Cobourg is a town in the Canadian province of Ontario, located in Southern Ontario 95 kilometres east of Toronto and 62 kilometres east of Oshawa. It is seat of Northumberland County, its nearest neighbour is 7 km to the west. It is located along Highway 401 and the former Highway 2. To the south, Cobourg borders Lake Ontario. To the north and west, it is surrounded by Hamilton Township; the settlements that make up today's Cobourg were founded by United Empire Loyalists in 1798. Some of the founding fathers and early settlers were Eliud Nickerson, Joseph Ash, Zacheus Burnham and Asa Allworth Burnham; the Town was a group of smaller villages such as Amherst and Hardscrabble, which were named Hamilton. In 1808 it became the district town for the Newcastle District, it was renamed Cobourg in 1818, in recognition of the marriage of Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales to Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. By the 1830s Cobourg had become a regional centre, much due to its fine harbour on Lake Ontario.
In 1835 the Upper Canada Academy was established in Cobourg by Egerton Ryerson and the Wesleyan Conference of Bishops. On 1 July 1837, Cobourg was incorporated as a town. In 1841 the Upper Canada Academy's name was changed to Victoria College. In 1842 Victoria College was granted powers to confer degrees. Victoria College remained in Cobourg until 1892, when it was moved to Toronto and federated with the University of Toronto. In 1842, John Strachan founded the Diocesan Theological Institute in Cobourg, an Anglican seminary that became integrated into the University of Trinity College in Toronto in 1852; the timber and other resources of Cobourg's large hinterland were identified as the key to its prosperity, if they could be brought to the harbour, Lake Ontario opened up a large and prosperous market. Peterborough to the north, founded in 1825 by Peter Robinson, had become the principal source area, in the 1830s it was still the waterways that were the prime method of bulk transport. Rice Lake and the Otonabee River were brought into use when James Gray Bethune established a steamer running across the lake and up the Otonabee, navigable through to Peterborough.
This meant passengers could be brought at least to the south shore of Lake Rice. The remaining 8 miles of rough tracks was viable for passengers and light goods, but no use for the valuable timber and mine products. By 1835, only 10 years after the first steam railway in the world, there was active discussion about building a railway up to what became Harwood. However, the townspeople invested instead in a plank road, using 300,000 feet of 3-inch wooden planks, allowing horse-drawn vehicles to haul heavy goods. By 1850 the plank road was breaking up, was impassible in wet conditions, so the railway scheme was revived. By 1852 there was considerable enthusiasm for the railway project within the town. River traffic had become seen as yesterday's solution by this time, so the plans were expanded to include a 4 kilometres long bridge across Rice Lake, to take the railway right up to Peterborough. By 1854 the rails reached the shore of the lake, it found good work transporting passengers and nearly 2 million feet of lumber from the Rice Lake down to Cobourg that summer.
However, all the revenue had to ploughed into building an ill-fated bridge, using hundreds of wooden trestles, 31 Burr Truss spans, a centre-pivot swing bridge to allow boats to pass. The prime mover locally for getting the Railway company off the ground was D'Arcy E. Boulton, a lawyer based in Cobourg, who enthused the town with the plan, they agreed to begin funding the scheme, expected to cost £150,000, but ended leaving many people with worthless railway bonds and the town council with a debt, only repaid in the 1930s. The man appointed to manage the project was Samuel Zimmerman, instrumental in building the Great Western Railway; the bridge was constructed over the summer of 1854 and was opened on 29 December that year. Three days it collapsed when ice movements shifted the trestles out of line, splintering the Burr Truss sections; the proposed solution was to stabilise the trestles by an infill of soil, which did happen on the southern side, still visible as a strip of land still remaining running into the lake near Harwood.
But funds were not forthcoming for the northern side, winter ice and shifting lake mud meant that it was unusable. A further problem emerged when Port Hope, not far along the coast, pursued its own plans for a Railway to Peterborough. In 1857 the Port Hope and Lindsay line was constructed, the following year opened a branch to Peterborough, going round the western end of the lake, in direct competition with the struggling Cobourg route; the response of the Cobourg directors was to oust D. E. Boulton, who invested in the Port Hope line. Conflicts of interest among various personnel resulted in deliberately removing the bolts on sections of the bridge in early 1861, ensuring that the ice again the bridge was destroyed, this time it was left unrepaired; the railway reverted to linking Cobourg harbour with the Rice Lake water traffic. In 1865 the railway was bought by a consortium of Pittsburgh steel manufacturers, who had bought the Marmora Iron quarries north-east of Rice Lake, who set up an iron-ore supply route in barges up the Trent River and across Rice Lake to the railway at Harwood.
From there it was brought along the Railway to Cobourg Harbour, for shipment across Lake Ontario
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
A women's shelter known as a women's refuge and battered women's shelter, is a place of temporary protection and support for women escaping domestic violence and intimate partner violence of all forms. The term is frequently used to describe a location for the same purpose, open to people of all genders at risk. Representative data samples done by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention show that one in three women will experience physical violence during their lifetime. One in ten will experience sexual violence. Women's shelters help individuals escape these instances of domestic violence and intimate partner violence and act as a place for protection as they choose how to move forward. Additionally, many shelters offer a variety of other services to help women and their children including counseling and legal guidance; the ability to escape is valuable for women subjected to domestic violence or intimate partner violence. Additionally, such situations involve an imbalance of power that limits the victim's financial options when they want to leave.
Shelters help women gain tangible resources to help them and their families create a new life. Lastly, shelters are valuable to battered women because they can help them find a sense of empowerment. Women's shelters are available in more than forty-five countries, they are supported with government resources as well as non-profit funds. Additionally, many philanthropists help and support these institutions; the first women's shelter in Canada was started in 1965 by the Harbour Rescue Mission in Hamilton, Ontario. It was named Inasmuch House, with the name referencing a Bible verse quoting Jesus Christ as saying "Inasmuch as you have done it for the least of these, you have done it for me." It was designed to be a practical outworking of Christian values relating to care. Although conceived as a shelter for women leaving prison, its clientele became women escaping abuse by their partners; the concept of Inasmuch House was shared with other Christian inner-city missions across North America and led to the opening of other such shelters.
The first shelters in Canada developed from a feminist perspective were started by Interval House, Toronto in April 1973, the Ishtar Transition Housing Society in Langley, B. C.in June 1973. These homes were grass roots organizations that lived on short term grants at first, with staff working sacrificially in order to keep the houses running to ensure women's safety. From there,the movement in Canada grew, with women's shelters opening under a variety of names - as a Transition House or Interval House - opening up across the country in order to help women flee from abusive situations; the first women's shelter in the United States was established in St. Paul, Minnesota shortly after the first domestic violence hotline was established in the same location. However, other early locations include Rosie's Place in Boston, opened in 1974 by Kip Tiernan, the Atlanta Union Mission in Atlanta, opened by Elsie Huck. Women's shelters evolved over time. Grassroots community advocates in the 1970s offered shelters as one of the first services for victims of intimate partner violence.
At this time, most shelters involved stays less than six months. Volunteers and shelter workers offered legal and welfare referrals to women when they exited but contact afterwards was limited. More recent programs, such as those funded by the Violence Against Women Act, offer longer term stays for women; these locations, as well as transitional housing, offer more services to their children. Another recent change is the increasing amount of shelters publicizing their locations to increase funding and visibility in the community. Due to a larger women's movement, the number of shelters increased after their induction and by 1977 the United States had eighty-nine shelters available for victims of violence. By 2000, the United States had over 2,000 domestic violence programs in place, many with domestic violence shelters included. For Asia, offering shelter to abused women is not a new concept. In feudal Japan, Buddhist temples known as Kakekomi Dera acted as locations where abused women could take shelter before filing for divorce.
A formal system took more time, however, so it was not until 1993 that the grassroots women's movement of Japan built the first shelter. Today, there are thirty shelters throughout the country. A similar history did not lead to as much progress in China. Women's shelters did not exist until the nineties and since the country only opened a small number. In Beijing there are no shelters for the twenty million residents. In England, Erin Pizzey opened the first known shelter for battered women, Chiswick Women's Aid in 1971. Since this time every European country has opened shelters to help domestic violence victims. Two countries offer shelters for particular ethnicities and cultures. Additionally, a new development in Europe is that countries like the Netherlands and Austria opened social housing for long term stays. One reason for this growth is the Istanbul Convention against Violence Against Women and Domestic Violence, a convention signed by forty-seven Council of Europe member states in 2011.
An article in the Convention sets the creation of women's shelters as a minimum standard for compliance. Following austerity two thirds of local authorities in England have cut funding for women's refuges since 2010. In Australia, the first women's refuge, known as Elsie Refuge, was opened in Glebe, New South Wales in 1974 by a group of women's liberation activists. Many others followed, with 11 established around the country by the middle of 1975 and many more to follow; these services
The Province of Upper Canada was a part of British Canada established in 1791 by the Kingdom of Great Britain, to govern the central third of the lands in British North America part of the Province of Quebec since 1763. Upper Canada included all of modern-day Southern Ontario and all those areas of Northern Ontario in the Pays d'en Haut which had formed part of New France the watersheds of the Ottawa River or Lakes Huron and Superior, excluding any lands within the watershed of Hudson Bay; the "upper" prefix in the name reflects its geographic position along the Great Lakes above the headwaters of the Saint Lawrence River, contrasted with Lower Canada to the northeast. It was the primary destination of Loyalist refugees and settlers from the United States after the American Revolution, who were granted land to settle in Upper Canada; the province was characterized by its British way of life, including bicameral parliament and civil and criminal law not mixed like in Lower Canada or elsewhere in the British Empire.
The division was created to ensure the exercise of the same rights and privileges enjoyed by loyal subjects elsewhere in the North American colonies. In 1812, war broke out between Great Britain and the United States, leading to several battles in Upper Canada; the US had hoped to capture Upper Canada. The government of the colony came to be dominated by a small group of persons, known as the "Family Compact", who held most of the top positions in the Legislative Council and appointed officials. In 1837, an unsuccessful rebellion attempted to overthrow the undemocratic system. Representative government would be established in the 1840s. Upper Canada existed from its establishment on 26 December 1791 to 10 February 1841 when it was united with adjacent Lower Canada to form the Province of Canada; as part of the 1763 Treaty of Paris which ended the Seven Years' War global conflict and the French and Indian War in North America, Great Britain retained control over the former New France, defeated in the French and Indian War.
The British had won control after Fort Niagara had surrendered in 1759 and Montreal capitulated in 1760, the British under Robert Rogers took formal control of the Great Lakes region in 1760. Fort Michilimackinac was occupied by Roger's forces in 1761; the territories of contemporary southern Ontario and southern Quebec were maintained as the single Province of Quebec, as it had been under the French. From 1763 to 1791, the Province of Quebec maintained its French language, cultural behavioural expectations and laws; the British passed the Quebec Act in 1774, which expanded the Quebec colony's authority to include part of the Indian Reserve to the west, other western territories south of the Great Lakes including much of what would become the United States' Northwest Territory, including the modern states of Illinois, Michigan, Ohio and parts of Minnesota. After the American War of Independence ended in 1783, Britain retained control of the area north of the Ohio River; the official boundaries remained undefined until the Jay Treaty.
The British authorities encouraged the movement of people to this area from the United States, offering free land to encourage population growth. For settlers, the head of the family received 100 acres and 50 acres per family member, soldiers received larger grants; these settlers are known as United Empire Loyalists and were English-speaking Protestants. The first townships along the St. Lawrence and eastern Lake Ontario were laid out in 1784, populated with decommissioned soldiers and their families."Upper Canada" became a political entity on 26 December 1791 with the Parliament of Great Britain's passage of the Constitutional Act of 1791. The act divided the Province of Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada, but did not yet specify official borders for Upper Canada; the division was effected so that Loyalist American settlers and British immigrants in Upper Canada could have English laws and institutions, the French-speaking population of Lower Canada could maintain French civil law and the Catholic religion.
The first lieutenant-governor was John Graves Simcoe. The 1795 Jay Treaty set the borders between British North America and the United States north to the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River. On 1 February 1796, the capital of Upper Canada was moved from Newark to York, judged to be less vulnerable to attack by the Americans; the Act of Union 1840, passed 23 July 1840 by the British Parliament and proclaimed by the Crown on 10 February 1841, merged Upper Canada with Lower Canada to form the short-lived United Province of Canada. Upper Canada's constitution was said to be "the image and transcript" of the British constitution, based on the principle of "mixed monarchy" – a balance of monarchy and democracy; the Executive arm of government in the colony consisted of a lieutenant-governor, his executive council, the Officers of the Crown: the Adjutant General of the Militia, the Attorney General, the Auditor General of Land Patents for Upper Canada, the Auditor General, Crown Lands Office, Indian Office, Inspector General, Kings' Printer, Provincial Secretary & Registrar's Office, Receiver General of Upper Canada, Solicitor General, & Surveyor General.
Armstrong, pp. 8–12 The Executive Council of Upper Canada had a similar function to the Cabinet in England but was not responsible to the Legislative Assembly. They held a consultative position, ho
Library and Archives Canada
Library and Archives Canada is a federal institution tasked with acquiring and making Canada's documentary heritage accessible. It is the fourth biggest library in the world. LAC reports to Parliament through Pablo Rodríguez, the Minister of Canadian Heritage since August 28, 2018; the Dominion Archives was founded in 1872 as a division within the Department of Agriculture and was transformed into the autonomous Public Archives of Canada in 1912 and renamed the National Archives of Canada in 1987. The National Library of Canada was founded in 1953. Freda Farrell Waldon contributed to the writing of the brief which led to the founding of the National Library of Canada. In 2004, Library and Archives Canada combined the functions of the National Archives of Canada and the National Library of Canada, it was established by the Library and Archives of Canada Act, proclaimed on April 22, 2004. A subsequent Order in Council dated May 21, 2004 united the collections and personnel of the National Archives of Canada and the National Library of Canada.
Since inception LAC has reported to Parliament through the Minister of Canadian Heritage. LAC's stated mandate is: to preserve the documentary heritage of Canada for the benefit of present and future generations. LAC is expected to maintain "effective recordkeeping practices that ensure transparency and accountability". LAC's holdings include the archival records of the Government of Canada, representative private archives, 20 million books acquired through legal deposit, 24 million photographs, more than a petabyte of digital content; some of this content the book collection, university theses and census material, is available online. Many items are only available in physical form; as of May 2013 only about 1% of the collection had been digitized, representing "about 25 million of the more popular and most fragile items". The collection includes: the proclamation of the Canadian Constitution Act, which bears marks left by raindrops during a ceremony on Parliament Hill in April 1982 when Queen Elizabeth II signed it.
Genealogists account for 70% of LAC's clients. The building at 395 Wellington Street in downtown Ottawa is the main physical location where the public may access the collection in person; the building was opened on June 20, 1967. With the de-emphasis on physical visits, in-person services have been curtailed, for example since April 2012 reference services are by appointment only, the role of this building is decreasing. There are administrative offices in Gatineau and preservation and storage facilities throughout Canada for federal government records; the Preservation Centre in the city centre of Gatineau, about 10 kilometres away from the Ottawa headquarters, was designed to provide a safe environment for the long-term storage and preservation of Canada's valuable collections. It was built at a cost of CDN$107 million, the official opening took place on June 4, 1997, it is a unique building containing 48 climate-controlled preservation vaults and state-of-the-art preservation laboratories.
In 2000, the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada named it one of the top 500 buildings constructed in Canada during the last millennium. A Nitrate Film Preservation Facility on the Communications Research Centre campus in Shirleys Bay, on the outskirts of Ottawa, houses Canada's cellulose nitrate film collection; the collection contains 5,575 film reels dating back to 1912, including some of the first Canadian motion pictures and photographic negatives. The film material is sensitive and requires precise temperatures for its preservation; the state-of-the-art facility, opened on June 21, 2011, is an eco-designed building featuring an environmentally friendly roof that provides better insulation and minimizes energy expenditures. A planned key activity for 2013–14 was to rehouse analogue information resources in a new state-of-the-art high-density storage facility in Gatineau, where the national newspaper collection and records of Second World War veterans will be stored; the facility will feature a high bay metal shelving system with a suitable environment to better protect Canada's published heritage.
In January 2019, Library and Archives Canada announced that negotiations for a new facility to be built next to the existing one in Gatineau were starting, with an opening date in 2022. LAC's online collection is accessible via its website and LAC provides ongoing information online via its blog, the Twitter and Facebook social networking services, the Flickr image-sharing site, the YouTube video-sharing site. RSS feeds provide links to news about LAC services and resources. A new modernized website is being developed and is scheduled for completion in 2013, with both new and old websites accessible during the transition period. In June 2004 LAC issued a discussion paper Creating a New Kind of Knowledge Institution, after consultation in
Quaker views on women
Quaker views on women have always been considered progressive in their own time, in the late 19th century this tendency bore fruit in the prominence of Quaker women in the American women's rights movement. The early history of attitudes towards gender in the Religious Society of Friends is notable for providing for one of the largest and most equitable roles for women in the Christian tradition at the time, despite not endorsing universal equality until much later. For many outside observers during the first hundred years of Quakerism, the most surprising aspect of Quakerism was that "ministry" – the prerogative to speak during a Quaker meeting – was open to women from the beginnings of the movement in the 1650s. One of the earliest to formulate direct biblical justification for this was Sarah Blackborow. In James Boswell's Life of Johnson, Samuel Johnson's opinion of a female Quaker preacher was recorded thus: "Sir, a woman's preaching is like a dog walking on his hind legs, it is not done well.
In the early years, a large number – possibly the majority – of traveling Quaker preachers were women. Aside from ministry, Quaker women were allowed to travel alone and to publish, unusual for the time. For many Quakers, both historical and contemporary, the inclusion of women is part of what is now called the "Testimony of Equality". However, despite that testimony, women's roles were not equal for many years. In the beginning, Meetings for Business were dominated by male Friends, but within twenty-five years, George Fox ordered establishment of separate women's meetings when he faced challenges to his leadership. Controversial was his decision that women's meetings for discipline should be the first to pass on a couple's intention to be married. Separate meetings were eliminated later. Having authority over any business at all – let alone authority over men – was a radical move in the 17th century, gave women then-rare experience in running organizations. Concerning the introduction and much dissolution of separate meetings, one historian writes, "On balance, in the long run, I believe that the separate women's meeting was good for women.
The tradition of Quaker involvement in women's rights continued into the 20th and 21st centuries, with Quakers playing large roles in organizations continuing to work on women's rights. Daughters of Light: Quaker Women Preaching and Prophesying. “Women in the Society of Friends”, by Janet Scott in A Quaker miscellany for Edward H. Milligan, edited by David Blamires, Jeremy Greenwood and Alex Kerr, published by David Blamires ISBN 0-9510152-1-4
Feminism in Canada
The history of feminism in Canada has been a gradual struggle aimed at establishing equal rights. The history of Canadian feminism, like modern Western feminism in other countries, has been divided by scholars into four "waves", each describing a period of intense activism and social change; the use of "waves" has been critiqued for its failure to include feminist activism of, for example, Aboriginal and Québécois women who organized for changes in their own communities as well as for larger social change. The first wave of feminism in Canada occurred in the late early 20th centuries; this early activism was focused on increasing women's role in public life, with goals including women's suffrage, increased property rights, increased access to education, recognition as "persons" under the law. This early iteration of Canadian feminism was based in maternal feminism. In this view, women were seen to be a civilizing force on society –, a significant part of women's engagement in missionary work and in the Woman's Christian Temperance Union.
The first wave in Canada was different in Québec. Although the first wave was developed at an earlier time, many women in Québec had to wait until April 1940 for their right to vote and run in elections. Canadian women's social and cultural roles and influence changed during WWII. Women had taken over many of the missing roles of men. Women took over farms and proved their importance in society. Religion was an important factor in the early stages of the Canadian women's movement; some of the earliest groups of organized women came together for a religious purpose. When women were rejected as missionaries by their Churches and missionary societies, they started their own missionary societies and raised funds to send female missionaries abroad; some of them raised enough to train some of their missionaries as doctors. The first of these missionary societies was founded in Canso, Nova Scotia, in 1870 by a group of Baptist women inspired by Hannah Norris, a teacher who wanted to be a missionary. Norris asked the women in her Church for help when her application to the Baptist Foreign Mission Board was rejected.
The formed their own missionary society, soon there were Presbyterian and Anglican women missionary societies forming across the western provinces, Quebec and the Maritimes. These new societies not only enabled women to work as missionaries, they gave women the opportunity to manage the funding and employment of female missionaries in foreign countries. Women's religious organizing was a means through which women could advocate social change; the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, for example, was formed in 1874 by Letitia Youmans of Picton, Ontario, in order to raise awareness of the negative consequences of alcohol consumption on society, to ban alcohol and promote evangelical family values. Inspired by its American counterpart, the WCTU grew to become one of the first organizations to fight for suffrage while being a training ground for future suffrage leaders; the Hebrew Ladies Sewing Circle worked to promote social change through religion-inspired organizing. It was organized by Ida Siegel to provide girls in their community training in sewing skills and as a response to the conversion attempts of Jewish youth by Protestant Evangelicals in Toronto grew to establish a Jewish Endeavour Sewing School where they taught girls sewing, Jewish religion and history.
Other examples include the Young Women's Christian Association which provided services such as reception centres and educational programs for single working class women along with The Girls’ Friendly Society, the Catholic Women's League, the Grey Nuns of Montreal who provided daycare centres for working women. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries women in Canada were making inroads into various professions including teaching, social work, public health. Grace Annie Lockhart became the first woman in the British Empire to receive a bachelor's degree, providing clear evidence of the justice of women's claim to full rights in the field of higher education. Advances included the establishment of a Women's Medical College in Toronto in 1883, attributed in part to the persistence of Emily Stowe, the first female doctor to practice in Canada. Stowe's daughter, Augusta Stowe-Gullen, became the first woman to graduate from a Canadian medical school. Women established and became involved with organizations to advance women's rights, including suffrage.
In 1893, the National Council of Women of Canada was formed, designed to bring together representatives of different women's groups across Canada, providing a network for women to communicate their concerns and ideas. When they endorsed suffrage, in 1910, the NCWC did so on the basis that women had an indispensable role in society which should give them the right to participate in public life by electing their government, in keeping with the maternal feminism prevalent in the period. During World War I, women took on not only traditionally feminine jobs, but heavy work such as in munitions factories; this changed role of women increased women's political prominence, issues such as women's suffrage were raised. During the 1920s, women adventurers pushed the boundaries of acceptable behavior for women. From 1922 until 1929, Aloha Wanderwell became the first woman to trave