A hamlet is a small human settlement. The word and concept of a hamlet have roots in the Anglo-Norman settlement of England, in English geography, a hamlet is considered smaller than a village and distinctly without a church. The word comes from Anglo-Norman hamelete, corresponding to Old French hamelet and this, in turn, is a diminutive of Old French ham, possibly borrowed from Franconian languages. Compare with modern French Hameau, Dutch heem, German Heim, Old English hām, in Australia a hamlet is a small village. Officially, a hamlet differs from a village in having no commercial premises, in Bangladesh, Hamlet is known as Para or Paara. A village is divided by more than one Para and that is the smallest partition of a place in Bangladesh. Each para contains some families, or a group of families, in Canadas three territories, hamlets are officially designated municipalities. Canadas two largest hamlets – Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park – are located in Alberta and they each have populations, within their main urban area, in excess of 60, 000—well in excess of the 10, 000-person threshold that can choose to incorporate as a city in Alberta.
As such, these two hamlets have been designated by the Province of Alberta as urban service areas. An urban service area is recognized as equivalent to a city for the purposes of provincial and federal program delivery, during the 18th century, for rich or noble people, it was up-to-date to create their own hameau in their gardens. They were a group of houses or farms with rustic appearance. The best known in the Hameau de la Reine built by the queen Marie-Antoinette in the park of the Château de Versailles, or the Hameau de Chantilly built by Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé in Chantilly, Oise. Lieu-dit is another name for hamlet, the difference is that a hamlet is permanently inhabited, but a lieu-dit is not. In Germany hamlets are called Weiler and they are often part of bigger villages and municipalities. Most German hamlets are situated in Bavaria, Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse, in the low Saxon dialect of northwestern Germany hamlets are called Bauerschaft. In different states of India, there are different words for hamlet, in Gujarat a hamlet is called a nesada, which are more prevalent in the Gir forest.
In Maharashtra its called a paadaa, in southern Bihar, especially in the Magadh division, a hamlet is called a bigha. All over Indonesia, hamlets are translated as small village, or kampung and they are known as dusun in Central Java and East Java, banjar in Bali, jorong or kampuang in West Sumatra
Districts of Switzerland
In contrast to centrally organised states, in the federally constituted Switzerland each canton is completely free to decide its own internal organisation. Therefore, there exists a variety of structures and terminology for the subnational entities between canton and municipality, loosely termed districts, most cantons are divided into Bezirke. They are termed Ämter, district or distretto, the Bezirke generally provide only administration and court organization. However, for historical reasons districts in cantons Graubünden and Schwyz are their own legal entities with jurisdiction over tax, seven of the 26 cantons – Uri, Nidwalden, Zug, Basel-City and Geneva – have always existed without the district level of government. An eighth one, Appenzell Innerrhoden, uses no intermediate level either, bern in 2006 decided a reduction of its 26 districts to five administrative regions. Vaud decided a reduction from 19 to 10 districts, valais is planning a similar reduction and in Thurgau, a reduction of eight to four districts is under discussion.
From 2005, districts only have a statistical meaning, the districts are functionally equivalent to municipalities elsewhere in Switzerland, and are generally shown as municipalities on maps etc. The Canton is divided into 6 districts, Appenzell Gonten Oberegg Rüte Schlatt-Haslen Schwende Municipalities of Switzerland
Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
The encyclopedia is published by a foundation under the patronage of the Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Swiss Historical Society and is financed by national research grants. Besides a staff of 35 at the offices, the contributors include 100 academic advisors,2500 historians and 100 translators. The encyclopedia is being edited simultaneously in three languages of Switzerland, German and Italian. The first of 13 volumes was published in 2002, the last volume was published in 2014. The 36,000 headings are grouped in, Biographies Articles on families and it makes accessible, for free, all articles ready for publication in print, but no illustrations. It lists all 36,000 topics that are to be covered, lexicon Istoric Retic is a two volume version with a selection of articles published in Romansh. It includes articles not available in the other languages, the first volume was published in 2010, the second in 2012. An on-line version is available
FDP. The Liberals is a liberal political party in Switzerland. It is the joint-largest party in the Federal Council, third-largest party in the National Council, the party was formed on 1 January 2009, after two parties, the Free Democratic Party and the smaller Liberal Party, united. In Vaud and Valais, the parties retain separate organisations and its youth organisation is Young Liberals. With 120,000 members as of 2015, the FDP has the most members of any party, the party is a member of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe and an observer member of the Liberal International. The partys president is Petra Gössi, the current FDP representatives in the Federal Council are Didier Burkhalter and Johann Schneider-Ammann. The party was formed in 2009 from the merger of the Free Democratic Party, the radical Free Democratic Party, called the Radicals, was Switzerlands major establishment party. Founded in 1894, the classical liberal predecessors had governed Switzerland outright for most of the 19th century.
The Liberal Party, known as the Old Liberals, represented the French-speaking establishment and it had a distinctly liberal Protestant outlook. In the 2003 federal election, the two formed an electoral alliance. In the election, the Liberals were reduced to four seats, below the five required to form a grouping in the Federal Assembly. In June 2005, the two founded the Radical and Liberal Union, which aimed to promote liberal goals through deeper cooperation, in 2007, the womens arms of the parties merged, while the youth wings merged the following year to form the Young Liberals. Agreement on the merger of the parties was agreed in October 2008. The agreement was adopted on 28 February 2009, applying retroactively to 1 January 2009, FDP President Fulvio Pelli of Ticino became the partys first leader, while Liberal President Pierre Weiss was named one of four Vice-Presidents. Separate Free Democrat and Liberal branches remained in competition with other in Geneva, Valais. In May 2011, the partys two Geneva branches – Liberal Party of Geneva and Radical Party of Geneva – merged to form a single FDP.
The Liberals cantonal branch. In the 2015 federal election, the FDP increased its share of the vote by 1. 3%. As a classically liberal party, the FDP wants to protect civil liberties, the FDP calls for mutual tolerance of people with different opinions and self-identities, social responsibility, the rule of law, and participatory democracy. The party supports neutrality, direct democracy, and the tax sovereignty of each canton and it believes that national security should be credibly guaranteed by a skilled and strong militia
A primary school or elementary school is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the age of about five to twelve, coming after preschool and before secondary school. In most parts of the world, primary education is the first stage of education, and is normally available without charge. The term grade school is used in the US though this term may refer to both primary education and secondary education. The term primary school is derived from the French école primaire, primary school is the preferred term in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth Nations, and in most publications of the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization. Elementary school is preferred in some countries, especially in the United States, in the United States, primary school may refer to a school with grades Kindergarten through second grade or third grade. In these municipalities, the school includes grade three through five or grades four to six
Ergisch is a municipality in the district of Leuk in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. Ergisch is first mentioned in 1203 as Mons de Argessa, Ergisch has an area, as of 2011, of 29.8 square kilometers. Of this area,20. 9% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land,0. 9% is settled and 40. 1% is unproductive land. The municipality is located in the Leuk district, at an elevation of 1,090 m on the left side of the Rhone valley at the entrance to the Turtmann valley. The blazon of the coat of arms is Per fess Azure three Mullets of Six Argent one and two and Gules a Fleur-de-lis and a Double Cross of the second. Ergisch has a population of 189, as of 2008,5. 2% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 17. 5% and it has changed at a rate of 11. 3% due to migration and at a rate of -6. 9% due to births and deaths. All of the population speaks German, as of 2008, the gender distribution of the population was 50. 0% male and 50. 0% female.
The population was made up of 89 Swiss men and 5 non-Swiss men, There were 89 Swiss women and 5 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality 118 or about 67. 0% were born in Ergisch and lived there in 2000. There were 39 or 22. 2% who were born in the canton, while 15 or 8. 5% were born somewhere else in Switzerland. The age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 25. 6% of the population, while adults make up 54. 5%, as of 2000, there were 76 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 82 married individuals,15 widows or widowers and 3 individuals who are divorced, as of 2000, there were 68 private households in the municipality, and an average of 2.6 persons per household. There were 19 households that consist of one person and 7 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 69 households that answered this question,27. 5% were households made up of just one person and there were 3 adults who lived with their parents. Of the rest of the households, there are 15 married couples without children,27 married couples with children There were 2 single parents with a child or children.
There were 2 households that were made up of unrelated people and 1 household that was made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing, in 2000 there were 140 single family homes out of a total of 181 inhabited buildings. There were 31 multi-family buildings, along with 5 multi-purpose buildings that were used for housing and 5 other use buildings that had some housing
Swiss People's Party
The Swiss Peoples Party, known as the Democratic Union of the Centre, is a national-conservative and right-wing populist political party in Switzerland. Chaired by Albert Rösti, the party is the largest party in the Federal Assembly, the SVP initially didnt witness any increased support beyond that of the BGB, retaining around 11% of the vote through the 1970s and 1980s. In line with the changes fostered by Blocher, the party started to focus increasingly on issues such as euroscepticism, when Blocher failed to win re-election as a Federal Councillor in 2007, moderates within the party split off, forming the Conservative Democratic Party. The early origins of the SVP go back to the late 1910s, while the Free Democratic Party had earlier been a popular party for farmers, this changed during World War I when the party had mainly defended the interests of industrialists and consumer circles. By 1929, the coalition of parties had gained enough influence to get one of their leaders, Rudolf Minger.
In 1936, a party was founded on the national level, called the Party of Farmers, Traders. During the 1930s, the BGB entered the mainstream of Swiss politics as a conservative party in the bourgeois bloc. In the partys fight against left-wing ideologies, sections of party officials and farmers voiced understanding, after World War II, the BGB contributed to the establishment of the characteristic Swiss post-war consensual politics, social agreements and economic growth policies. The party continued to be a political partner with the Swiss Conservative Peoples Party. In 1971, the BGB changed its name to the Swiss Peoples Party after it merged with the Democratic Party from Glarus, as the Democratic Party had represented centrist, social-liberal positions, the course of the SVP shifted towards the political centre following internal debates. The new party continued to see its level of support at around 11%. Blocher soon consolidated his power in Zürich, and began to renew the organisational structures, campaigning style and political agenda of the local branch.
The young members of the party was boosted with the establishment of a cantonal Young SVP in 1977 and this was contrasted with the stable level in the other cantons, although the support stagnated in Zürich through the 1980s. The struggle between the SVPs largest branches of Bern and Zürich continued into the early 1990s, while the Bern-oriented faction represented the old moderate style, the Zürich-oriented wing led by Christoph Blocher represented a new radical right-wing populist agenda. The Zürich wing began to politicise asylum issues, and the question of European integration started to dominate Swiss political debates and they adopted more confrontational methods. During the 1990s, the party doubled its number of cantonal branches. In 1991, the party for the first time became the strongest party in Zürich, the party broke through in the early 1990s in both Zürich and Switzerland as a whole, and experienced dramatically increasing results in elections. From being the smallest of the four governing parties at the start of the 1990s, at the same time, the party expanded its electoral base towards new voter demographics
Kindergarten is a preschool educational approach traditionally based on playing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. The first such institutions were created in the late 18th century in Bavaria, the term was coined by the German Friedrich Fröbel, whose approach globally influenced early-years education. In 1779, Johann Friedrich Oberlin and Louise Scheppler founded in Strasbourg an early establishment for caring for, at about the same time, in 1780, similar infant establishments were established in Bavaria. In 1802, Princess Pauline zur Lippe established a center in Detmold. In 1816, Robert Owen, a philosopher and pedagogue, opened the first British and probably globally the first infants school in New Lanark, Scotland. In conjunction with his venture for cooperative mills Owen wanted the children to be given a moral education so that they would be fit for work. His system was successful in producing obedient children with basic literacy and numeracy, samuel Wilderspin opened his first infant school in London in 1819, and went on to establish hundreds more.
He published many works on the subject, and his became the model for infant schools throughout England. Play was an important part of Wilderspins system of education and he is credited with inventing the playground. In 1823, Wilderspin published On the Importance of Educating the Infant Poor and he began working for the Infant School Society the next year, informing others about his views. He wrote The Infant System, for developing the physical, intellectual, in 1836 she established an institute for the foundation of preschool centers. The idea became popular among the nobility and the class and was copied throughout the Kingdom of Hungary. He renamed his institute Kindergarten on June 28,1840, reflecting his belief that children should be nurtured and nourished like plants in a garden, women trained by Fröbel opened kindergartens throughout Europe and around the world. The first kindergarten in the US was founded in Watertown, Wisconsin in 1856 and was conducted in German, elizabeth Peabody founded the first English-language kindergarten in the US in 1860.
The first free kindergarten in the US was founded in 1870 by Conrad Poppenhusen, a German industrialist and philanthropist, the first publicly-financed kindergarten in the US was established in St. Louis in 1873 by Susan Blow. Canadas first private kindergarten was opened by the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, by the end of the decade, they were common in large Canadian towns and cities. The countrys first public-school kindergartens were established in Berlin, Ontario, in 1885, the Toronto Normal School opened a department for kindergarten teaching. In Afghanistan, children between the age of 3 and 6 attend kindergartens, which though not part of the system are often run by the government
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
A secondary school is both an organization that delivers level 2 junior secondary education or level 3 secondary education phases of the ISCED scale, and the building where this takes place. Level 2 junior secondary education is considered to be the second, Secondary schools typically follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages 11 and 16, the systems and terminology remain unique to each country. School building design does not happen in isolation, schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration. The number of rooms required can be determined from the roll of the school. A general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55m2, or more generously 62m2, a general art room for 30 students needs to be 83m2, but 104 m2 for 3D textile work. A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m2, examples are given on how this can be configured for a 1,200 place secondary.
The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of, The students, the teachers, the support staff, the adminstrators. It has to should meet health requirements, minimal functional requirements- such as classrooms and showers, textbooks, Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools. These enable environmental modelling and establish building costs. Future plans are audited to ensure that standards are not exceeded. The UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014 and it said the floor area should be 1050m² +6. 3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m², a secondary school, locally may be called high school, junior high school, senior high school. Sweden, gymnasium Switzerland, secondary school, collège or lycée Taiwan, Junior High School, Senior High School, Vocational High School, Military School, in Nigeria, secondary school starts from JSS1 until SSS3.
Most students start at the age of 10 or 11 and finish at 16 or 17, Students are required to sit for the West African Senior Secondary Certificate Examination. To progress to university students must obtain at least a credit in Maths, English, in Somalia, secondary school starts from 9th grade until 12th. Students start it when they are around 14 to 15 years of age, Students are required to study Somali and Arabic, with the option of either English or Italian depending on the type of school. Religion, physics, physical education, art, when secondary school has been completed, students are sent to national training camp before going to either college, or military training. In South Africa, high school begins at grade 8, Students study for five years, at the end of which they write a Matriculation examination