Emergency management

Emergency management is the organization and management of the resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies. The aim is to reduce the harmful effects including disasters; the World Health Organization defines an emergency as the state in which normal procedures are interrupted, immediate measures need to be taken to prevent that state turning into a disaster. Thus, emergency management is crucial to avoid the disruption transforming into a disaster, harder to recover from. Emergency management should not be equated to disaster management. Emergency planning, a discipline of urban planning and design, first aims to prevent emergencies from occurring, failing that, should develop a good action plan to mitigate the results and effects of any emergencies; as time goes on, more data become available through the study of emergencies as they occur, a plan should evolve. The development of emergency plans is a cyclical process, common to many risk management disciplines, such as business continuity and security risk management, as set out below: Recognition or identification of risks Ranking or evaluation of risks Responding to significant risks Tolerating Treating Transferring Terminating Resourcing controls and planning Reaction planning Reporting and monitoring risk performance Reviewing the risk management frameworkThere are a number of guidelines and publications regarding emergency planning, published by professional organizations such as ASIS, National Fire Protection Association, the International Association of Emergency Managers.

There are few emergency management specific standards, emergency management as a discipline tends to fall under business resilience standards. In order to avoid or reduce significant losses to a business, emergency managers should work to identify and anticipate potential risks. In the event that an emergency does occur, managers should have a plan prepared to mitigate the effects of that emergency, as well as to ensure business continuity of critical operations after the incident, it is essential for an organization to include procedures for determining whether an emergency situation has occurred and at what point an emergency management plan should be activated. An emergency plan must be maintained, in a structured and methodical manner, to ensure it is up-to-date in the event of an emergency. Emergency managers follow a common process to anticipate, prevent, prepare and recover from an incident. Cleanup during disaster recovery involves many occupational hazards; these hazards are exacerbated by the conditions of the local environment as a result of the natural disaster.

While individual workers should be aware of these potential hazards, employers are responsible for minimizing exposure to these hazards and protecting workers, when possible. This includes identification and thorough assessment of potential hazards, application of appropriate personal protective equipment, the distribution of other relevant information in order to enable safe performance of the work. Maintaining a safe and healthy environment for these workers ensures that the effectiveness of the disaster recovery is unaffected. Flood-associated injuries: Flooding disasters expose workers to trauma from sharp and blunt objects hidden under murky waters causing lacerations, as well as open and closed fractures; these injuries are further exacerbated with exposure to the contaminated waters, leading to increased risk for infection. When working around water, there is always the risk of drowning. In addition, the risk of hypothermia increases with prolonged exposure to water temperatures less than 75 degrees Fahrenheit.

Non-infectious skin conditions may occur including miliaria, immersion foot syndrome, contact dermatitis. Earthquake-associated injuries: The predominant injuries are related to building structural components, including falling debris with possible crush injury, trapped under rubble and electric shock. Chemicals can pose a risk to human health. After a natural disaster, certain chemicals can be more prominent in the environment; these hazardous materials can be released indirectly. Chemical hazards directly released after a natural disaster occur concurrent with the event so little to no mitigation actions can take place for mitigation. For example, airborne magnesium, chloride and ammonia can be generated by droughts. Dioxins can be produced by forest fires, silica can be emitted by forest fires. Indirect release of hazardous chemicals can be unintentionally released. An example of intentional release is insecticides used after a flood or chlorine treatment of water after a flood. Unintentional release is.

The chemical released is toxic and serves beneficial purpose when released to the environment. These chemicals can be controlled through engineering to minimize their release when a natural disaster strikes. An example of this is agrochemicals from inundated storehouses or manufacturing facilities poisoning the floodwaters or asbestos fibers released from a building collapse during a hurricane; the flowchart to the right has been adopted from research performed by Stacy Young, et al. and can be found here. Exposure limits Below are TLV-TWA, PEL, IDLH values for common chemicals workers are exposed to after a natural disaster. Direct release Magnesium Phosphorus Ammonia SilicaIntentional release Insecticides Chlorine dioxideUnintentional release Crude oil components Benzene, N-hexane, hydrogen sulfi

Ambrosian Rite

The Ambrosian Rite called the Milanese Rite, is a Catholic Western liturgical rite. The rite is named after a bishop of Milan in the fourth century; the Ambrosian Rite, which differs from the Roman Rite, is used by some five million Catholics in the greater part of the Archdiocese of Milan, Italy, in some parishes of the Diocese of Como, Novara, Lodi and in about fifty parishes of the Diocese of Lugano, in the Canton of Ticino, Switzerland. Although the distinctive Ambrosian Rite has risked suppression at various points in its history, it survived and was reformed after the Second Vatican Council because Pope Paul VI belonged to the Ambrosian Rite, having been Archbishop of Milan. In the 20th century, it gained prominence and prestige from the attentions of two other scholarly Archbishops of Milan: Achille Ratti Pope Pius XI, the Blessed Ildefonso Schuster, both of whom had been involved in studies and publications on the rite before their respective appointments. There is no direct evidence that the rite was the composition of St. Ambrose, but his name has been associated with it since the eighth century.

It is possible that the Ambrose, who succeeded the Arian bishop Auxentius of Milan, may have removed material seen as unorthodox by the mainstream church and issued corrected service books which included the principal characteristics distinguishing it from other rites. According to St. Augustine and Paulinus the Deacon, St. Ambrose introduced innovations, not indeed into the Mass, but into what would seem to be the Divine Office, at the time of his contest with the Empress Justina for the Portian Basilica, which she claimed for the Arians. St. Ambrose filled the church with Catholics and kept them there night and day until the peril was past, and he arranged Psalms and hymns for them to sing, as St. Augustine says, "secundum morem orientalium partium ne populus mæroris tædio contabesceret". Et vigiliæ in ecclesiâ Mediolanensi celebrari cœperunt, Cujus celebritatis devotio usque in hodiernum diem non solum in eadem ecclesia verum per omnes pæne Occidentis provincias manet". From the time of St. Ambrose, whose hymns are well-known and whose liturgical allusions may be explained as referring to a rite which possessed the characteristics of that, called by his name, until the period of Charlemagne, there is a gap in the history of the Milanese Rite.

However, St. Simplician, the successor of St. Ambrose, added much to the rite and St. Lazarus introduced the three days of the litanies; the Church of Milan underwent various vicissitudes and for a period of some eighty years, during the Lombard conquests, the see was moved to Genoa in Liguria. In the eighth-century, manuscript evidence begins. In a short treatise on the various cursus entitled "Ratio de Cursus qui fuerunt ex auctores", written about the middle of the eighth century by an Irish monk in France, is found the earliest attribution of the Milan use to St. Ambrose, though it quotes the authority of St. Augustine alluding to the passage mentioned: "Est et alius cursus quem refert beatus augustinus episcopus quod beatus ambrosius propter hereticorum ordinem dissimilem composuit quem in italia antea de cantabatur". According to a narrative of Landulphus Senior, the eleventh-century chronicler of Milan, Charlemagne attempted to abolish the Ambrosian Rite, as he or his father, Pepin the Short, had abolished the Gallican Rite in France, in favour of a Gallicanized Roman Rite.

He sent to Milan and caused to be destroyed or sent beyond the mountain, quasi in exilium, all the Ambrosian books which could be found. Eugenius the Bishop, begged him to reconsider his decision. After the manner of the time, an ordeal, which reminds one of the celebrated trials by fire and by battle in the case of Alfonso VI and the Mozarabic Rite, was determined on. Two books and Roman, were laid closed upon the altar of St. Peter's Church in Rome and left for three days, the one, found open was to win, they were both found open, it was resolved that as God had shown that one was as acceptable as the other, the Ambrosian Rite should continue. But the destruction had been so far effective that no Ambrosian books could be found, save one missal which a faithful priest had hidden for six weeks in a cave in the mountains; therefore the Manuale was written out from memory by certain clerks. Walafridus Strabo, who died Abbot of Reichenau in 849, must therefore have been nearly, if not quite, contemporary with this incident, says nothing about it, speaking of various forms of the Mass, says: "Ambrosius quoque Mediolanensis episcopus tam missæ quam cæterorum dispositionem officiorum suæ ecclesiæ et aliis Liguribus ordinavit, quæ et usque hodie in Mediolanensi tenentur ecclesia" (Ambrose, Bishop of Milan arranged a ceremonia


Ottrau is a community in the Schwalm-Eder-Kreis in Hesse, Germany. Ottrau lies about 10 km northeast of Alsfeld; the community of Ottrau is made up of six constituent communities: Ottrau: 730 inhabitants Immichenhain: 605 inhabitants Weißenborn: 377 inhabitants Görzhain: 374 inhabitants Schorbach: 348 inhabitants Kleinropperhausen: 64 inhabitants The constituent community of Weißenborn had its first documentary mention in 1307 under the name Wisenburn. It was also named Wiesenbrunn and the name that it has today comes from that; the Greater Community of Ottrau has consisted since Hesse's municipal reform in 1972 of the six independent communities of Ottrau, Weißenborn, Görzhain, Schorbach und Kleinropperhausen. Ottrau's municipal council is made up of 15 councillors. CDU 6 seats SPD 4 seats FWG 3 seats UWG 2 seats Drávafok, Hungary Dr. Wilhelm Schäfer and writer, became an honorary citizen on the occasion of his 70th birthday in 1938. Ottrau's primary school is named after him. Official website