Documenta is an exhibition of contemporary art which takes place every five years in Kassel, Germany. This first documenta featured many artists who are considered to have had a significant influence on modern art. The more recent documentas feature art from all continents, nonetheless most of it is site-specific, every documenta is limited to 100 days of exhibition, which is why it is often referred to as the museum of 100 days. Documenta is not a selling exhibition and it often coincides with three other major art world events, the Venice Biennale, Art Basel and Skulptur Projekte Münster. The name of the exhibition is an invented word, the term is supposed to demonstrate the intention of every exhibition to be a documentation of modern art which was not available for the German public during the Nazi era. Each edition of documenta has commissioned its own identity, most of which have conformed to the typographic style of solely using lowercase letters. Initiator of the first documenta was art professor and designer Arnold Bode from Kassel, originally planned as a secondary event to accompany the Bundesgartenschau, he achieved to attract more than 130,000 visitors in 1955.
Therefore, abstract art, in particular the paintings of the 1920s and 1930s were the focus of interest in this exhibition. Over time, the focus shifted to contemporary art, at first, the show was limited on works from Europe, but it soon covered works of artists from the Americas and Asia. Documenta, the first ever to turn a profit, featured a selection of Pop Art, Minimal Art, also, it devoted a large section to the work of Adolf Wolfli, the great Swiss outsider, unknown. Joseph Beuys performed repeatedly under the auspices of his utopian Organization for Direct Democracy, the 1987 documenta show signaled another important shift with the elevation of design to the realm of art – showing an openness to postmodern design. In 2012, dOCUMENTA was described as rdently feminist and multimedia in approach and including works by dead artists, Documenta typically gives its artists at least two years to conceive and produce their projects, so the works are often elaborate and intellectually complex.
However, the participants are not publicised before the very opening of the exhibition. At dOCUMENTA, the official list of artists was not released until the day the show opened, even though curators have often claimed to have gone outside the art market in their selection, participants have always included established artists. In the dOCUMENTA, for example, art critic Jerry Saltz identified more than a third of the represented by the renowned Marian Goodman Gallery in the show. The first four documentas, organized by Arnold Bode, established the exhibitions international credentials, since the fifth documenta, a new artistic director has been named for each documenta exhibition by a committee of experts. Documenta 8 was put together in two instead of the usual five. The original directors, Edy de Wilde and Harald Szeemann, were unable to get along and they were replaced by Manfred Schneckenburger, Edward F. Fry, Wulf Herzogenrath, Armin Zweite, and Vittorio Fagone
German National Library
The German National Library is the central archival library and national bibliographic centre for the Federal Republic of Germany. The German National Library maintains co-operative external relations on a national and international level, for example, it is the leading partner in developing and maintaining bibliographic rules and standards in Germany and plays a significant role in the development of international library standards. The cooperation with publishers is regulated by law since 1935 for the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig, duties are shared between the facilities in Leipzig and Frankfurt am Main, with each center focusing its work in specific specialty areas. A third facility has been the Deutsches Musikarchiv Berlin, which deals with all music-related archiving, since 2010 the Deutsches Musikarchiv is located in Leipzig as an integral part of the facility there. During the German revolutions of 1848 various booksellers and publishers offered their works to the Frankfurt Parliament for a parliamentary library, the library, led by Johann Heinrich Plath, was termed the Reichsbibliothek.
After the failure of the revolution the library was abandoned and the stock of books already in existence was stored at the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg. In 1912, the town of Leipzig, seat of the annual Leipzig Book Fair, the Kingdom of Saxony, starting January 1,1913, all publications in German were systematically collected. In the same year, Dr. Gustav Wahl was elected as the first director, the Federal state representatives of the book trade in the American zone agreed to the proposal. The city of Frankfurt agreed to support the planned archive library with personnel, the US military government gave its approval. The Library began its work in the room of the former Rothschild library. As a result, there were two libraries in Germany, which assumed the duties and function of a library for the GDR. Two national bibliographic catalogues almost identical in content were published annually, with the reunification of Germany on 3 October 1990, the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig and the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt am Main were merged into a new institution, The German Library.
The Law regarding the German National Library came into force on 29 June 2006, the expansion of the collection brief to include online publications set the course for collecting and storing such publications as part of Germanys cultural heritage. The Librarys highest management body, the Administrative Council, was expanded to include two MPs from the Bundestag, the law changed the name of the library and its buildings in Leipzig, Frankfurt am Main and Berlin to Deutsche Nationalbibliothek. In July 2000, the DMA assumed the role as repository for GEMA, Gesellschaft für musikalische Aufführungs- und mechanische Vervielfältigungsrechte, since then, music publishers only have to submit copies to DMA, which covers both national archiving and copyright registration. The 210,000 works of printed music previously held by GEMA were transferred to DMA, additionally included in the project were 30 German-language emigrant publications German-language exile journals 1933–1945, consisting of around 100,000 pages.
These collections were put online in 2004 and were some of the most frequently visited sites of the German National Library, in June 2012 the German National Library discontinued access to both collections on its website for legal reasons. The digitised versions are available for use in the reading rooms of the German National Library in Leipzig and Frankfurt am Main only
Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia
The parliament is the central legislative body in the political system of North Rhine-Westphalia. In addition to passing of laws, its most important tasks are the election of the Minister-President of the state, the current parties of government are a coalition of the Social Democratic Party and the Alliance 90/The Greens, supporting the cabinet of Minister-President Hannelore Kraft. The last state election took place on 13 May 2012, the State Parliament is the central legislative body of the state. It establishes or changes laws that fall within its authority, which includes the regulation of education, police matters. Bills can be brought before the parliament by a group or a group of at least seven members of parliament. Additionally, the government itself can bring relevant bill proposals to parliament for consideration. In practice, most bill proposals originate from the government and these generally are detailed proposals submitted in writing. If necessary, the proposal will be delivered to external experts that are in contact with lobby groups.
The specific parliamentary committees will pass the bill with recommended decisions back to the parliament at large for a second reading. At this stage, members of parliament again make suggestions regarding the bill, each member has the ability to make suggestions to change the bill, and afterwards, the assembly will vote on each proposed amendment individually before finally voting on the entire bill. Bills are enacted by majority vote, as the constitution does not require any more stringent criteria for passage, the parliament operates by a quorum decision making process, meaning that only half of its legal members must be present. Constitutional amendments and the budget must go through the process three times, instead of the standard two. For any proposed legislature, a reading, deliberation, or committee counseling can be requested either by a party or by at least a quarter of the assembly. The President of the Parliament delivers each ratified law to the Minister-President, the law enters into force after it is written in the Law and Ordinance Record for the State of North Rhine-Westphalia.
Referendums in Germany are similar to bill proposals from parliament and the government in that they can be submitted by the people to parliament to undergo the same legislative process. If parliament rejects the referendum, a plebiscite is undertaken in which the people at large can vote, a successful plebiscite leads to the referendum being passed as law. A plebiscite can be enacted at the request of the government, in practice, this form of direct democracy does not play a large role in the legislative process. The authority of the parliament in numerous legal areas has waned in the last few decades
Jonkheer Willem Jacob Henri Berend Sandberg known as Willem Sandberg was a Dutch typographer, museum curator, and member of the Dutch resistance during World War II. Sandberg was born in Amersfoort, the Netherlands in 1897 and studied art in Amsterdam and he became a follower of the Mazdaznan movement. As a young man he traveled, serving as an apprentice to a printer in Herrliberg, in 1927, he visited Vienna, where he studied Otto Neuraths Isotype system at the Gesellschafts- und Wirtschaftsmuseum in Wien. At this time, he visited the Dessau Bauhaus and met Naum Gabo. Returning to Amsterdam, Sandberg started work as a designer, utilizing his printing skills. In 1928, he started a relationship with the Stedelijk Museum, and in 1932 became a member of VANK. He soon joined the committee determined the exhibitions of the museum. From 1937 to 1941, he served as the curator of modern art. During the Second World War, Sandberg was active in the Dutch resistance movement, preparing forged documents for Jews and others wanted by the Gestapo.
Other prominent individuals in the Raad van Verzet included painter and author Willem Arondeus, sculptor Gerrit van der Veen, cellist Frieda Belinfante, within a short time, the Nazis began to expose the false documents by comparing the names with those in the local population registry. To hinder the Nazis, on 27 March 1943, Sandberg was among those who took part in planning the bombing of the Amsterdam Public Records Office, thousands of files were destroyed, and the attempt to compare forged documents with the registry was hindered. Arondeus and ten others were arrested and executed by firing squad. Sandberg spent 15 months in hiding and avoided arrest and his wife and son, were arrested and incarcerated for several months. For his participation in the movement and helping to save the lives of Jews during the war. During his tenure as curator of the Stedelijk Museum, Sandberg expanded the museum and developed new exhibition techniques and he applied his graphic design and typography skills to over 300 catalogues.
Sandberg retired from his position as curator in 1962, in his retirement, he served on the committees for the Beaubourg in Paris and the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. 1, pp. 64–77, MIT Press Marcel Janco, Portrait of Willem Sandberg, The Israel Museum Collection Works by or about Willem Sandberg in libraries
Ibiza is an island in the Mediterranean Sea off the east coast of Spain. It is 150 kilometres from the city of Valencia and it is the third largest of the Balearic Islands, an autonomous community of Spain. Its largest settlements are Ibiza Town, Santa Eulària des Riu and its highest point, called Sa Talaiassa, is 475 metres above sea level. The islands government and the Spanish Tourist Office have been working to promote more family-oriented tourism, the port in Ibiza Town is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Ibiza and the island of Formentera to its south are called the Pine Islands. The official name of the island is in Catalan Eivissa and its name in Spanish is Ibiza. In British English, the name is pronounced in an approximation of the Spanish /ɪˈbiːθə/, whereas in American English the pronunciation is more anglicized. Phoenician colonists called the island Ibossim and it was known to Romans as Ebusus. The Greeks called the two islands of Ibiza and Formentera the Pityûssai, in the 18th and 19th centuries the island was known to the British, and especially to the Royal Navy, as Ivica.
In 654 BC, Phoenician settlers founded a port on Ibiza, with the decline of Phoenicia after the Assyrian invasions, Ibiza came under the control of Carthage, a former Phoenician colony. The island produced dye, fish sauce, and wool, a shrine with offerings to the goddess Tanit was established in the cave at Es Cuieram, and the rest of the Balearic Islands entered Eivissas commercial orbit after 400 BC. Ibiza was a trading post along the Mediterranean routes. During the Second Punic War, the island was assaulted by the two Scipio brothers in 209 BC but remained loyal to Carthage. With the Carthaginian military failing on the Iberian mainland, Ibiza was last used by the fleeing Carthaginian General Mago to gather supplies and men before sailing to Minorca, for this reason, Ibiza today contains excellent examples of late Carthaginian-Punic civilization. During the Roman Empire, the became a quiet imperial outpost. Ibiza together with the islands of Formentera and Minorca were invaded by the Norwegian King Sigurd I of Norway in the spring of 1110 on his crusade to Jerusalem.
The king had previously conquered the cities of Sintra, King Sigurd continued to Sicily where he visited King Roger II of Sicily. The island was conquered by Aragonese King James I in 1235, the local Muslim population got deported as was the case with neighboring Majorca and elsewhere, and Christians arrived from Girona
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times, all of this is open to the public, and much of it has been digitized and is available on their website. The main goal of the bureau is to collect, via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries. The library owns approximately 450,000 titles, of which ca.150,000 are auction catalogs, there are ca.3,000 magazines, of which 600 are currently running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works. The RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, the original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles, California. Their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, which is now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek.
Though not all of the holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online. The website itself is available in both a Dutch and an English user interface, in the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, for example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number, to reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, https, //rkd. nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artworks record number. For example, the record number for The Night Watch is 3063. The Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called The Night Watch is a militia painting, the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is mostly filled with biblical references.
To see all images that depict Miriams dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
The Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen is the art collection of the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia, located in Düsseldorf. United by this institution are three different exhibition venues, the K20 at Grabbeplatz, the K21 in the Ständehaus and the Schmela Haus, during its 50-year history, the Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen has earned an international reputation as a museum for the art of the 20th century. For some time now, the spectrum of the collection - which was initiated through the purchase of works by Paul Klee - has extended up to the immediate present. The building at Grabbeplatz, with its black granite façade, was inaugurated in 1986. An extension building was completed in 2010, among the highlights on view there are a number of artist’s rooms and large-scale installations, a special focus of this portion of the collection. The Schmela Haus, located in Düsseldorf’s historic district, joined the Kunstsammlung in 2009 as a rehearsal stage, since spring of 2011, the Schmela Haus is used again for exhibitions.
As an institution with three locations, the Kunstsammlung has more than 10,000 m² of exhibition surface at its disposal, with its accompanying programs and special projects, the Education Department strives to make the works held in the Regional Collection accessible to visitors of all ages. Available for this purpose are a number of studios, a workshop. The history of the Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen begins in 1960 with the purchase of 88 works by Paul Klee from the collection of Pittsburgh steel manufacturer G. David Thompson, between 1962 and his retirement in 1990, Werner Schmalenbach served as the first director of the newly founded collection. He assembled an extraordinarily high-quality collection of classical modernist artworks, thereby creating the only collection in Germany specializing in modern art. To begin with, the collection was housed in Jägerhof Palace, soon after it opened, space limitations prompted plans for a new building. Announced in 1975 was a competition for its design, the proposal was submitted by the Danish architectural office of Dissing+Weitling.
With its curved façade of polished, natural stone, the building gives Grabbeplatz its special character. It sits on the square directly across from the Kunsthalle Düsseldorf, in 1990, Schmalenbach was succeeded as Director by Armin Zweite, formerly head of the Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus in Munich. On 1 September 2009, Marion Ackermann - former director of the Kunstmuseum Stuttgart - assumed artistic directorship of the Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen and she has taken a dynamic approach to the collection, and seeks to relate contemporary art and classic modern to one another more closely. Together with Hagen Lippe-Weißenfeld, who joined the team on 1 November 2008 as Director of Finance and Business Affairs, available now for the collection and for temporary exhibitions is a generous surface area.000 m². During the first two weeks after the reopening alone, nearly 60,000 visitors took advantage of free admission to the Kunstsammlung, the museum welcomed its 100, 000th visitor on 21 October 2010.
With its length of 27 meters, it has become attractive landmark on the newly created Paul Klee Platz along the rear façade of the K20, featured on a regular basis in the venues of the Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen alongside presentations of the permanent collection are internationally acclaimed temporary exhibitions
The Venice Biennale is an arts organization based in Venice, and the original and principal exhibition it organizes. The organization changed its name to the Biennale Foundation in 2009, while the exhibition is called the Art Biennale to distinguish it from the organisation. The Art Biennale, a visual art exhibition, is so called as it is held biennially. A year later, the council decreed to adopt a by invitation system, to reserve a section of the Exhibition for foreign artists too, to works by uninvited Italian artists. The first Biennale, I Esposizione Internazionale dArte della Città di Venezia was opened on April 30,1895 by the Italian King and Queen, Umberto I, the first exhibition was seen by 224,000 visitors. In 1910 the first internationally well-known artists were displayed- a room dedicated to Gustav Klimt, a show for Renoir. A work by Picasso was removed from the Spanish salon in the central Palazzo because it was feared that its novelty might shock the public, by 1914 seven pavilions had been established, Hungary, Great Britain and Russia.
During World War I, the 1916 and 1918 events were cancelled, in 1920 the post of mayor of Venice and president of the Biennale was split. The new secretary general, Vittorio Pica brought about the first presence of avant-garde art,1922 saw an exhibition of sculpture by African artists. Between the two World Wars, many important modern artists had their work exhibited there, in 1928 the Istituto Storico dArte Contemporanea opened, which was the first nucleus of archival collections of the Biennale. In 1930 its name was changed into Historical Archive of Contemporary Art, in 1933 the Biennale organised an exhibition of Italian art abroad. From 1938, Grand Prizes were awarded in the art exhibition section, during World War II, the activities of the Biennale were interrupted,1942 saw the last edition of the events. The Film Festival restarted in 1946, the Music and Theatre festivals were resumed in 1947, the Art Biennale was resumed in 1948 with a major exhibition of a recapitulatory nature. Peggy Guggenheim was invited to exhibit her famous New York collection,1949 saw the beginning of renewed attention to avant-garde movements in European—and worldwide—movements in contemporary art.
Abstract expressionism was introduced in the 1950s, and the Biennale is credited with importing Pop Art into the canon of art history by awarding the top prize to Robert Rauschenberg in 1964. From 1948 to 1972, Italian architect Carlo Scarpa did a series of interventions in the Biennales exhibition spaces. In 1954 the island San Giorgio Maggiore provided the venue for the first Japanese Noh theatre shows in Europe,1956 saw the selection of films following an artistic selection and no longer based upon the designation of the participating country. The 1957 Golden Lion went to Satyajit Rays Aparajito which introduced Indian cinema to the West,1962 included Arte Informale at the Art Exhibition with Jean Fautrier, Hans Hartung, Emilio Vedova, and Pietro Consagra
The Karl Ernst Osthaus-Museum is an art museum in Hagen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The center of the museum is a building whose interior was designed by Henry van de Velde to house Karl Ernst Osthaus art collection, when Osthaus heirs sold his art collection to the city of Essen, the city of Hagen gained possession of the empty museum building. For a time it served as offices for the electric company. After World War II, the new director of Hagens city art museum, Herta Hesse, under her direction, the museum focused on recapturing what the city had lost when the Folkwang collection was sold to Essen. The museum became a focus for exhibits of art nouveau and expressionist art, under Michael Fehr, the Karl Ernst Osthaus-Museum adopted a more playful attitude toward local history. Large installations created sensations in the city, and numerous works poke fun at Hagens inability to transcend the Osthaus past, the painting collection stems from private donations and gradual purchases. It houses one of the collections of paintings by Christian Rohlfs.
Other notable works on exhibit include environmental art by Herman de Vries, the Karl Ernst Osthaus-Museum houses the Karl Ernst Osthaus-Archive, a major depository of documents relating to the Folkwang Museum and early 20th century avant garde art and architecture
Karl Ernst Osthaus
Karl Ernst Osthaus was an important German patron of avant-garde art and architecture. In 1902, Osthaus founded the Folkwang Museum in Hagen, after his death, the city of Hagen was unable to purchase the museum collection and in 1922 Hagen was outbid by the neighbouring city of Essen which now houses the Folkwang Collection. A separate museum survives in Hagen, the Karl Ernst Osthaus-Museum, Osthaus was a notable patron of the European avant-garde. Under the guidance of Henry van de Velde, Osthaus began a collection of European modernist painting that one of the first purely modernist collections to be open to the public. Osthaus attempted to spark interest in architecture in Hagen. In this regard, he encountered many frustrations, in some ways, the story of the projects that were not built is more interesting than the projects that were built. Major architects including Henry van de Velde, Richard Riemerschmid, Peter Behrens, a small artist colony emerged including the sculptor Milly Steger, the Dutch artist and theosophist J. L. M.
Lauweriks, and a score of figures important for Hagens local cultural history, osthauss Jugendstil villa, the Hohenhof, is one of the most important examples of bourgeois Jugendstil architecture in Europe. It was recently renovated and is open to the public, media related to Karl Ernst Osthaus at Wikimedia Commons
Minneapolis College of Art and Design
The Minneapolis College of Art and Design is a private, nonprofit four-year and postgraduate college specializing in the visual arts. MCAD is one of just a few art schools to offer a major in comic art. MCAD was founded in 1886 by the trustees of the Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts, douglas Volk, an accomplished American portrait painter who studied in Paris with renowned French painter and sculptor Jean-Léon Gérôme, became the school’s first president. Its inaugural class was held in an apartment in downtown Minneapolis and had an enrollment of 28 students,26 of whom were women. In December 1889, the School found a permanent home on the top floor of the just-finished Minneapolis Public Library at 10th Street. In 1893, noted German-born painter and educator Robert Koehler moved from New York to Minnesota to become president of the school, over the next ten years, he developed much of the curriculum that is known today as the art education field. By the turn of the century, the school had two instructors and had instituted a summer term, in addition to classes for people in the community.
In 1910, the School of Fine Arts changed its name to the Minneapolis School of Art to reflect the new emphasis on applied arts. In 1915, the moved to its present location one mile south of downtown Minneapolis. The 10-acre site for the art museum and school was donated to the City of Minneapolis in 1911 by prominent local banker and businessman Clinton Morrison. It was formerly occupied by Villa Rosa, the home and estate of Morrisons parents Dorilus Morrison, the first mayor of Minneapolis, and Harriet Putnam Whitmore Morrison. The site of the Morrisons former estate is held in the public trust under the jurisdiction of the Minneapolis Park. In 1970, the School was renamed the Minneapolis College of Art and Design to reflect the broadening of its fine arts, on July 1,1988, MCAD became a wholly independent institution, no longer governed by the Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts. Magazine named MCAD one of America’s Top Ten Design Schools, bachelor of Science, The BSc program offers a major in entrepreneurial studies.
Students have the opportunity to meet with clients and take on real projects for a contextual study from the moment they step inside MCADs doors. This allows students to network with industry professionals by becoming a part of the industry themselves, giving not only an education. By the time they graduate, students already have a leg-up on graduates from other colleges and universities, continuing Education, MCAD offers a number of continuing studies courses for children and adults. Adult courses are available for both enrichment and professional development, master of Arts, Launched in 2004, MCADs MA program was the first accredited online program, not exclusive to architecture, focusing on sustainability methodologies that can be applied to any effort