Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Continental Express Flight 2574
Continental Express Flight 2574 was a scheduled domestic passenger airline flight operated by Britt Airways from Laredo International Airport in Laredo, Texas, to Houston Intercontinental Airport in Houston, Texas. On September 11, 1991, the Embraer EMB 120 Brasilia, registered N33701, crashed while the turboprop aircraft was en route to Houston, killing all 14 people on board; the aircraft wreckage hit an area near Eagle Lake, Texas, located 65 miles west-southwest of IAH. The media stated; the Embraer 120 Brasilia, serial number 120077, was built in 1988, three years before the accident, had accumulated 7,229 flight hours through 10,009 cycles. The Federal Aviation Administration records stated that the aircraft had been sent to the maintenance hangar 33 times for unscheduled repairs; the crew consisted of 29-year-old Brad Patridge of Kingwood, Texas as captain and 43-year-old Clint Rodosovich of Houston as the first officer. Both were experienced pilots with 11,543 flight hours, respectively.
The EMB 120 departed Laredo International Airport at 09:09, operating under Federal Aviation Regulation Part 135 and after a normal takeoff was assigned a cruise altitude of flight level 250 reassigned to FL240. At 09:54 the flightcrew responded to the Houston Air Route Traffic Control Center, started descending to nine thousand feet. At 10:03 while descending through 11,500 feet with an indicated airspeed of 260 knots the leading edge of the left horizontal stabilizer separated from the airframe, the airplane pitched down rolling around on an axis as the left wing folded; the escaping fuel from the wings ignited, the pilots lost consciousness from the severe G-forces due to the major oscillations of the crippled aircraft. The wreckage fell in southeast Colorado County, exploding on impact, off Farm to Market Road 102, seven miles southeast of Eagle Lake, 60 miles west of Downtown Houston; the Texas Department of Public Safety said. The wreckage was spread over a 2- to 4-square-mile area. About $500,000 worth of diamonds were discovered in the wreckage.
The National Transportation Safety Board investigation revealed that screws had been removed from the horizontal stabilizer during maintenance the night before the accident and, following a shift change, the screws had not been replaced. The plane crashed on its second flight of the day. NTSB cited the failure of airline maintenance and inspection personnel to adhere to proper maintenance and quality assurance procedures; the failure of Federal Aviation Administration surveillance to detect and verify compliance with approved procedures was cited as a contributing factor. Following the accident, the FAA conducted a National Aviation Safety Inspection Program of Continental Express' maintenance program, it found few safety deficiencies, complimented the airline on its internal evaluation system. NTSB expressed concern that the NASIP did not find deficiencies in shift turnover procedures and other matters relevant to the accident, recommended that the agency improve its NASIP procedures; the National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause of this accident as follows: "The failure of Continental Express maintenance and inspection personnel to adhere to proper maintenance and quality assurance procedures for the airplane's horizontal stabilizer de-ice boots that led to the sudden in-flight loss of the secured left horizontal stabilizer leading edge and the immediate severe nose-down pitchover and breakup of the airplane.
Contributing to the cause of the accident was the failure of the Continental Express management to ensure compliance with the approved maintenance procedures, the failure of FAA surveillance to detect and verify compliance with approved procedures." According to Meshkati, the crash of Continental Express Flight 2574 was the most dramatic turning point for “safety culture” in the United States. As a member of the National Transportation Safety Board at that time, Dr. John Lauber suggested that the probable cause of this accident included “The failure of Continental Express management to establish a corporate culture which encouraged and enforced adherence to approved maintenance and quality assurance procedures”; as a result of this and other similar aviation accidents, safety culture came to the forefront as the exclusive topic at the U. S. National Summit on Transportation Safety, hosted by the NTSB in 1997; this movement for air safety continued with the enactment on April 5, 2000, of the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century, called AIR 21.
The Discovery Channel Canada / National Geographic TV series Mayday featured the accident in a Season 11 episode titled "Breakup Over Texas". Emery Worldwide Flight 17 Trans International Airlines Flight 863 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Transportation Safety Board. Meshkati, N.. Human performance, organizational factors and safety culture. Paper presented on National Summit by NTSB on transportation safety. Washington, D. C. NTSB abstract NTSB letter Aircraft One data Horswell, Cindy, T. J. Milling, Rad Sallee. "Crash in Colorado County/At
United Express is the brand name for the regional branch of United Airlines, under which eight individually owned regional airlines operate short- and medium-haul feeder flights. On October 1, 2010, UAL Corporation and Continental Airlines merged to form United Continental Holdings, the holding company for the newly merged United Airlines; as Continental and United merged, Continental Connection and Continental Express has adopted the United Express brand name, bringing the number of operators to twelve and the number of aircraft to over 550. The first aircraft painted into the new United Express livery was an Embraer ERJ-145 operated by ExpressJet; as of November 30, 2011, after United had received its Single Operating Certificate following its merger with Continental Airlines, over 575 aircraft fly under the United Express brand. Major airlines in the United States had long maintained relationships with regional carriers which fed passengers from small markets to larger cities; the Airline Deregulation Act spurred industry consolidation both vertically and horizontally, as the hub system became more pronounced, airlines formalized these relationships through code sharing, shared branding, listing regional partners in computer reservations systems.
On May 1, 1985, United formally partnered with Air Wisconsin, Aspen Airways, WestAir as United Express, feeding its hubs at Chicago-O'Hare, Denver-Stapleton, San Francisco International Airports. Air Wisconsin and Aspen would merge in 1991. In 1988, Presidential Airways became a United Express carrier for United's new hub at Washington Dulles International Airport, but soon floundered. In response, WestAir formed an eastern division to serve Dulles. WestAir itself experienced turmoil. In 1992, Great Lakes Airlines became a United Express partner, followed by Trans States Airlines the following year. In 1997, as United designated Los Angeles International Airport one of its hubs, SkyWest Airlines became a United Express partner as well. Great Lakes left the United Express system in 2001, although it continued to do codeshare flights until they ceased operations in 2018. In 1993, Trans States Airlines started United Feeder Service, to operate British Aerospace BAe ATP aircraft for United Airlines.
The aircraft owned by Air Wisconsin, were transferred and subsequently owned by United. UFS operated routes to Chicago O’Hare from close markets in the U. S. Upper Midwest. UFS was eliminated from the United Express carrier network in 1999, disappeared; when United declared for Chapter 11 reorganization in 2002, it pressured its regional partners for reduced fees. In 2004, ACA reinvented itself as low-cost carrier Independence Air; the next year, Air Wisconsin unsuccessfully bid to retain its flying contract, thought it did retain some ground-handling United Express operations. To compensate, United initiated new service agreements with Colgan Air, Trans States subsidiary GoJet Airlines, Republic Airways Holdings subsidiaries Chautauqua Airlines and Shuttle America. In 2005, United announced that service levels on major United Express routes would be upgraded to a new product called explus. Routes with explus service offer first class seats and meal service on larger, 70-seat Embraer 170 and 66-seat Bombardier CRJ-700 aircraft.
Expanding the traditional regional partner role, United started to use the airplanes configured with explus amenities instead of, or alongside with, mainline jets on routes linking large cities, such as Chicago to Houston. United announced a new Express focus city at San Antonio International Airport in 2006, but the experiment was short-lived. United decided to cancel Dash 8 and CRJ200 service with Mesa Airlines in November 2009. On November 16, 2009 it was announced that ExpressJet would begin operating Embraer ERJ 145 beginning in the spring of 2010. Dash 8 and Mesa Airlines CRJ200 service stopped. All Continental Express and Continental Connection service merged into United Express in late 2011. On April 1, 2012, Pinnacle Airlines Corp. filed for bankruptcy and announced it would draw down its Colgan Air operation. In May, United reached a deal with Republic Airways Holdings for its subsidiary Republic Airlines to fly the Q400 in Colgan's place; the eight-year capacity purchase agreement includes all 28 aircraft operated by Colgan as well as four flown by Republic for Frontier Airlines.
In August 2015, United announced the start of a new subsidiary, United Ground Express, to provide ground operation service in select airports within its domestic network. By September 2016, Republic Airlines' Q400s were phased out of service, replacing them with 50 more Embraer E175s. On February 27, 2017, United Airlines announced the return of their partnership with Air Wisconsin as a United Express carrier, they would be flying a fleet of 65 Bombardier CRJ-200 beginning second-half 2017. In September 2017, the Q300 was phased out and in January 2018, the Q200 was phased out. On April 16, 2018, United Airlines announced the end of its partnership with Cape Air. Services ended on May 31, 2018, which marked the end of United Express operations in Guam, along with the retirement of the last turboprop aircraft in the United Express fleet. United Express bus service connects Jack Brooks Regional Airport to George Bush Intercontinental Airport; this service began after Colgan Air operated Saab 340 turboprop flights ended on July 1, 2012, this bus service continues at present with several trips a day.
United Express has a bus service from Lehigh Valley International Airport near Allentown, Pennsylvania to Newark Liberty International Airport. Continen
Capiteq Pty Limited, trading as Airnorth, is a regional airline based at Darwin International Airport in Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. It operates scheduled and charter services in the Northern Territory, Victoria, Western Australia, East Timor. Airnorth carries in excess of 300,000 passengers per yearAircraft Logistics is a subsidiary company and the Part 145 Engineering division of Airnorth. Aircrew Logistics is a subsidiary company. Airnorth is a member of the Regional Aviation Association of Australia Airnorth was established in 1978 and started operations on 4 July that year, it operated charter flights only until scheduled services were introduced in 1981. At this time, the airline's fleet included the first turbine powered aircraft in the Northern Territory, a Beechcraft Super King Air as well as a Douglas DC-3. In 1993 the Skyport Group became Capiteq Ltd was formed, it was known as Air North International. During the 1990s, Airnorth had a well established regional network and by 1997 had introduced both Fairchild Metro 23 and Embraer EMB 120 Brasilia turboprop aircraft to the fleet.
Beginning in September 1999, Airnorth operated charters from Darwin to Dili, East Timor on behalf of the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor. In 2000, this became Airnorth's first international route. In October 2003 Airnorth acquired the assets of Airlines of South Australia with the intention of merging the two companies and operating under Airnorth's Air Operator's Certificate. In March 2004 Airnorth acquired the assets of Emu Airways, but in 2005 sold off both Emu. On 9 November 2005, Emu Airways ceased operations. In 2007 Airnorth introduced the Embraer ERJ-170 to its fleet, the first jet aircraft operated by the airline. In 2012, it announced a direct service between Darwin and Townsville, the first Australian airline to offer a non-stop connection between these cities. On 5 February 2015, it was announced that Bristow Helicopters Australia Ltd. a division of the US-based Bristow Group, had acquired an 85 percent controlling interest in Airnorth. Bristow stated that Airnorth would retain its brand identity.
In 2015 Bristow Helicopters Australia purchased the remaining shares to obtain full ownership. Under Bristow's ownership Airnorth responded to a downturn in the mining industry, restructuring the route network by withdrawing services to Karratha, Port Hedland and the Gold Coast. A fifth ERJ-170 joined the fleet in 2016; the increased availability of the jets allowed expansion into South East Queensland and Victoria, commencing operations between Wellcamp Airport near Toowoomba to Melbourne and Cairns from March 2016. Within months the airline added further flights from Wellcamp to Townsville with all three new routes codesharing with Qantas; the airline operates over 300 scheduled and contract charter departures weekly, serving over 20 domestic and international destinations including: Northern Territory Alice Springs Bootu Creek* Darwin Elcho Island Gove Groote Eylandt Katherine Maningrida McArthur River Mine Milingimbi Tennant Creek Queensland Cairns Gold Coast Toowoomba Townsville Timor Leste Dili Victoria Melbourne Western Australia Broome Kununurra Perth TruscottIn addition to scheduled flights, Airnorth operates charter services for a wide variety of companies including mining & resources and government clients.
As of July 2018 the Airnorth fleet consists of the following aircraft: On 22 March 2010, one of Airnorth's Embraer EMB 120 Brasilia aircraft crashed into bushland near the RAAF Base Darwin golf course at 10:10, shortly after taking off from Darwin International Airport on a training flight. The two crew members, who were the only people on board, were killed. Airnorth
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
A turboprop engine is a turbine engine that drives an aircraft propeller. In its simplest form a turboprop consists of an intake, combustor, a propelling nozzle. Air is compressed by the compressor. Fuel is added to the compressed air in the combustor, where the fuel-air mixture combusts; the hot combustion gases expand through the turbine. Some of the power generated by the turbine is used to drive the compressor; the rest is transmitted through the reduction gearing to the propeller. Further expansion of the gases occurs in the propelling nozzle, where the gases exhaust to atmospheric pressure; the propelling nozzle provides a small proportion of the thrust generated by a turboprop. In contrast to a turbojet, the engine's exhaust gases do not contain enough energy to create significant thrust, since all of the engine's power is used to drive the propeller. Exhaust thrust in a turboprop is sacrificed in favour of shaft power, obtained by extracting additional power from turbine expansion. Owing to the additional expansion in the turbine system, the residual energy in the exhaust jet is low.
The exhaust jet produces around or less than 10% of the total thrust. A higher proportion of the thrust comes from less at higher speeds. Turboprops can have bypass ratios up to 50-100 although the propulsion airflow is less defined for propellers than for fans; the propeller is coupled to the turbine through a reduction gear that converts the high RPM/low torque output to low RPM/high torque. The propeller itself is a constant speed type similar to that used with larger reciprocating aircraft engines. Unlike the small diameter fans used in turbofan jet engines, the propeller has a large diameter that lets it accelerate a large volume of air; this permits a lower airstream velocity for a given amount of thrust. As it is more efficient at low speeds to accelerate a large amount of air by a small degree than a small amount of air by a large degree, a low disc loading increases the aircraft's energy efficiency, this reduces the fuel use. Propellers lose efficiency as aircraft speed increases, so turboprops are not used on high-speed aircraft above Mach 0.6-0.7.
However, propfan engines, which are similar to turboprop engines, can cruise at flight speeds approaching Mach 0.75. To increase propeller efficiency, a mechanism can be used to alter their pitch relative to the airspeed. A variable-pitch propeller called a controllable-pitch propeller, can be used to generate negative thrust while decelerating on the runway. Additionally, in the event of an engine failure, the pitch can be adjusted to a vaning pitch, thus minimizing the drag of the non-functioning propeller. While most modern turbojet and turbofan engines use axial-flow compressors, turboprop engines contain at least one stage of centrifugal compression. Centrifugal compressors have the advantage of being simple and lightweight, at the expense of a streamlined shape. While the power turbine may be integral with the gas generator section, many turboprops today feature a free power turbine on a separate coaxial shaft; this enables the propeller to rotate independent of compressor speed. Residual thrust on a turboshaft is avoided by further expansion in the turbine system and/or truncating and turning the exhaust 180 degrees, to produce two opposing jets.
Apart from the above, there is little difference between a turboprop and a turboshaft. Alan Arnold Griffith had published a paper on turbine design in 1926. Subsequent work at the Royal Aircraft Establishment investigated axial turbine designs that could be used to supply power to a shaft and thence a propeller. From 1929, Frank Whittle began work on centrifugal turbine designs that would deliver pure jet thrust; the world's first turboprop was designed by the Hungarian mechanical engineer György Jendrassik. Jendrassik published a turboprop idea in 1928, on 12 March 1929 he patented his invention. In 1938, he built a small-scale experimental gas turbine; the larger Jendrassik Cs-1, with a predicted output of 1,000 bhp, was produced and tested at the Ganz Works in Budapest between 1937 and 1941. It was of axial-flow design with 15 compressor and 7 turbine stages, annular combustion chamber and many other modern features. First run in 1940, combustion problems limited its output to 400 bhp. In 1941,the engine was abandoned due to war, the factory was turned over to conventional engine production.
The world's first turboprop engine that went into mass production was designed by a German engineer, Max Adolf Mueller, in 1942. The first mention of turboprop engines in the general public press was in the February 1944 issue of the British aviation publication Flight, which included a detailed cutaway drawing of what a possible future turboprop engine could look like; the drawing was close to what the future Rolls-Royce Trent would look like. The first British turboprop engine was the Rolls-Royce RB.50 Trent, a converted Derwent II fitted with reduction gear and a Rotol 7 ft 11 in five-bladed propeller. Two Trents were fitted to Gloster Meteor EE227 — the sole "Trent-Meteor" — which thus became the world's first turboprop-powered aircraft, albeit a test-bed not intended for production, it first flew on 20 September 1945. From their experience with the Trent, Rolls-Royce developed the Rolls-Royce Clyde, the first turboprop engine to be type certificated for military and civil use, the Dart, which became one of the most reliable turboprop engines built.
Dart production continued for more than fifty years. The Dart-powered Vickers Vi