Emergency medical services known as ambulance services or paramedic services, are emergency services which treat illnesses and injuries that require an urgent medical response, providing out-of-hospital treatment and transport to definitive care. They may be known as a first aid squad, FAST squad, emergency squad, rescue squad, ambulance squad, ambulance corps, life squad or by other initialisms such as EMAS or EMARS. In most places, the EMS can be summoned by members of the public via an emergency telephone number which puts them in contact with a control facility, which will dispatch a suitable resource to deal with the situation. Ambulances are the primary vehicles for delivering EMS, though some use cars, aircraft or boats. EMS agencies may operate the non-emergency patient transport service, some have units for technical rescue operations such as extrication, water rescue, search and rescue; as a first resort, the EMS provide treatment on the scene to those in need of urgent medical care.
If it is deemed necessary, they are tasked with transferring the patient to the next point of care. This is most an emergency department of a hospital. Ambulances only transported patients to care, this remains the case in parts of the developing world; the term "emergency medical service" was popularised when these services began to emphasise diagnosis and treatment at the scene. In some countries, a substantial portion of EMS calls do not result in a patient being taken to hospital. Training and qualification levels for members and employees of emergency medical services vary throughout the world. In some systems, members may be present who are qualified only to drive ambulances, with no medical training. In contrast, most systems have personnel who retain at least basic first aid certifications, such as basic life support. In English-speaking countries, they are known as emergency medical technicians and paramedics, with the latter having additional training such as advanced life support skills.
Physicians and nurses provide pre-hospital care to varying degrees in different countries. Emergency care in the field has been rendered in different forms since the beginning of recorded history; the New Testament contains the parable of the Good Samaritan, in which a man, beaten is cared for by a passing Samaritan. Luke 10:34 – "He went to him and bandaged his wounds, pouring on oil and wine, he put the man on his own donkey, took him to an inn and took care of him." During the Middle Ages, the Knights Hospitaller were known for rendering assistance to wounded soldiers in the battlefield. The first use of the ambulance as a specialized vehicle, in battle came about with the ambulances volantes designed by Dominique Jean Larrey, Napoleon Bonaparte's chief surgeon. Larrey was present at the battle of Spires, between the French and Prussians, was distressed by the fact that wounded soldiers were not picked up by the numerous ambulances until after hostilities had ceased, set about developing a new ambulance system.
Having decided against using the Norman system of horse litters, he settled on two- or four-wheeled horse-drawn wagons, which were used to transport fallen soldiers from the battlefield after they had received early treatment in the field. Larrey's projects for'flying ambulances' were first approved by the Committee of Public Safety in 1794. Larrey subsequently entered Napoleon's service during the Italian campaigns in 1796, where his ambulances were used for the first time at Udine and Milan, he adapted his ambulances to the conditions developing a litter which could be carried by a camel for a campaign in Egypt. A major advance was made with the introduction of a transport carriage for cholera patients in London during 1832; the statement on the carriage, as printed in The Times, said "The curative process commences the instant the patient is put in to the carriage. This tenet of ambulances providing instant care, allowing hospitals to be spaced further apart, displays itself in modern emergency medical planning.
The first known hospital-based ambulance service operated out of Commercial Hospital, Ohio by 1865. This was soon followed by other services, notably the New York service provided out of Bellevue Hospital which started in 1869 with ambulances carrying medical equipment, such as splints, a stomach pump and brandy, reflecting contemporary medicine. Another early ambulance service was founded by Jaromir V. Mundy, Count J. N. Wilczek, Eduard Lamezan-Salins in Vienna after the disastrous fire at the Vienna Ringtheater in 1881. Named the "Vienna Voluntary Rescue Society," it served as a model for similar societies worldwide. In June 1887 the St John Ambulance Brigade was established to provide first aid and ambulance services at public events in London, it was modelled on a military-style discipline structure. In the late 19th century, the automobile was being developed, in addition to horse-drawn models, early 20th century ambulances were powered by steam and electricity, reflecting the competing automotive technologies in existence.
However, the first motorized ambulance was brought into service in the last year of the 19th century, with the Michael Reese Hospital, Ch
Sin miedo is the fourth studio album by Spanish singer Soraya. It is the album in which she has been more involved with, the one which defines more her personal style, after two albums of covers, she co-writes one of the songs, "Give Me Your Love" There are 12 songs on this album: 10 original songs in Spanish and two covers in English: "Rebound" by the German group Monrose and Love Is All Around by the Swedish singer Agnes. The lead single off the album is Sin miedo; the second single, "La noche es para mí" was chosen as the Spanish entry in the Eurovision Song Contest 2009. It peaked in Spain at # 9, it charted in Sweden. There is a duet with Kate Ryan called Caminaré, chosen as the third single. However, controversy came in late June 2009, when her label, Vale Music, did not want to pay the video for her single "Caminaré". Soraya stated on her official facebook that she will make the video on her own, without the support of Vale Music". However, as of September 2009, no news about the release of the video has been made.
As well, the single release has been cancelled by her label. The album is produced by the Ten brothers. Sin miedo – 3:56 Para ti – 3:55 No siento - 3:44 Duele - 3:29 La noche es para mí - 3:00 Caminaré - 3:29 Piel contra piel - 4:05 Give Me Your Love - 3:41 Uno en un millón - 3:16 Ángel caído - 4:23 Rebound - 3:39 Love Is All Around - 3:21Deluxe Edition"La noche es para mí" - 3:23 "Hasta el final" - 4:10 The album debuted and peaked at #21, before slipping down the Spanish Albums Chart; the album was less successful than its predecessors, but plans to release the album throughout Europe still scheduled by her label, since Soraya has been chosen to represent Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest 2009 in Moscow. The album sold, in excess, 16,000 copies in Spain, being her worst charting and selling album to date; this was due to the poor promotion given to the album on TV and music stations, due to the release of the single "Sin miedo" two weeks after the release of the album. The first single charted at #32 on the Spanish Singles Chart.
The second single, "La noche es para mí," has peaked at #9 on the Spanish Singles Chart, peaked at #25 on the Swedish Singles Chart. It is Soraya's most successful single so far
Arvind Subramanian is an Indian economist and the former Chief Economic Adviser to the Government of India, having taken charge of the position on 16 October 2014 to 20 June 2018 succeeding Raghuram Rajan. The post of CEA was lying vacant for over a year since Raghuram Rajan left the finance ministry to join the RBI as governor in September 2013, he took to the Office of Chief Economic Adviser to The Government of India on 16 October 2014. He was in office till 20 June 2018, he was succeeded by Krishnamurthy Subramanian. He served as the Dennis Weatherstone Senior Fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics and a Senior Fellow at the Center for Global Development, both located in Washington DC. An economist at the International Monetary Fund, he is a cited expert on the economics of India and the changing balance of global economic power. Arvind Subramanian is the author of two books, India's Turn: Understanding the Economic Transformation published in 2008, Eclipse: Living in the Shadow of China's Economic Dominance published in September 2011, co-author of Who Needs to Open the Capital Account?, published in 2012.
In 2011, Foreign Policy magazine named him one of the world's top 100 global thinkers. Subramanian attended the DAV Boy's Senior Secondary School Chennai, for his high school education, he proceeded to St Stephen's College, Delhi for his graduation, where he obtained B. A Economics, he proceeded to earn an MBA from the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad and M. Phil & D. Phil degrees from the University of Oxford on an Inlaks Scholarship. Subramanian was the Assistant Director in the Research Department of the International Monetary Fund, he is a development economist who worked with former Reserve Bank of India Governor Raghuram Rajan when both were at the International Monetary Fund. He served at the GATT during the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations, he has taught at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government from 1999 to 2000. He has taught at Johns Hopkins' Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies from 2008 to 2010. In October 2014, he was appointed the Chief Economic Adviser to Indian government.
The post had been lying vacant since Raghuram Rajan left the finance ministry to join as governor of the Reserve Bank of India in September 2013. After his three-year term ended in 2017, he was given a year's extension. On 20 June 2018, finance minister Arun Jaitley announced that owing to family commitments, Subramanian would be stepping down before the scheduled end of his tenure to return to academia in the US. Jaitley noted that Subramanian's early diagnosis of the twin balance-sheet led to the government outlining higher public investment in the union budget of 2015–16, he credited Subramanian with conceptualizing the Jan Dhan-Aadhaar-Mobile trinity, or JAM, as a data base of citizens for availing public benefits. In his role as the CEA, Subramanian was responsible for bringing out the annual Economic Survey of India, traditionally released prior to the presentation of the union budget in the Indian parliament, he is credited with revamping the presentation of information through the surveys, making them wider in scope and accessible to a larger audience.
Subramanian has authored essays and other publications on growth, development, aid, India and the World Trade Organization. He has been published in academic and other journals He has been cited in leading magazines and newspapers, including the Economist, Financial Times, Washington Post, New York Times, Wall Street Journal and New York Review of Books, he contributes to the Financial Times and is a columnist in India's leading financial daily, Business Standard. As a Senior Fellow, Peterson Institute for International Economics and Center for Global Development, in March 2013, Arvind Subramanian appeared before United States House Committee on Ways and Means hearing on "US-India trade relations." During his testimony, Arvind Subramanian said "by discriminating against Indian companies and exporters, will exert natural pressure on India to open up". He is married to Parul Subramanian, his elder brother is V S Krishnan, a retired Indian Revenue Service Officer and a former Member of the Central Board of Excise and Customs and was a key player in piloting the Goods and Service Tax Bill.