Oskar Piloty was a German chemist. Oskar Piloty was born the son of the painter Karl von Piloty in Munich. Due to the closeness of the Piloty family to the chemist Ludwig Knorr, who married the sister of Oskar Piloty, he started studying chemistry at Adolf von Baeyer's laboratory at the University of Munich in 1888. After failing an exam by Bayer in 1889 he transferred to the University of Würzburg, he and his colleagues speculated. At the University of Würzburg he worked with Emil Fischer on the chemistry of sugars, he received his PhD in 1890. In 1892 he followed Emil Fischer to the University of Berlin. In 1900 his father-in-law offered him a position at the University of Munich, which he accepted though he had a better offer from Emil Fischer, he worked on the structure of natural products such as hemoglobin. Piloty's acid is named after him. Although he was too old to be drafted for World War I, he fought at the Western Front where he was killed during a fight at the Second Battle of Champagne in 1915 near Sommepy.
Carl Harries. "Obituary: Oskar Piloty". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft. 53: A153–A168. Doi:10.1002/cber.19200530948
Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellowship of the Royal Society is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science'. Fellowship of the Society, the oldest scientific academy in continuous existence, is a significant honour, awarded to many eminent scientists from history including Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, Michael Faraday, Ernest Rutherford, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Albert Einstein, Winston Churchill, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Dorothy Hodgkin, Alan Turing and Francis Crick. More fellowship has been awarded to Stephen Hawking, Tim Hunt, Elizabeth Blackburn, Tim Berners-Lee, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Atta-ur Rahman, Andre Geim, James Dyson, Ajay Kumar Sood, Subhash Khot, Elon Musk and around 8,000 others in total, including over 280 Nobel Laureates since 1900; as of October 2018, there are 1689 living Fellows and Honorary Members, of which over 60 are Nobel Laureates.
Fellowship of the Royal Society has been described by The Guardian newspaper as “the equivalent of a lifetime achievement Oscar” with several institutions celebrating their announcement each year. Up to 60 new Fellows and foreign members are elected annually in late April or early May, from a pool of around 700 proposed candidates each year. New Fellows can only be nominated by existing Fellows for one of the fellowships described below: Every year, up to 52 new Fellows are elected from the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth of Nations which make up around 90% of the society; each candidate is considered on their merits and can be proposed from any sector of the scientific community. Fellows are elected for life on the basis of excellence in science and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRS. See Category:Fellows of the Royal Society and Category:Female Fellows of the Royal Society; every year, Fellows elect up to ten new Foreign Members. Like Fellows, Foreign Members are elected for life through peer review on the basis of excellence in science.
As of 2016 there are around 165 Foreign Members, who are entitled to use the post-nominal ForMemRS. See Category:Foreign Members of the Royal Society. Honorary Fellowship is an honorary academic title awarded to candidates who have given distinguished service to the cause of science, but do not have the kind of scientific achievements required of Fellows or Foreign Members. Honorary Fellows include Bill Bryson, Melvyn Bragg, Robin Saxby, David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville and Onora O'Neill. Honorary Fellows are entitled to use the post nominal letters FRS. Others including John Maddox, Patrick Moore and Lisa Jardine were elected as honorary fellows, see Category:Honorary Fellows of the Royal Society. Statute 12 is a legacy mechanism for electing members before official honorary membership existed in 1997. Fellows elected under statute 12 include 4th Earl of Selborne. Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom such as Margaret Thatcher, Neville Chamberlain,Ramsay Macdonald and H. H. Asquith were elected under statute 12, see Category:Fellows of the Royal Society.
The Council of the Royal Society can recommend members of the British Royal Family for election as Royal Fellows of the Royal Society. As of 2016 there are five royal fellows: Charles, Prince of Wales elected 1978 Anne, Princess Royal elected 1987 Prince Edward, Duke of Kent elected 1990 Prince William, Duke of Cambridge elected 2009 Prince Andrew, Duke of York elected 2013Her Majesty the Queen, Elizabeth II is not a Royal Fellow, but provides her patronage to the Society as all reigning British monarchs have done since Charles II of England. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh was elected under statute 12, not as a Royal Fellow; the election of new fellows is announced annually in May, after their nomination and a period of peer-reviewed selection. Each candidate for Fellowship or Foreign Membership is nominated by two Fellows of the Royal Society, who sign a certificate of proposal. Nominations required at least five fellows to support each nomination by the proposer, criticised for establishing an old-boy network and elitist gentlemen's club.
The certificate of election includes a statement of the principal grounds on which the proposal is being made. There is no limit on the number of nominations made each year. In 2015, there were 654 candidates for election as Fellows and 106 candidates for Foreign Membership; the Council of the Royal Society oversees the selection process and appoints 10 subject area committees, known as Sectional Committees, to recommend the strongest candidates for election to Fellowship. The final list of up to 52 Fellowship candidates and up to 10 Foreign Membership candidates is confirmed by the Council in April and a secret ballot of Fellows is held at a meeting in May. A candidate is elected if she secures two-thirds of votes of those Fellows present and voting. A maximum of 18 Fellowships can be allocated to candidates from Physical Sciences and Biological Sciences. A further maximum of 6 can be ‘Honorary’, ‘General’ or ‘Royal’ Fellows. Nominations for Fellowship are peer reviewed by sectional committees, each with 15 members and a chair.
Members of the 10 sectional committees change every 3 years to mitigate in-group bias, each group covers different
Humboldt University of Berlin
Humboldt University of Berlin is a university in the central borough of Mitte in Berlin, Germany. It was established by Frederick William III on the initiative of Wilhelm von Humboldt, Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Ernst Daniel Schleiermacher as the University of Berlin in 1809, opened in 1810, making it the oldest of Berlin's four universities. From 1810 until its closure in 1945, it was named Friedrich Wilhelm University. During the Cold War the university found itself in East Berlin and was de facto split in two when the Free University of Berlin opened in West Berlin; the university received its current name in honour of Alexander and Wilhelm von Humboldt in 1949. The university is divided into nine faculties, including its medical school shared with the Free University of Berlin, has a student enrollment of around 32,000 students, offers degree programmes in some 189 disciplines from undergraduate to postdoctorate level, its main campus is located on the Unter den Linden boulevard in central Berlin.
The university is known worldwide for pioneering the Humboldtian model of higher education, which has influenced other European and Western universities, the university has been called "the mother of all modern universities."As of 2017, the university has been associated with 55 Nobel Prize winners, is considered one of the best universities in Europe as well as one of the most prestigious universities in the world for arts and humanities. It was regarded as the world's preeminent university for the natural sciences during the 19th and early 20th century, is linked to major breakthroughs in physics and other sciences by its professors such as Albert Einstein. Former faculty and notable alumni include eminent philosophers, artists, politicians, mathematicians and Heads of State; the University of Berlin was established on 16 August 1809, on the initiative of the liberal Prussian educational politician Wilhelm von Humboldt by King Friedrich Wilhelm III, during the period of the Prussian Reform Movement.
The university was located in a palace constructed from 1748-1766 for the late Prince Henry, the younger brother of Frederick the Great. After his widow and her ninety-member staff moved out, the first unofficial lectures were given in the building in the winter of 1809. Humboldt faced great resistance to his ideas, he submitted his resignation to the King in April 1810, was not present when the school opened that fall. The first students were admitted on 6 October 1810, the first semester started on 10 October 1810, with 256 students and 52 lecturers in faculties of law, medicine and philosophy under rector Theodor Schmalz; the university celebrates 15 October 1810 as the date of its opening. From 1828 to 1945, the school was named the Friedrich Wilhelm University, in honor of its founder. Ludwig Feuerbach one of the students, made a comment on the university in 1826: "There is no question here of drinking and plesant communal outings. Compared to this temple of work, the other universities appear like public houses."The university has been home to many of Germany's greatest thinkers of the past two centuries, among them the subjective idealist philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte, the theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher, the absolute idealist philosopher G.
W. F. Hegel, the Romantic legal theorist Friedrich Carl von Savigny, the pessimist philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, the objective idealist philosopher Friedrich Schelling, cultural critic Walter Benjamin, famous physicists Albert Einstein and Max Planck; the founders of Marxist theory Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels attended the university, as did poet Heinrich Heine, novelist Alfred Döblin, founder of structuralism Ferdinand de Saussure, German unifier Otto von Bismarck, Communist Party of Germany founder Karl Liebknecht, African American Pan Africanist W. E. B. Du Bois and European unifier Robert Schuman, as well as the influential surgeon Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach in the early half of the 1800s; the structure of German research-intensive universities served as a model for institutions like Johns Hopkins University. Further, it has been claimed that "the'Humboldtian' university became a model for the rest of Europe with its central principle being the union of teaching and research in the work of the individual scholar or scientist."
In addition to the strong anchoring of traditional subjects, such as science, philosophy, history and medicine, the university developed to encompass numerous new scientific disciplines. Alexander von Humboldt, brother of the founder William, promoted the new learning. With the construction of modern research facilities in the second half of the 19th Century teaching of the natural sciences began. Famous researchers, such as the chemist August Wilhelm Hofmann, the physicist Hermann von Helmholtz, the mathematicians Ernst Eduard Kummer, Leopold Kronecker, Karl Weierstrass, the physicians Johannes Peter Müller, Albrecht von Graefe, Rudolf Virchow and Robert Koch, contributed to Berlin University's scientific fame. During this period of enlargement, the university expanded to incorporate other separate colleges in Berlin. An example would be the Pépinière and the Collegium Medico-chirurgicum. In 1717, King Friedrich I had built a quarantine house for Plague at the city gates, which in 1727 was rechristened by the "soldier king" Friedrich
University of Bonn
The University of Bonn is a public research university located in Bonn, Germany. It was founded in its present form as the Rhein University on 18 October 1818 by Frederick William III, as the linear successor of the Kurkölnische Akademie Bonn, founded in 1777; the University of Bonn offers a large number of undergraduate and graduate programs in a range of subjects and has 544 professors and 32,500 students. Its library holds more than five million volumes; as of August 2018, among its notable alumni and researchers are 10 Nobel Laureates, 4 Fields Medalists, twelve Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize winners as well as August Kekulé, Friedrich Nietzsche, Karl Marx, Heinrich Heine, Prince Albert, Pope Benedict XVI, Frederick III, Max Ernst, Konrad Adenauer, Joseph Schumpeter. The university's forerunner was the Kurkölnische Akademie Bonn, founded in 1777 by Maximilian Frederick of Königsegg-Rothenfels, the prince-elector of Cologne. In the spirit of the Enlightenment the new academy was nonsectarian.
The academy had schools for theology, law and general studies. In 1784 Emperor Joseph II granted the academy the right to award academic degrees, turning the academy into a university; the academy was closed in 1798 after the left bank of the Rhine was occupied by France during the French Revolutionary Wars. The Rhineland became a part of Prussia in 1815 as a result of the Congress of Vienna. King Frederick William III of Prussia thereafter decreed the establishment of a new university in the new province on 18 October 1818. At this time there was no university in the Rhineland, as all three universities that existed until the end of the 18th century were closed as a result of the French occupation; the Kurkölnische Akademie Bonn was one of these three universities. The other two were the Roman Catholic University of Cologne and the Protestant University of Duisburg; the new Rhein University was founded on 18 October 1818 by Frederick William III. It was the sixth Prussian University, founded after the universities in Greifswald, Berlin, Königsberg and Breslau.
The new university was shared between the two Christian denominations. This was one of the reasons why Bonn, with its tradition of a nonsectarian university, was chosen over Cologne and Duisburg. Apart from a school of Roman Catholic theology and a school of Protestant theology, the university had schools for medicine and philosophy. 35 professors and eight adjunct professors were teaching in Bonn. The university constitution was adopted in 1827. In the spirit of Wilhelm von Humboldt the constitution emphasized the autonomy of the university and the unity of teaching and research. Similar to the University of Berlin, founded in 1810, the new constitution made the University of Bonn a modern research university. Only one year after the inception of the Rhein University the dramatist August von Kotzebue was murdered by Karl Ludwig Sand, a student at the University of Jena; the Carlsbad Decrees, introduced on 20 September 1819 led to a general crackdown on universities, the dissolution of the Burschenschaften and the introduction of censorship laws.
One victim was the author and poet Ernst Moritz Arndt, freshly appointed university professor in Bonn, was banned from teaching. Only after the death of Frederick William III in 1840 was he reinstated in his professorship. Another consequence of the Carlsbad Decrees was the refusal by Frederick William III to confer the chain of office, the official seal and an official name to the new university; the Rhein University was thus nameless until 1840, when the new King of Prussia, Frederick William IV gave it the official name Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität. Despite these problems, the university attracted famous scholars and students. At the end of the 19th century the university was known as the Prinzenuniversität, as many of the sons of the king of Prussia studied here. In 1900, the university had 68 chairs, 23 adjunct chairs, two honorary professors, 57 Privatdozenten and six lecturers. Since 1896, women were allowed to attend classes as guest auditors at universities in Prussia. In 1908 the University of Bonn became coeducational.
The growth of the university came to a halt with World War I. Financial and economic problems in Germany in the aftermath of the war resulted in reduced government funding for the university; the University of Bonn responded by trying to find industrial sponsors. In 1930 the university adopted a new constitution. For the first time students were allowed to participate in the self-governing university administration. To that effect the student council Astag was founded in the same year. Members of the student council were elected in a secret ballot. After the Nazi takeover of power in 1933, the Gleichschaltung transformed the university into a Nazi educational institution. According to the Führerprinzip the autonomous and self-governening administration of the university was replaced by a hierarchy of leaders resembling the military, with the university president being subordinate to the ministry of education. Jewish professors and students and political opponents were ostracized and expelled from the university
University of Erlangen–Nuremberg
Friedrich–Alexander University Erlangen–Nürnberg is a public research university in the cities of Erlangen and Nuremberg in Bavaria, Germany. The name Friedrich–Alexander comes from the university's first founder Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, its benefactor Christian Frederick Charles Alexander, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach. FAU is the second largest state university in the state of Bavaria, it has 5 faculties, 23 departments/schools, 30 clinical departments, 19 autonomous departments, 656 professors, 3,404 members of academic staff and 13,000 employees. In winter semester 2014/15 around 39,085 students enrolled in the university in 239 fields of study, with about 2/3 studying at the Erlangen campus and the remaining 1/3 at the Nuremberg campus; these statistics put FAU in the list of top 10 largest universities in Germany. In 2013, 5251 students graduated from the university and 663 doctorates and 50 post-doctoral theses were registered. Moreover, FAU received 171 million Euro external funding in the same year, making it one of the strongest third-party funded universities in Germany.
In 2006 and 2007, as part of the national excellence initiative, FAU was chosen by the German Research Foundation as one of the winners in the German Universities Excellence Initiative. FAU is a member of DFG and the Top Industrial Managers for Europe network. In Academic Ranking of World Universities for year 2014, FAU ranked second among German universities in Engineering/Technology and Computer Sciences group for all four ranking parameters TOP, FUN, HiCi and PUB; the university was founded in 1742, in Bayreuth by Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, moved to Erlangen in 1743. Christian Frederick Charles Alexander, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach provided significant support to the early university. From the beginning, the university was a Protestant institution, but over time it secularized. During the Nazi era, the university was one of the first that had a majority of Nazi supporters in the student council. In 1961, the business college in Nuremberg was merged with the university in Erlangen, so now the combined institution has a physical presence in the two cities.
An engineering school was inaugurated in 1966. In 1972, the school of education in Nuremberg became part of the university. Below is a short timeline of FAU from its inception to its present form: 1700–1704: The Schloss of the Margraves at Erlangen is built. 1743: Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, issues an edict whereby the university founded in Bayreuth is transferred to Erlangen. It has the four faculties of Protestant Theology, Jurisprudence and Philosophy. 1769: The University at Erlangen is given the new name of Friedrich-Alexander-Universität in honour of Alexander, Margrave of Ansbach and Bayreuth. 1818: The library of the University of Altdorf, dissolved in 1809, is moved to Erlangen. 1824: The first hospital is built. 1825: The university moves into the Schloss. 1920: The WiSo Faculty is established. 1927: Science is taken out of the Faculty of Arts thus creating the new Faculty of Science. 1961: The FAU acquires a further faculty through merger with the Nuremberg College of Economics and Social Sciences.
The university's name is now Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg. 1966: The Faculty of Engineering is established. 1972: The Teacher Training College in Nuremberg is incorporated into the Faculty of Education. 1993: The FAU celebrates its 250th anniversary. 1994: The Free State of Bavaria purchases for the university 4.4 hectares of land in Erlangen owned by the US military. The area is now called Röthelheim Campus. 2000: The Bavaria-California Technology Centre opens its headquarters at the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg. 2000: Inauguration of the Research Centre in Clinical Molecular Biology in Erlangen. 2001: Opening of the Röthelheim Campus on the site of the old artillery barracks. 2004: Inauguration of the new building at the WiSo Faculty of Business Administration, Economics & Social Sciences in Nuremberg. FAU is the first German university to establish a branch campus in Busan in the Republic of Korea. In November 2009, its campus project received approval from the Korean Ministry of Education and Technology.
The FAU Busan Branch Campus offers a Graduate School with a master's degree program in Chemical and Bioengineering and a research center. In 2014, the university announced its intention of working toward making the Busan-Jinhae Free Economic Zone an educational hub. To this end, FAU Busan works internationally with various universities; the University Library Erlangen-Nürnberg is the library system of the Friedrich Alexander University and is a regional library for the region of Middle Franconia. As an academic universal library, it offers its users a wide range of specialist literature from all faculties and a variety of services. With 5.4 million volumes, it is Bavaria's largest library outside the state capital Munich. Large parts of the media stock are accessible in interregional lending; the University Library is a member of the Bibliotheksverbund Bayern. In February 2007, the senate of the university decided upon a restructuring into five faculties. Since October 2007, the FAU consists of: Faculty of Humanities, Social Sciences, Theology Faculty of Business and Law Faculty of Medicine Faculty of Sciences Faculty of
Fischer oxazole synthesis
The Fischer oxazole synthesis is a chemical synthesis of an oxazole from a cyanohydrin and an aldehyde in the presence of anhydrous hydrochloric acid. This method was discovered by Emil Fischer in 1896; the cyanohydrin itself is derived from a separate aldehyde. The reactants of the oxazole synthesis itself, the cyanohydrin of an aldehyde and the other aldehyde itself, are present in equimolar amounts. Both reactants have an aromatic group, which appear at specific positions on the resulting heterocycle. A more specific example of Fischer oxazole synthesis involves reacting mandelic acid nitrile with benzaldehyde to give 2,5-diphenyl-oxazole. Fischer developed the Fischer oxazole synthesis during his time at Berlin University; the Fischer oxazole synthesis was one of the first syntheses developed to produce 2,5-disubstituted oxazoles. The Fischer oxazole synthesis is a type of dehydration reaction which can occur under mild conditions in a rearrangement of the groups that would not seem possible.
The reaction occurs by dissolving the reactants in dry ether and passing through the solution dry, gaseous hydrogen chloride. The product, the 2,5-disubstituted oxazole, precipitates as the hydrochloride and can be converted to the free base by the addition of water or by boiling with alcohol; the cyanohydrins and aldehydes used for the synthesis are aromatic, however there have been instances where aliphatic compounds have been used. The first step of the mechanism is the addition of gaseous HCl to the cyanohydrin 1; the cyanohydrin abstracts the hydrogen from HCl while the chloride ion attacks the carbon in the cyano group. This first step results in the formation of an iminochloride intermediate 2 as the hydrochloride salt; this intermediate reacts with the aldehyde. The following step results in an SN2 attack followed by the loss water to give a chloro-oxazoline intermediate 4. Next is the tautomerization of the a ring proton; the last step involves an elimination and the loss of an HCl molecule to form the product 6, the 2,5-diaryloxazole.
Diarylazoles are common structural motifs in both natural products and drug candidates, however they are difficult to synthesize. Diaryloxazoles are prepared through the Fischer oxazole synthesis or Robinson-Gabriel synthesis, where the oxazole ring is constructed via either synthesis; the Fischer oxazole synthesis has been useful in the synthesis of 2-5-phenyloxazole starting with benzaldehyde cyanohydrin and 4-bromobenzaldehyde. However, oxazole ring chlorination occurs to give 2,5-bis-4-chlorooxazole 7 along with 2,5-bis-4-oxazolidinone 8; the latter compound is in general a by-product. Another useful example is the one pot two-step synthesis of halfordinol, a parent compound for Rutaceae alkaloids; the initial steps follow the Fischer oxazole synthesis, although the acid-catalyzed cyclization occurs in two steps rather than one, which ensures the formation of the di-chloro intermediate, preventing formation of the regioisomer. In recent research, a reconsideration of the Fischer oxazole synthesis has led to the synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted oxazoles from aldehydes and α-hydroxy-amides.
However, unlike the Fischer oxazole synthesis, the new method is not limited to diaryloxazoles
Julius Tafel was a Swiss chemist and electrochemist. He worked first with Hermann Emil Fischer on the field of organic chemistry, but changed to electrochemistry after his work with Wilhelm Ostwald, he is known for the discovery of an electrosynthetic rearrangement reaction of various alkylated ethyl acetoacetates to form hydrocarbons, now called the Tafel rearrangement, the Tafel equation, which relates the rate of an electrochemical reaction to the overpotential. He is credited for the discovery of the catalytic mechanism of hydrogen evolution. Tafel continued to write book reviews until his death. Tafel suffered from insomnia and had a complete nervous breakdown, he committed suicide in Munich in 1918. Media related to Julius Tafel at Wikimedia Commons "Julius Tafel". Hebrew University of Jerusalem Institute of Chemistry. Archived from the original on 2007-12-05. Julius Tafel, Hans Hahl. "Vollständige Reduktion des Benzylacetessigesters". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft. 40: 3312–3318.
Doi:10.1002/cber.190704003102. Bruno Emmert. "Julius Tafel". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft. 51: 1686–1687. Doi:10.1002/cber.19180510254. K. Müller. "Julius Tafel". J. Res. Inst. Catalysis, Hokkaido Univ. 17: 54–75. Julius Tafel. "Julius Tafel". Z. Phys. Chem. 50: 668, 676, 689. G. T. Burstein. "A Century of Tafel's Equation: 1905–2005 A Commemorative Issue of Corrosion Science". Corrosion Science. 47: 2858–2870. Doi:10.1016/j.corsci.2005.07.002