Nylon is an American multi-platform media company and defunct magazine that focus on pop culture and fashion. Its coverage includes art, music, celebrities and travel, its name references New York and London. Marc Luzzatto is the chairman and principal owner, responsible for the closure of the print magazine. Nylon was co-founded in 1999 by Madonna Badger, Mark Blackwell, supermodel Helena Christensen, husband and wife Marvin and Jaclynn Jarrett, with investment from Sam Waksal. Three of the founders had worked together in their same roles at Ray Gun Magazine: Editor Marvin Jarrett, Publisher Jaclynn his wife, Editorial Director Mark Blackwell. According to Publisher Jaclynn Jarrett, the magazine's name was chosen because her husband Marvin just liked the sound of Nylon. After picking it, they realized the New York/London tie-in, congruous to Nylon's editorial focus on these two cities; the first two letters are the initials for New York and the last three letters are the first three letters of London.
The design of the magazine was intended to be "hyper-legible", in answer to criticism of Ray-Gun's "chaotic" layouts. The first issue was published on April 6, 1999. In 2003, Nylon launched its website nylonmag.com, under the leadership of Ronen Shapiro that year the digital readership surpassed the print edition and became the center of Nylon's business. In 2005, Nylon was bought by Pennsylvania businessman Don Hellinger; the following spring, Nylon and MySpace collaborated on their first International Music issue, making it available online for a time. Nylon TV was launched in 2006 with the creation of its own YouTube channel, by 2014 gained 62 thousand subscribers and 62 million cumulative views. Nylon partnered with MySpace in 2006 for its annual June/July music issue. Nine months the magazine became available online in digital form in March 2007. Nylon released their June/July International MySpace issue online for free viewing. Marvin Scott Jarrett's Editor's Letter described it as a collaboration with MySpace, focusing on eight "music and style mecca" cities around the world, featuring the White Stripes on the cover, as selected by Nylon's MySpace fans.
Nylon teamed up with Live Nation Entertainment in 2008 to produce its first Nylon Music Tour, headlined by electro rockers She Wants Revenge. On their 10-year anniversary in 2009, Nylon made the April 1999 inaugural issue available online, including all articles, in scanned form; that year, Nylon partnered with iTunes for its annual music issue, which included a free summer playlist download of 22 tracks. Nylon came together with YouTube in 2010 for its Young Hollywood issue, allowing readers to watch the entire issue on YouTube; the partnership extended for the 2011 Young Hollywood issue as well. 2010 brought the launch of Nylon Dailies, emails written by local writers every day in ten key American cities. In 2011, then-President Don Hellinger and then-CFO Jami Pearlman were charged with operating an illegal money transmission business, unrelated to Nylon, they subsequently pleaded guilty to a reduced charge. Nylon joined with Facebook in 2012 for its June/July music issue. 2012 brought a Summer Music Tour, featuring Neon Trees, sponsored by Starbucks.
America's Next Top Model announced. Nylon has established a material social media presence. By early 2014, Nylon was active on Instagram, had over 700,000 Twitter followers, had a million Facebook fans. In May 2014, Nylon was acquired by Nylon Media, Inc. an affiliate of LA-based investor Marc Luzzatto through his team at Diversis Capital, LLC. The new venture acquired FashionIndie, with FashionIndie's founders, Beca Alexander and Daniel Saynt, maintaining their titles of editor-in-chief and creative director, respectively; this was handled as a "hostile takeover," meaning that the original founder, Marvin Jarrett, was ousted from his own magazine with zero notice. The staff, given no notice of the sale, learned of the takeover via WWD. In September 2017, announced that it was transitioning to an all-digital platform; the print edition of Nylon was discontinued as of the October 2017 issue. The staff was given no notice, unceremoniously let go. Upon the departure of the core print team, only two original staff members, of the 60-odd employees from before the sale in 2014, remain.
Nylon Japan, which first hit Tokyo newsstands in 2004, is now run by editor-in-chief Takashi Togawa. Nylon Korea premiered in August 2008, in April 2014, K-pop girl band Girl's Generation, were featured in Nylon international editions. In March 2018, the publisher of Nylon Korea was acquired by Krispy Studio, a subsidiary of kakao M, from Seoul Cultural Publishers. Nylon Indonesia began publishing in 2011. Nylon Singapore. Nylon Thailand. Nylon China. Since 2017 Nylon Germany completes the Set-Up as the first European publication of the magazine. Nylon Mexico Michelle Lee was named Editor in Chief in 2014 and left in late 2015 when she was named Editor in Chief of Allure magazine. Melissa Giannini was named editor-in-chief. Video Creative Director of TV and Video: Ryland McIntyre Editorial Creative Director: Molly Butterfoss, Art Director: Kayla Kern, Producer: Ricky Michiels Features Director: Lisa Mischianti, Senior Editors: Ben Barna, Gabrielle Korn Senior Beauty Editor: Jade Taylor Associate Editor: Keryce Henry Editorial Assistant: Austen Tosone Fashion Fashion Director: Joseph Errico, Style Director: Dani Stahl, Market Editor: Marissa Smith, Assistant Editor: Nicole Draga The first Nylon cover subject was Liv
Shepherd's Bush is a district of west London, within the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham 4.9 miles west of Charing Cross, identified as a major metropolitan centre in the London Plan. Although residential in character, its focus is the shopping area of Shepherd's Bush Green, with the Westfield London shopping centre a short distance to the north; the main thoroughfares are Uxbridge Road, Goldhawk Road and Askew Road, all with small and independent shops and restaurants. The Loftus Road football stadium in Shepherd's Bush is home to Queens Park Rangers. In 2011, the population of the area was 39,724; the district is bounded by Hammersmith to the south, Holland Park and Notting Hill to the east, Harlesden to the north and by Acton and Chiswick to the west. White City forms the northern part of Shepherd's Bush. Shepherd's Bush comprises the Shepherd's Bush Green, College Park & Old Oak, Wormholt and White City wards of the borough; the area's focal point is Shepherd's Bush Green, a triangular area of about 8 acres of open grass surrounded by trees and roads with shops, with Westfield shopping centre to its north.
The Green is a hub on the local road network, with four main roads radiating from the western side of the green and three roads approaching its eastern apex, meeting at the large Holland Park Roundabout. This position makes it an important node of the bus network, with eighteen bus routes arriving there, it is served by five London Underground stations: Shepherd's Bush and White City both on the Central line, Shepherd's Bush Market, Goldhawk Road and Wood Lane all on the Hammersmith & City line. To the east, Shepherd's Bush is bounded by the physical barrier of the West London railway line and the grade-separated West Cross Route. Most of the areas to the east of the barrier differ in character, being associated with the more affluent Holland Park and Notting Hill. Commercial activity in Shepherd's Bush is now focused on the Westfield shopping centre next to Shepherd's Bush Central line station and on the many small shops which run along the northern side of the Green. Built in the 1970s with a rooftop car park and connecting bridge to the station, the older West 12 Shepherds Bush shopping centre was redeveloped in the 1990s.
The bridge was removed, the centre now houses several chain stores, a 12-screen cinema, pub, restaurants, a medical practice and a supermarket. The small shops continue along Uxbridge Road to the west for some distance, another set of shops and restaurants line Goldhawk Road from the Green to the southwest. Many of these establishments cater for the local ethnic minority communities. Running parallel to, under, an elevated section of the Hammersmith & City line there is a large permanent market, the Shepherd's Bush Market, selling all types of foodstuffs, cooked food, household goods and bric-à-brac; the Westfield Group opened a shopping centre in October 2008. As well as the offices within the BBC TV Centre on Wood Lane, opposite this is Network House, 1 Ariel Way, a 20,000 sq ft building, let by Frost Meadowcroft on behalf of Westfield to Zodiak Entertainment in September 2009 and in Rockley Road is the 160,000 sq ft Shepherds Building where Endemol another TV company are based and where Jellycat, a soft toy company, relocated their head office to in February 2010.
The same building houses Escape Studios, a digital art school providing computer graphics training for the visual effects industry in London. The residential areas of Shepherd's Bush are located to the west of the Green, either side of Uxbridge Road and Goldhawk Road to the southwest, about as far as Askew Road in the west. Much of the housing in this area consists of three- or four-storey terraces dating from the late 19th century, subsequently divided up into small flats. Shepherd's Bush is home to the White City Estate, a housing estate, constructed in the 1930s and further extended after the war in the early 1950s, it was built on the site of the grounds of the 1908 Franco-British Exhibition and close to the White City Stadium and has given its name to the northern part of Shepherd's Bush, now better known as White City. The name Shepherd's Bush is thought to have originated from the use of the common land here as a resting point for shepherds on their way to Smithfield Market in the City of London.
An alternative theory is that it could have been named after someone in the area, because in 1635 the area was recorded as "Sheppard's Bush Green". Evidence of human habitation can be traced back to the Iron Age. Shepherd's Bush enters the written record in the year 704 when it was bought by Waldhere, Bishop of London as a part of the "Fulanham" estate. A map of London dated 1841 shows Shepherd's Bush to be undeveloped and chiefly rural in character, with much open farmland compared to fast-developing Hammersmith. Residential development began in earnest in the late 19th century, as London's population expanded relentlessly. In 1904 the Catholic Church of Holy Ghost and St Stephen, built in the Gothic style with a triple-gabled facade of red brick and Portland stone, was completed and opened to the public. Like other parts of London, Shepherd's Bush suffered from bomb damage during World War II from V-1 flying bomb a
Rise of the Footsoldier
Rise of the Footsoldier is a British crime film released on 7 September 2007. The third production from BAFTA Award-nominated director Julian Gilbey, it is based on the true story of the 1995 Rettendon murders and the autobiography of Carlton Leach, a football hooligan of the infamous Inter City Firm who became a powerful figure of the English underworld. TimeOut Film Guide reviewer David Jenkinson describes Rise of the Footsoldier as "a repugnant gangland romp in which ruffians get tooled up with axe handles, baseball bats and Stanley knives knock ten bells out of each other for two hours." After a one-sentence overview, the review concludes that "Leach is unceremoniously swept aside as the film hastily attempts to give the Rettendon Range Rover murders a once-over in the scrappy second half." In America, Videohound's Golden Movie Retriever disliked it, throwing the film one bone and dismissing it as "Brit crime flick, based on a true story, that has nothing going for it but violence". Indicating that "Carlton Leach goes from football hooligan in the 1980s to criminal muscle and gangster in the 1990s", the write-up ends with mention of "three murdered drug dealers who were found in rural Essex".
The films Essex Boys, Bonded by Blood, The Fall of the Essex Boys and Essex Boys: Retribution are based – to varying degrees – on the Rettendon murders. A sequel, Rise of the Footsoldier: Part 2, was released in December 2015. A prequel titled Rise of the Footsoldier 3 was released in 2017. Rise of the Footsoldier on IMDb Rise of the Footsoldier at Rotten Tomatoes
Cannes Film Festival
The Cannes Festival, until 2002 called the International Film Festival and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world. Founded in 1946, the invitation-only festival is held annually at the Palais des Festivals et des Congrès, it is one of the "Big Three" alongside the Venice Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival. On 1 July 2014, co-founder and former head of French pay-TV operator Canal+, Pierre Lescure, took over as President of the Festival, while Thierry Fremaux became the General Delegate; the board of directors appointed Gilles Jacob as Honorary President of the Festival. The 2018 Cannes Film Festival took place between 8 and 19 May 2018; the jury president was Australian actress Cate Blanchett, Shoplifters, directed by Hirokazu Kore-eda, won the Palme d'Or. The Cannes Film Festival has its origins in 1932 when Jean Zay, the French Minister of National Education, on the proposal of historian Philippe Erlanger and with the support of the British and Americans, set up an international cinematographic festival.
Its origins may be attributed in part to the French desire to compete with the Venice Film Festival, which at the time was shocking the democratic world by its fascist bias. The first festival was planned for 1939, Cannes was selected as the location for it, but the funding and organization were too slow and the beginning of World War II put an end to this plan. On 20 September 1946, twenty-one countries presented their films at the First Cannes International Film Festival, which took place at the former Casino of Cannes. In 1947, amid serious problems of efficiency, the festival was held as the "Festival du film de Cannes", where films from sixteen countries were presented; the festival was not held in 1950 on account of budgetary problems. In 1949, the Palais des Festivals was expressly constructed for the occasion on the seafront promenade of La Croisette, although its inaugural roof, while still unfinished, blew off during a storm. In 1951, the festival was moved to spring to avoid a direct competition with the Venice Festival, held in autumn.
During the early 1950s, the festival attracted a lot of tourism and press attention, with showbiz scandals and high-profile personalities' love affairs. At the same time, the artistic aspect of the festival started developing; because of controversies over the selection of films, the Critics' Prize was created for the recognition of original films and daring filmmakers. In 1954, the Special Jury Prize was awarded for the first time. In 1955, the Palme d'Or was created, replacing the Grand Prix du Festival, given until that year. In 1957, Dolores del Río was the first female member of the jury for the official selection. In 1959, the Marché du Film was founded, giving the festival a commercial character and facilitating exchanges between sellers and buyers in the film industry. Today it has become the first international platform for film commerce. Still, in the 1950s, some outstanding films, like Night and Fog in 1956 and Hiroshima, My Love in 1959 were excluded from the competition for diplomatic concerns.
Jean Cocteau, three times president of the jury in those years, is quoted to have said: "The Cannes Festival should be a no man's land in which politics has no place. It should be a simple meeting between friends."In 1962, the International Critics' Week was born, created by the French Union of Film Critics as the first parallel section of the Cannes Film Festival. Its goal was to showcase first and second works by directors from all over the world, not succumbing to commercial tendencies. In 1965 Olivia de Havilland was named the first female president of the jury, while the next year Sofia Loren became president; the 1968 festival was halted on 19 May. Some directors, such as Carlos Saura and Miloš Forman, had withdrawn their films from the competition. On 18 May filmmaker Louis Malle along with a group of directors took over the large room of the Palais and interrupted the projections in solidarity with students and labour on strike throughout France, in protest to the eviction of the President of the Cinémathèque Française.
The filmmakers achieved the reinstatement of the President, they founded the Film Directors' Society that same year. In 1969 the SRF, led by Pierre-Henri Deleau created the Directors' Fortnight, a new non-competitive section that programs a selection of films from around the world, distinguished by the independent judgment displayed in the choice of films. During the 1970s, important changes occurred in the Festival. In 1972, Robert Favre Le Bret was named the new President, Maurice Bessy the General Delegate, he introduced important changes in the selection of the participating films, welcoming new techniques, relieving the selection from diplomatic pressures, with films like MASH, Chronicle of the Years of Fire marking this turn. In some cases, these changes helped directors like Tarkovski overcome problems of censorship in their own country; until that time, the different countries chose the films that would represent them in the festival. Yet, in 1972, Bessy created a committee to select French films, another for foreign films.
In 1978, Gilles Jacob assumed the position of General Delegate, introducing the Caméra d'Or award, for the best first film of any of the main events, the Un Certain Regard section, for the non-competitive categories. Other changes were the decrease of length of the festival down to thirteen days, thus reducing the number of selected films.
Merlin (2008 TV series)
Merlin is a British fantasy-adventure drama television programme created by Julian Jones, Jake Michie, Julian Murphy, Johnny Capps, starring Bradley James as King Arthur and Colin Morgan as Merlin. It was broadcast on BBC One from 20 September 2008 to 24 December 2012 for a total of 65 episodes; the show is loosely based on the Arthurian legends of the young wizard Merlin and his close relationship with King Arthur, but it differs from traditional versions. The show was influenced by the US drama series Smallville about the early years of Superman, was produced by independent production company Shine Limited; the show was picked up by the BBC in 2006. The series premiered in 2008 to mixed reviews but good ratings which improved as the series went on, proved popular on the BBC's digital catch-up service iPlayer, it was shown in the United States on NBC, though it moved to the cable network Syfy. It is a mainstay on Netflix in both the US and the UK. Merlin is a reimagining of the legend in which the future King Arthur and Merlin are young contemporaries.
Arthur's father Uther Pendragon has banned magic in Camelot. Its use is punishable by death, forcing Merlin to keep his magical powers secret from everyone in Camelot other than his mentor Gaius. Arthur grows from a young, self-absorbed boy to the mighty king in the legends, while Merlin develops into his colossal role in creating the powerful Camelot. In 2012, the show's producers announced that its fifth series would be its last, with a two-part finale on 24 December 2012. Merlin is a young and powerful warlock who arrives in the kingdom of Camelot after his mother arranges for him to stay with the court physician, Gaius, he discovers that the king, Uther Pendragon, outlawed magic twenty years earlier in an event known as the Great Purge and imprisoned the last Dragon deep under the kingdom. After hearing a mysterious voice inside his head, Merlin makes his way to the cavern beneath Camelot where the Great Dragon tells Merlin that he has an important destiny: to protect Uther's son, who will return magic to Camelot and unite the land of Albion.
When Merlin meets Arthur, Merlin believes that he is an arrogant bully and Arthur has a less than stellar opinion of Merlin. After saving the prince's life Merlin becomes his servant and the two begin to respect and trust one another. Merlin becomes close friends with Arthur, another servant named Guinevere, but when Uther's actions cause his ward, Morgana, to turn against Camelot, Merlin must work together with the Once and Future King to save Albion. Colin Morgan as Merlin, Arthur's servant and Gaius' ward, who secretly develops his magical gifts under the gaze of kings Uther and Arthur, both of whom despise the art. Although Merlin is accused of sorcery several times during the run of the series, only Gaius and Lancelot are aware of his magic. Merlin has an alter-ego, "Dragoon the Great", considered a criminal by both Uther and Arthur, inspires profound fear in Morgana, who recognises him as "Emrys", her prophetic nemesis. Angel Coulby as Guinevere, Morgana's servant who rises to become Queen of Camelot.
Her relationship with Arthur at first causes conflict within the kingdom, as Uther considers her unworthy and forbids Arthur to court her accusing her of witchcraft when Arthur's affections for her do not diminish. However, Gwen proves popular among the people, strives to make Arthur and his advisers approachable to them. Bradley James as Arthur Pendragon, the prince and King of Camelot, the commander of the kingdom's knights. Despite being charged with carrying out his father's harsh edicts, Arthur is portrayed as a far more compassionate man, who defends the falsely accused before the king, secretly defies him from time to time. Additionally, he welcomes commoners Lancelot, Gwaine and Percival as knights, falls in love with Gwen, a mere serving girl. Most he comes to regard his servant Merlin as a close friend and confidant, never realising how many times Merlin has had to save his life using magic. Arthur promises to lift Uther's ban on magic when he becomes king – but changes his mind when magic kills his father.
Katie McGrath as Morgana Pendragon, Uther's ward, revealed to be his daughter. Portrayed as a kind and empathetic young woman, Morgana comes to despise Uther not only for his prejudice against magic but when she realizes he would never accept her if he knew of her magical powers, she begins covertly plotting against him, she becomes the show's primary villain by the third series, relentlessly coveting Arthur's throne and coming to recognise Merlin for the formidable foe that he is, despite not knowing of his powers. Anthony Head as Uther Pendragon, Camelot's stubborn and hard-hearted king, who shows Arthur repeated tough love and ruthlessly enforces the kingdom's strict ban on sorcery. Although meaning well, Uther earns himself many enemies in his brutal fight against magic, Morgana's ultimate betrayal leaves him a broken man. Richard Wilson as Gaius, the court physician and Merlin's guardian and mentor. Once a sorcerer himself, Gaius has long since abandoned the practice but so is willing to help foster Merlin's talents, comes to love him as his own son.
An eminently wise man with a long memory, Gaius is one of Uther's closest advisers, always among the first to realise what is happening when magic threatens the kingdom. Nathaniel Parker as Agravaine de Bois, Arthur's uncle who steps in after Uther dies, reputedly as a trus
Lewis (TV series)
Lewis is a British television detective drama produced for ITV. It is a spin-off from Inspector Morse and, like that series, it is set in Oxford. Kevin Whately reprises his character Robert "Robbie" Lewis, Morse's sergeant in the original series. Lewis has now been promoted to detective inspector and is assisted by DS James Hathaway, portrayed by Laurence Fox, promoted to inspector before the seventh series; the series stars Clare Holman as forensic pathologist Dr. Laura Hobson reprising her role from Inspector Morse and from the seventh season, Angela Griffin as DS Lizzie Maddox. On 2 November 2015, ITV announced that the show would end after its ninth series, following the decision made by Kevin Whately and Laurence Fox to retire from their roles in the series. Whately announced that the show had gone on long enough, with his character having done many stories between Morse and Lewis after he took on the role 30 years ago. Kevin Whately as Detective Inspector Robert Lewis: Widowed after his wife was killed in a hit-and-run car collision, Inspector Lewis is a workaholic.
He shows an uncanny intuition in solving murder cases. He is the father of two children, including daughter Lynn, married and has a baby at one point in the series. Laurence Fox as Detective Sergeant James Hathaway: James Hathaway is a private person hiding his feelings or past from Lewis when it is relevant to a murder investigation, although early in the first season he mentioned that he studied to be a priest before deciding to become a police officer. Clare Holman as Dr. Laura Hobson: Romantic tensions simmer between forensic pathologist Dr. Hobson and Lewis throughout the series. Hobson is single and childless, like Lewis and Hathaway, is dedicated to her job to a point that it interrupts many of her personal plans, she and Lewis become a couple during the sixth season. Rebecca Front as Chief Superintendent Jean Innocent: She is the senior officer supervising Lewis and Hathaway; when Lewis returned from his overseas secondment, Innocent was not convinced that he would be of value, but he proved himself to her on his first case.
Innocent is at odds with Lewis over his investigation style. In Series 9, it is revealed. Angela Griffin as Detective Sergeant Elizabeth "Lizzie" Maddox: She becomes Hathaway's DS, following his promotion to detective inspector. Steve Toussaint as Chief Superintendent Joseph Moody: He arrives at Oxfordshire Police as the new chief superintendent, replacing Innocent, he soon clashes with Lewis over the latter's more traditional approach to detective work. Colin Dexter, the author of the Inspector Morse novels, makes a brief cameo appearance in several episodes, including one as a porter at Wadham College; the episode scripts follow Dexter's approach, but each of them is credited to one of several other writers including, most Russell Lewis, Alan Plater, Stephen Churchett. The music for the series was composed by Barrington Pheloung, who created the music for the original Inspector Morse series. Following the broadcast of a pilot in 2006, the show's first series was commissioned by ITV, consisting of three episodes that were broadcast between February and March 2007.
Following this, further series were commissioned, each with four episodes—the second series was broadcast in 2008 from 24 February to 16 March, the third series in 2009 from 22 March to 12 April, the fourth series was aired in 2010 throughout May, the fifth series was aired throughout April during 2011, the sixth series was broadcast in 2012 from 16 May to 6 June. During May of that same year, after the show was renewed for a seventh series, Fox made a statement it would be the show's last, as both he and Whately wished to move on to other things; the seventh series was broadcast during 2013 from 7 January to 11 February, consisted of three two-part stories. On 10 February 2014, an official announcement was made that the show was to return, with all four original main cast members coming back to do another series; the eighth series consisted of three two-part episodes, with shooting beginning in March 2014. It was broadcast that same year, from 10 October to 14 November; that year, on 21 November, Whately announced on BBC Radio Oxford that a ninth series would be made, with shooting occurring on 2015 between May and June.
This was confirmed by Griffin on BBC Radio 2, by Fox in March 2015 during an interview with the Evening Standard. On 8 April 2015, ITV commissioned a ninth series of Lewis. On 30 September 2014, Whately revealed in an interview with the Radio Times, that the ninth series would be his last, having felt that he had played the character long enough for the past 30 years, his decision to leave, along with Fox's, was announced by ITV on 2 November 2015, with the network revealing the ninth series of Lewis would be its last. The majority of the series is filmed around Oxford; some scenes are filmed at Brunel University and parts of Ealing. PBS broadcast the series as Inspector Lewis in the United States and Canada, as part of its Masterpiece Mystery series. In the United States, all episodes of Lewis were shown as Inspector Lewis on Masterpiece Mystery! on PBS, except for the pilot, shown on the earlier series Mystery! in 2006. The numbering of the episodes on PBS is different from those on ITV. Series 1 was broadcast as Season 1 in 2008.
However, all of series 2 and episodes 1–3 of series 3 were broadcast as Season 2 in 2009. Episode 4 of series 3 and all of series 4 were broadcast as Season 3 in 2010. Series 5,6,7 and 8 were shown as Seasons 4,5,6 and 7 in 2011-2014. Series 9 was broadcast
ITV (TV network)
ITV is a British free-to-air television network with its headquarters in London, it was launched in 1955 as Independent Television under the auspices of the Independent Television Authority to provide competition to BBC Television, established in 1932. ITV is the oldest commercial network in the UK. Since the passing of the Broadcasting Act 1990, its legal name has been Channel 3, to distinguish it from the other analogue channels at the time, namely BBC 1, BBC 2 and Channel 4. In part, the number 3 was assigned because television sets would be tuned so that the regional ITV station would be on the third button, with the other stations being allocated to the number within their name. ITV is a network of television channels that operate regional television services as well as sharing programmes between each other to be displayed on the entire network. In recent years, several of these companies have merged, so the fifteen franchises are in the hands of two companies; the ITV network is to be distinguished from ITV plc, the company that resulted from the merger of Granada plc and Carlton Communications in 2004 and which holds the Channel 3 broadcasting licences in England, southern Scotland, the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and Northern Ireland.
With the exception of Northern Ireland, the ITV brand is the brand used by ITV plc for the Channel 3 service in these areas. In Northern Ireland, ITV plc uses the brand name UTV. STV Group plc uses the STV brand for its two franchises of northern Scotland; the origins of ITV lie in the passing of the Television Act 1954, designed to break the monopoly on television held by the BBC Television Service. The act created the Independent Television Authority to regulate the industry and to award franchises; the first six franchises were awarded in 1954 for London, the Midlands and the North of England, with separate franchises for Weekdays and Weekends. The first ITV network to launch was London's Associated-Rediffusion on 22 September 1955, with the Midlands and North services launching in February 1956 and May 1956 respectively. Following these launches, the ITA awarded more franchises until the whole country was covered by fourteen regional stations, all launched by 1962; the network has been modified several times through franchise reviews that have taken place in 1963, 1967, 1974, 1980 and 1991, during which broadcast regions have changed and service operators have been replaced.
Only one service operator has been declared bankrupt, WWN in 1963, with all other operators leaving the network as a result of a franchise review. Separate weekend franchises were removed in 1968 and over the years more services were added; the Broadcasting Act 1990 changed the nature of ITV. This criticised part of the review saw four operators replaced, the operators facing different annual payments to the Treasury: Central Television, for example, paid only £2000—despite holding a lucrative and large region—because it was unopposed, while Yorkshire Television paid £37.7 million for a region of the same size and status, owing to heavy competition. Following the 1993 changes, ITV as a network began to consolidate with several companies doing so to save money by ceasing the duplication of services present when they were all separate companies. By 2004, ITV was owned by five companies, of which two and Granada had become major players by owning between them all the franchises in England, the Scottish borders and the Isle of Man.
That same year, the two merged to form ITV plc with the only subsequent acquisitions being the takeover of Channel Television, the Channel Islands franchise, in 2011. and UTV, the franchise for Northern Ireland, in 2015. The ITV network is not owned or operated by one company, but by a number of licensees, which provide regional services while broadcasting programmes across the network. Since 2016, the fifteen licences are held by two companies, with the majority held by ITV Broadcasting Limited, part of ITV plc; the network is regulated by the media regulator Ofcom, responsible for awarding the broadcast licences. The last major review of the Channel 3 franchises was in 1991, with all operators' licences having been renewed between 1999 and 2002 and again from 2014 without a further contest. While this has been the longest period that the ITV Network has gone without a major review of its licence holders, Ofcom announced that it would split the Wales and West licence from 1 January 2014, creating a national licence for Wales and joining the newly separated West region to Westcountry Television, to form a new licence for the enlarged South West of England region.
All companies holding a licence were part of the non-profit body ITV Network Limited, which commissioned and scheduled network programming, with compliance handled by ITV plc and Channel Television. However, due to amalgamation of several of these companies since the creation of ITV Network Limited, it has been replaced by an affiliation system. Approved by Ofcom, this results in ITV plc commissioning and funding the network schedule, with STV and UTV paying a fee to broadcast it. All licensees have the right to opt out of network programming (except fo