall Oklahoma City Museum of Art Oklahoma City National Memorial Oklahoma River Boathouse District Finish Line Tower Plaza Court Rocktown Climbing Gym SkyDance Pedestrian Bridge Triangle District The Underground WestTown Since the mid-1990s, residential housing has made a significant rebound in downtown Oklahoma City as numerous projects have been completed with many more proposed or are in development in each district.
Examples of the various residential communities available today include: City Place Tower, the Penthouses 21C Museum Residences Park Harvey Place Civic Steelyard LIFT The Frank Edge @ MidTown Metropolitan Block 42 The Brownstones at Maywood Park Central Avenue Villas Centennial on the Canal The Lofts at Maywood Park Deep Deuce Apartment blocks The Hill Avana The Montgomery Regency Tower Seiber Motor Hotel Residences Sycamore Square Apartment Homes SoSA neighborhood upscale modern residences BOK Park Plaza Central High School, now Oklahoma City University Law School Chase Tower, including the renowned Petroleum Club on top floors Chesapeake Energy Arena, home of the NBA's Oklahoma City Thunder City Place Tower Civic Center Music Hall – the city's premier performing arts and auditory performance hall Colcord Hotel, the city's first skyscraper Devon Tower – Oklahoma's tallest skyscraper Federal Reserve Bank First Baptist Church, cathedral First Lutheran Church, cathedral First National Center Kerr-McGee Tower Leadership Square, the city's largest leasable class A office complex Littlepage Building-National Historic Site Mid America Tower Oklahoma City AMTRAK, Santa-Fe Depot Oklahoma City Federal Building Oklahoma City Museum of Art Oklahoma City National Memorial Oklahoma Tower Petroleum Building Renaissance Hotel Ronald J. Norick Downtown Library Saint Anthony Hospital campus Saint Joseph's Old Cathedral Saint Paul's Episcopal Cathedral Sheraton Hotel Skirvin Hotel Union Bus Station, demolished Union Station Mick Cornett - former Mayor of Oklahoma City J. Clifford Hudson - Chairman, CEO of Sonic Drive-In Downtown Oklahoma City, Inc. under contract with the City of Oklahoma City to implement Business Improvement District initiatives in the CBD and surrounding urban districts Oklahoma River Attractions and Redevelopment
Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, Colorado on the northwest. It is the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States; the state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907, its residents are known as Oklahomans, its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City. A major producer of natural gas and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, telecommunications, biotechnology.
Both Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas. With ancient mountain ranges, prairie and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, the U. S. Interior Highlands, a region prone to severe weather. More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, ranking third behind Alaska and California. Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans; the name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma meaning red people. Choctaw Nation Chief Allen Wright suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government on the use of Indian Territory, in which he envisioned an all-Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language that described Native American people as a whole.
Oklahoma became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, it was approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers. The name of the state is Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa, Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh. In the Chickasaw language, the state is known as Oklahomma', in Arapaho as bo'oobe'. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,899 square miles, with 68,595 square miles of land and 1,304 square miles of water, it lies in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, on the south and near-west by Texas. Much of its border with Texas lies along a failed continental rift; the geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River. The Oklahoma panhandle's Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border; the Oklahoma/New Mexico border is 2.1 miles to 2.2 miles east of the Texas line. The border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819.
It was set along the 103rd meridian. In the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, the actual 103rd meridian was 2.2 miles to the east. It was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error; the placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd meridian. Cimarron County in Oklahoma's panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states: New Mexico, Texas and Kansas. Oklahoma is between the Great Plains and the Ozark Plateau in the Gulf of Mexico watershed sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary, its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle.
The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet above sea level. Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions, with 11 in its borders—more per square mile than in any other state, its western and eastern halves, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. Although having fewer ecological regions Western Oklahoma contains many relic species. Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges: the Ouachita Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, the Ozark Mountains. Contained within the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains are the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians. A portion of the Flint Hills stretches into north-central Oklahoma, near the state's eastern border, The Oklahoma Tourism & Recreation Department regards Cavanal Hill as the world's tallest hill.
The semi-arid high