Frederick VII, Margrave of Baden-Durlach
Friedrich VII Magnus of Zähringen was the Margrave of Baden-Durlach from 1677 until his death. Born at Ueckermünde, he was the son of Margrave Friedrich VI and Countess Palatine Christine Magdalene of Cleeburg, he succeeded his father as Margrave in 1677. He got involved in the Nine Years' War and after the Treaty of Ryswick in 1697, he received the title of Margrave of Basel, although it was only a formal title and he never had any real power over the Swiss city, he again took part as one of the leaders of the Imperial Army. He died at Durlach in 1709 and was succeeded in the Margraviate by his son, Charles III William, Margrave of Baden-Durlach He married Duchess Augusta Marie of Holstein-Gottorp on 15 May 1670 in Husum, they had the following children: Frederick Magnus Frederica Augusta Christina Sophia Klaudia Magdalene Elisabeth Catherine, in 1701 she married Count Johann Friedrich von Leiningen-Hartenburg. Her son Frederick magnus was the father of 1st Prince of Leiningen. Charles III William, Margrave of Baden-Durlach, he married Magdalena Wilhelmine of Württemberg Johanna Elisabeth, in 1697 she married Eberhard Louis, Duke of Württemberg Albertine Frederica, in 1704 she married Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin Christopher, he married Marie Christine Felizitas zu Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg-Heidesheim Charlotte Sophia Marie Anna
Amorbach is a town in the Miltenberg district in the Regierungsbezirk of Lower Franconia in Bavaria, with some 4,000 inhabitants. It is situated in the northeastern part of the Odenwald; the town began as a Benedictine monastery, which bit by bit grew into a settlement until in 1253 it was raised to the status of a town. Over the years, the town changed hands several times, it was part of the Bishopric of Würzburg until 1656, when it became part of the Archbishopric of Mainz. As a result of the 1803 German Mediatisation the Archbishopric of Mainz was secularized, Amorbach became the residence town of the short-lived Principality of Leiningen. Only in 1816 did it become part of the Kingdom of Bavaria. In 1965, Amorbach attained the status of climatic spa; the following settlements have been amalgamated with the town: 1 April 1973: Boxbrunn 1 January 1975: Beuchen 1 January 1976: Neudorf 1 January 1976: Reichartshausen Today Amorbach relies on the tourist business with its state recognition as an climatic spa and its many Baroque buildings.
Amorbach is the family seat of the princely Haus zu Leiningen. In 1992, the town was awarded the Europa Nostra Medal; the Benedictine abbey owned by the princely Haus zu Leiningen with its library, the abbey church with its Stumm organ draw thousands of visitors each year. The late-Baroque hall church St. Gangolf replaced an earlier one, St. Gangolf and St. Sebastian, documented for 1182, it was built in 1751-3 by local Oberamtmann Johann Franz Wolfgang Damian von Ostein and his brother and Archbishop, Johann Friedrich Karl von Ostein. The design was based on plans by Anselm Franz von Ritter zu Groenesteyn, building work was supervised by his apprentice Alexander Jakob Schmidt; the design was inspired by St. Peter's Church at Mainz; the interior reflects the onset of the Neoclassical style. Ceiling frescoes by Johannes Zick show the lives of St. Gangolf and Saint Sebastian as well as King David as the "father" of Solomon's Temple. Oil paintings in the choir by Konrad Huber depict the legendary beginnings of Amorbach.
The marble high altar was made by Georg Schrantz. The cross by J. B. Berg dates from 1808; the side altars were used in the predecessor building. The organ dates from 1720, but was located at Neustadt am Main Abbey until 1806, when it was bought by the Amorbach parish; the church has two pulpits, made from stucco by Antonio Rossi. St. Gangolf is the Catholic parish church of Amorbach; the Sammlung Berger mit Teekannenmuseum is a museum of art and teapots. Besides impressive exhibits of modern art by Arman, Michael Buthe, Christo, Keith Haring, Otto Reichart, Rebecca Horn, Yves Klein, Roy Lichtenstein, Nam June Paik, Niki de Saint-Phalle, H. A. Schult, Daniel Spoerri, Ben Vautier, Dick Higgins and others, the museum shows a teapot collection of 2,467 teapots from throughout the world and 500 miniature teapots; the tithe barn in Amorbach, built in 1488, has for five hundred years played a central role in the town. Built to store tithes in the form of produce for the prince, it was – after extensive remodelling in the 1960s – run as a cinema.
The Kulturkreis Zehntscheuer Amorbach e. V. which outfitted the building in 1991 as a cabaret theatre maintains and renovates the building, which stands in the historical town centre. In 2001, this club bought the tithe barn. Amorbach Abbey Concerts in the former Benedictine abbey church Cabaret programme at the cabaret theatre Zehntscheuer Amorbach Daily at 12:00 and 15:00, the Stumm organ with its 5,116 pipes is played Each year on Mother’s Day, the so-called Gangolfsritt, a procession of horses through the town, takes place. In Amorbach, Bundesstraße 469 meets Bundesstraße 47; the railway station lies on the Seckach−Miltenberg railway line known as the Madonnenlandbahn. Karl-Ernst-Gymnasium Amorbach Theresia-Gerhardinger-Realschule. Johann Amerbach and publisher in printing’s early days. Princess Feodora of Leiningen. Franz Joseph von Stein, Bishop of Würzburg and Archbishop of Munich and Freising. Oskar Martin-Amorbach and professor in Munich and Berlin. Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
Norbert Schmitt “Amorbacher Familienbuch 1618-1913, mit Angaben über die Familien von Amorbach, Beuchen.
Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, was one of the ruling Thuringian dukes of the House of Wettin. As progenitor of a line of Coburg princes who, in the 19th and 20th centuries, mounted the thrones of several European realms, he is a patrilineal ancestor of, among others, Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, King Philippe of Belgium and King Simeon II of Bulgaria, he was the eldest son of Ernest Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Sophia Antonia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. He received a private and comprehensive education and became an art connoisseur. Francis initiated a major collection of books and illustrations for the duchy in 1775, which expanded to a 300,000-picture collection of copperplate engravings housed in the Veste Coburg, he was commissioned into the allied army in 1793 when his country was invaded by the Revolutionary armies of France. The allied forces included Hanoverians and the British, he fought in several actions against the French. Francis succeeded his father as reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld in 1800.
In the discharge of his father's debts the Schloss Rosenau had passed out of the family but in 1805 he bought back the property as a summer residence for the ducal family. Emperor Francis II dissolved the Holy Roman Empire on 6 August 1806, after its defeat by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz. Duke Francis died 9 December 1806. On 15 December 1806, Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, along with the other Ernestine duchies, entered the Confederation of the Rhine as the Duke and his ministers planned. In Hildburghausen on 6 March 1776, Francis married Princess Sophie of Saxe-Hildburghausen, a daughter of his Ernestine kinsman, Duke Ernst Friedrich II, she died on 28 October 1776, only seven months after her wedding. There were no children born from this marriage. In Ebersdorf on 13 June 1777, Francis married Countess Augusta Reuss-Lobenstein-Ebersdorf, they had ten children, seven of whom survived to adulthood: His male-line descendants established ruling houses in Belgium, United Kingdom and Bulgaria, while retaining the duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha until 1918.
His son Leopold ruled as Leopold I of the Belgians. A grandson reigned jure uxoris as King Ferdinand II of Portugal while a great-grandson named Ferdinand became the first modern king of Bulgaria. One of his granddaughters was Empress Carlota of Mexico, while another was Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom; the latter's son, Edward VII, a patrilineal as well as matrilineal great-grandson of Francis, inaugurated the male line which wore the British crown until the accession of Queen Elizabeth II in 1952. August Beck: Franz Friedrich Anton, Herzog von Sachsen-Koburg-Saalfeld. In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie vol. VII, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1877, p. 296. Carl-Christian Dressel: Die Entwicklung von Verfassung und Verwaltung in Sachsen-Coburg 1800 - 1826 im Vergleich, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-428-12003-1. Christian Kruse: Franz Friedrich Anton von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld: 1750 - 1806, in: Jahrbuch der Coburger Landesstiftung, Coburg 1995
Carl Friedrich Wilhelm, 1st Prince of Leiningen
Carl Friedrich Wilhelm, Prince of Leiningen was a German nobleman. He was the eldest son of Friedrich Magnus, Count of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Hartenburg and his wife Countess Anna Christine Eleonore von Wurmbrand-Stuppach, succeeded his father on the latter's death, 28 October 1756. On 3 July 1779, he was made a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, becoming the first Prince of Leiningen. On 24 June 1749, he married his first cousin Christiane Wilhelmine Luise, daughter of Wilhelm Carl Ludwig, Count of Solms-Rödelheim and Assenheim, by his wife Countess Maria Margareta Leopolda von Wurmbrand-Stuppach, she died on 6 January 1803, having borne him a son and three daughters: Elisabeth Christiane Marianne, born 27 October 1753, married 17 May 1768 to Count Karl Ludwig of Salm, died 16 February 1792. Charlotte Luise Polyxena, born 27 May 1755, married 1 September 1776 to Count Franz of Erbach-Erbach, died 13 January 1785. Karoline Sophie Wilhelmine, born 4 April 1757, married 21 September 1773 Count Friedrich Magnus of Solms-Wildenfels, died 18 March 1832.
Emich Carl, born 27 September 1763, succeeded his father as second Prince of Leiningen. In 1801, he was deprived of his lands on the left bank of the Rhine, namely Hardenburg and Durkheim, by France, but in 1803 received the secularized Amorbach Abbey as an ample compensation for these losses. Hitherto his titles were: Imperial Prince of Leiningen, Count palatine of Mosbach, Count of Düren, Lord of Miltenberg, Bischofsheim, Schüpf and Lauda. A few years the short-lived Principality of Leiningen at Amorbach was mediatized. Sources include: Marek, Miroslav. "leiningen/leiningen6.html". Genealogy. EU
Leiningen is the name of an old German noble family whose lands lay principally in Alsace and the Palatinate. Various branches of this family developed over the centuries and ruled counties with Imperial immediacy. Most of these counties were annexed by the First French Republic in 1793, after French troops conquered the Left Bank of the Rhine during the War of the First Coalition. Several family branches subsequently received secularized abbeys as compensation, but shortly afterwards, these new counties were mediatized and the family lost its immediacy. Today, the only existing branch is that of the Princes of Leiningen; the first count of Leiningen about whom anything definite is known was a certain Emich II. He built Leiningen Castle, now known as "Old Leiningen Castle", around 1100 to 1110. Nearby Höningen Abbey was built around 1120 as the family's burial place; this family became extinct in the male line when Count Frederick I died about 1220. Frederick I's sister, married Simon II, Count of Saarbrücken.
One of Liutgarde's sons named Frederick, inherited the lands of the counts of Leiningen, he took their arms and their name as Frederick II. He became known as a Minnesinger, one of his songs was included in the Codex Manesse. Before 1212, he built himself a new castle called Hardenburg, about 10 kilometers south of Altleiningen; this was outside the county of Leiningen on the territory of Limburg Abbey, of which his uncle was the overlord, which caused some trouble. His eldest son, married Gertrude, heiress of the County of Dagsburg, bringing that property into the family, they had no children and Simon's two brothers inherited the county of Leiningen together: Frederick III inherited Dagsburg and Emich IV Landeck Castle. Frederick III, who disliked sharing Leiningen castle with his brother, had a new castle built in 1238–41 about 5 kilometres northeast of Leiningen, called Neuleiningen Castle. Frederick III's son, Frederick IV, had two sons, who divided the county into Leiningen-Dagsburg and Leiningen-Hardenburg.
Having increased its possessions, the Leiningen family was divided around 1317 into two branches. The elder of these, whose head was a landgrave, died out in 1467. Upon this event, its lands fell to a female, the last landgrave's sister Margaret, wife of Reinhard, Lord of Westerburg, their descendants were known as the family of Leiningen-Westerburg; this family was divided into two branches, those of Leiningen-Westerburg-Alt-Leiningen and Leiningen-Westerburg-Neu-Leiningen, both of which are extinct today. After the French Revolution, the Left Bank of the Rhine was conquered during the War of the First Coalition and annexed by France in 1793; the two counts of Alt - and Neu - Leiningen were jailed in Paris. They lost their territories. In 1803 they were compensated with secularized Ilbenstadt Engelthal Abbey; the German mediatization brought an end to these short-lived counties in 1806, when their territories were divided between the Grand Duchy of Berg, the Grand Duchy of Hesse, Nassau-Weilburg and Nassau-Usingen.
Ilbenstadt Abbey was sold by the House of Leiningen-Westerburg-Altleiningen in 1921, Engelthal Abbey by the heirs of the House of Leiningen-Westerburg-Neuleiningen in 1952. Meanwhile, the younger branch of the Leiningens, known as the family of Leiningen-Hardenburg, was flourishing. On 27 June 1560, this branch was divided into the lines of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Hardenburg, founded by Count Johann Philip, Leiningen-Dagsburg-Heidesheim or Falkenburg, founded by Count Emicho. In 1658 Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg divided into Leiningen-Dagsburg Leiningen-Heidesheim Leiningen-Guntersblum The county of Leiningen-Dagsburg was inherited by Leiningen-Dagsburg-Hardenburg in 1774. Leiningen-Guntersblum was divided between two further side branches: Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg-Guntersblum, deprived of its lands on the left bank of the Rhine by France, but in 1803 received Billigheim as a compensation called Leiningen-Billigheim. In 1845 they acquired Neuburg Castle at Obrigheim; the branch became extinct in 1925.
Leiningen-Heidesheim, which in 1803 received Neudenau and became known as Leiningen-Neudenau. In 1779, the head of the Leiningen-Dagsburg-Hardenburg line was raised to the rank of a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire with the title of Prince of Leiningen. In 1801, this line was deprived of its lands on the left bank of the Rhine by France, but in 1803 it received Amorbach Abbey as an ample compensation for these losses. A few years the Principality of Leiningen at Amorbach was mediatized, its territory is now included in Baden, but in Bavaria and in Hesse. Amorbach Abbey is still today the family seat of the Prince of Leiningen; the second prince of the Leiningen-Dagsburg-Hardenburg line, Prince Emich Charles, married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. After his death in 1814, the princess married Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, a younger son of George III of the United Kingdom, by whom she became the mother of the reigning British Queen Victoria. Since 1991, the head of the princely line has been Prince Andreas.
His eldest brother, Prince Karl Emich was excluded from succession. Note that different sources use different sequence numbers for some of the Counts. For consistency across sources, dates of birth and death are useful. Emicho of Leiningen helped lead the German Crusade, 1096, his relationship to the o
Bad Dürkheim is a spa town in the Rhine-Neckar urban agglomeration, is the seat of the Bad Dürkheim district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Bad Dürkheim lies at the edge of Palatinate Forest on the German Wine Route some 30 km east of Kaiserslautern and just under 20 km west of Ludwigshafen and Mannheim. 15 km to the south lies Neustadt an der Weinstraße. In Bad Dürkheim, Bundesstraßen 37 and 271 cross each other. From west to east through the town flows the river Isenach. Bad Dürkheim's Ortsteile are Grethen, Hausen, Leistadt and Ungstein mit Pfeffingen. Yearly precipitation in Bad Dürkheim is 574 mm, low, falling into the lowest quarter of the precipitation chart for all Germany. Lower figures recorded at only 16% of the German Weather Service's weather stations; the driest month is February. The most rainfall comes in May. In that month, precipitation is. Precipitation varies little. Only 1% of the weather stations record lower seasonal swings. Between 1200 and 500 BC, the area around the eastern end of the Isenach valley was settled by Celts, who built the Heidenmauer, a Celtic ring wall.
The earliest documented appearance of the name of the town is in the Lorsch codex of 1 June 778, as Turnesheim. A letter of enfeoffment from the Bishop of Speyer in 946 mentions Thuringeheim. About 1025, building work on Limburg Abbey, today preserved only as ruins, was begun. Town rights were granted on 1 January 1360, but were withdrawn again in 1471 after Elector Friedrich the Victorious of the Palatinate conquered the town and wrought considerable destruction. After the slow reconstruction, Dürkheim passed to the Counts of Leiningen in 1554. In 1689, the town was completely destroyed when French troops in the Nine Years' War carried out a scorched earth campaign in the Electorate of the Palatinate; this time, reconstruction was swifter, Count Johann Friedrich of Leiningen granted Dürkheim town rights again as early as 1700. In the late 18th century, as the French Revolution was beginning to spread into southwest Germany, Dürkheim, as the Canton of Durkheim, became part of the Department of Mont-Tonnerre.
After the Napoleonic Wars, it ended up along with the rest of the Electorate of the Palatinate's territory on the Rhine's left bank in the Kingdom of Bavaria. For its seven mineral springs, Dürkheim was given the epithet Solbad, in 1904 it was given leave to change its name to Bad Dürkheim. In 1913, the Rhein-Haardtbahn was opened, linking Bad Dürkheim with Mannheim. In 1935, Grethen and Seebach were amalgamated. After 1933 the number of Jews in Bad Dürkheim reduced drastically, due to the economic boycott increasing repression and dehumanization. During the Night of Broken Glass in 1938, the synagogue was plundered; the 19 Jews still surviving here in 1940 were deported to the Gurs concentration camp in October of that year. On 18 March 1945, Bad Dürkheim was badly hit by an Allied air raid in which more than 300 people lost their lives. In Rhineland-Palatinate's administrative reform and Leistadt were amalgamated with Bad Dürkheim on 7 June 1969, as was Ungstein along with its outlying hamlet of Pfeffingen on 22 April 1972.
Moreover, the town, having belonged to the old district of Neustadt an der Weinstraße, became the district seat of the newly formed district of Bad Dürkheim and lay in the newly-formed Regierungsbezirk of Rheinhessen-Pfalz, abolished in 2000. In 2007, 42.8% of the inhabitants were Evangelical, 25.3% Catholic, 12% stated no religion. The rest belonged to other faiths; the council is made up of 32 honorary members, who were most elected at the municipal election held on 25 May 2014, the full-time mayor as chairman. The municipal election held on 25 May 2014 yielded the following results: On the town council, the CDU, the FDP and the Greens form a coalition, making Bad Dürkheim the only town in Germany governed by a so-called Jamaica coalition; this special arrangement was concluded in 1999. It has been twice extended by five years after municipal elections in 2004 and 2009. Wolfgang Lutz was the Mayor of Bad Dürkheim from 2000 to 2015, his successor is Christoph Glogger, elected in July 2015 with 52.83% of the votes.
The German blazon reads: In Silber ein schwarzer Maueranker. This might be rendered in English as: a wall brace sable; the arms go back to a court seal from 1405, which itself was a reference to the arms borne by the Lords of Dürkheim. Between 1540 and 1776, the arms featured a cross and a crozier above the escutcheon, indicating Limburg Abbey's ownership of the town. Paray-le-Monial, Saône-et-Loire, France Wells, England, United Kingdom Kluczbork, Opole Voivodeship, Poland Kempten im Allgäu, Bavaria Bad Berka, Thuringia Michelstadt, Hesse Emmaus, Pennsylvania, USA At the edge of the Palatinate Forest lie the once thriving Limburg Abbey’s ruins. In the 9th century, the Salian Dukes from Worms built a fortress on the Linthberg as their family seat. In the early 11th century, the fortress was converted into a monastery with a basilica, it existed until the mid-16th century. Above the like-named constituent community are spread the castle ruins of Hardenburg. Beginning in the 1
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth