Marshall Bruce Mathers III, known professionally as Eminem, is an American rapper, record producer, record executive and actor. He is one of the most successful musical artists of the 21st century. In addition to his solo career, Eminem was a member of the hip hop group D12, he is known for collaborations with fellow Detroit-based rapper Royce da 5'9". After his debut album Infinite and the extended play Slim Shady EP, Eminem signed with Dr. Dre's Aftermath Entertainment and subsequently achieved mainstream popularity in 1999 with The Slim Shady LP and its lead single "My Name Is", his next two releases The Marshall Mathers LP and The Eminem Show were worldwide successes and were both nominated for the Grammy Award for Album of the Year. As a result of being a leading figure in a form of black music, Eminem was subject to comparisons to Elvis Presley at the time. After the release of Encore in 2004, which faced heavy criticism by fans and critics for its lackluster quality, Eminem went on hiatus in 2005 due to a prescription drug addiction.
He released Relapse in 2009 and Recovery the following year, which both won Grammy Awards for Best Rap Album. Recovery was the best-selling album of 2010 worldwide, making it his second album, after The Eminem Show in 2002, to be the best-selling album worldwide. In the following years, he released the US number one albums The Marshall Mathers LP 2, Revival and Music to Be Murdered By. Eminem starred in the drama film 8 Mile playing a fictionalized version of himself, which won the Academy Award for Best Original Song for "Lose Yourself", making him the first hip hop artist to win the award, he has made cameo appearances in the films The Wash, Funny People, The Interview, the television series Entourage. Eminem has developed other ventures, including Shady Records, with manager Paul Rosenberg, which helped launch the careers of artists such as 50 Cent and Obie Trice, among others, he has established his own channel, Shade 45, on Sirius XM Radio. Eminem is among the best-selling music artists of all time.
He was the best-selling music artist in the United States in the 2000s. The Marshall Mathers LP, The Eminem Show, "Lose Yourself", "Love the Way You Lie" and "Not Afraid" are all certified Diamond by the Recording Industry Association of America, he has won numerous awards, including 15 Grammy Awards, eight American Music Awards, 17 Billboard Music Awards, an Academy Award and a MTV Europe Music Award for Global Icon. Eminem has had ten number one albums on the Billboard 200, which all consecutively debuted at number one on the chart making him the only artist to achieve this, five number-one singles on the Billboard Hot 100. Rolling Stone included Eminem in its list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. Marshall Bruce Mathers III was born on October 17, 1972 in St. Joseph, the only child of Marshall Bruce Mathers Jr. and Deborah Rae "Debbie". He is of English, German, German Swiss and Luxembourgian ancestry, his mother nearly died during her 73-hour labor with him. Eminem's parents were in a band called Daddy Warbucks, playing in Ramada Inns along the Dakotas–Montana border before their separation.
Eminem's father, referred to by his middle name Bruce, left the family, moving to California and having two other children: Michael and Sarah. Debbie had son Nathan "Nate" Kane Samara. During his childhood and Debbie shuttled between Michigan and Missouri staying in one house for more than a year or two and living with family members. In Missouri, they lived in several places, including St. Joseph and Kansas City; as a teenager, Eminem wrote letters to his father, which Debbie stated all came back marked "return to sender". Friends and family remember Eminem as a happy child, but "a bit of a loner", bullied. One bully, D'Angelo Bailey injured Eminem's head in an assault. Eminem spent much of his youth in a working-class black, Detroit neighborhood, he and Debbie were one of three white households on their block, Eminem was beaten by black youths several times. As a child he was interested in storytelling, aspiring to be a comic-book artist before discovering hip hop. Eminem heard his first rap song on the Breakin' soundtrack, a gift from Debbie's half-brother Ronnie Polkingharn, close to him and became a musical mentor to him.
When Polkingharn committed suicide in 1991, Eminem stopped speaking for days and did not attend his funeral. Eminem's home life was stable; when her son became famous, Debbie was unimpressed by suggestions that she was a less-than-ideal mother, contending that she sheltered him and was responsible for his success. In 1987, Debbie allowed runaway Kimberly Anne "Kim" Scott to stay at their home. After spending three years in ninth grade due to truancy and poor grades, he dropped out of Lincoln High School at age 17. Although he was interested in English, he never explored literature and disliked math and social studies. Eminem worked at several jobs to help his mother pay the bills maintaining that she threw him out of the house anyway after taking most of his paycheck. When
Hurricane Hermine was the first hurricane to make landfall in Florida since Hurricane Wilma in 2005, the first to develop in the Gulf of Mexico since Hurricane Ingrid in 2013. The ninth tropical depression, eighth named storm, fourth hurricane of the 2016 Atlantic hurricane season, Hermine developed in the Florida Straits on August 28 from a long-tracked tropical wave; the precursor system dropped heavy rainfall in portions of the Caribbean the Dominican Republic and Cuba. In the former, the storm displaced over 1,000 people. Although some areas of Cuba recorded more than 12 in of rain, the precipitation was beneficial due to a severe drought. After being designated on August 29, Hermine shifted northeastwards due to a trough over Georgia and intensified into an 80 mph Category 1 hurricane just before making landfall in the Florida Panhandle during September 2. After moving inland, Hermine weakened and transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on September 3 near the Outer Banks of North Carolina.
The remnant system meandered offshore the Northeastern United States before dissipating over southeastern Massachusetts on September 8. In preparation of Hermine, multiple tropical cyclone warnings and watches were issued in the Southeastern United States, while state of emergencies were declared in Florida, North Carolina, Virginia and New Jersey. Storm surge and heavy rainfall along the Florida gulf coast caused significant damage. In Citrus County, one of the worst areas impacted, 2,694 structures sustained damage, of which 531 suffered major damage, while damage reached about $102 million. Similar coastal and freshwater flooding occurred in Pasco County, where 7 homes were destroyed, 305 sustained major damage, 1,564 received minor damage. Winds left power outages and downed trees, some of which fell onto buildings and vehicles. About 325,000 people were left including 80 % of Tallahassee. One death occurred in the state. Flooding and strong winds in other states such as Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina caused further damage, but to a lesser degree.
One fatality each occurred in North Carolina. In New York, two fishermen drowned near the Wading River on Long Island due to rough surf. Overall, Hermine caused about $550 million in damage in the United States. A tropical wave emerged into the Atlantic Ocean from the west coast of Africa between late August 16 and early August 17. On August 18, the National Hurricane Center first noted the tropical wave as a potential area for development, associated with an area of disorganized convection about 300 mi southwest of Cabo Verde. Environmental conditions were expected to be favorable for continued organization. Dry and stable air was an initial inhibiting factor in development, with deep convection waning on August 20 and August 21. However, the convection and circulation had become better defined by August 21. By August 23, the system had developed an elongated and poorly-defined circulation, as indicated by the Hurricane Hunters, though convention continued to expand. On the next day, the low pressure area crossed Guadeloupe into the Caribbean Sea while producing gale-force winds.
By this point, the NHC noted that the system could develop into a tropical depression at any time, as the system was only lacking a well-defined circulation. Marginal wind shear disrupted the system's organization, it passed north of Puerto Rico without further development, with winds dropping below gale-force on August 25; the system moved westward with a forward speed averaging about 23 mph, but slowed down after the northern portion of the wave split off on August 26. The low pressure area crossed the southern Bahamas with scattered convection, becoming more defined on August 27 while moving near the northern Cuban coast. Wind shear prevented quicker development, although conditions became more favorable closer to the Gulf of Mexico. On August 28, the convection became more organized; that day, the Hurricane Hunters observed a well-defined circulation. Based on the observations and the convective organization, it is estimated that Tropical Depression Nine developed at 18:00 UTC on August 28 while situated about 60 mi south-southeast of Key West, Florida.
Deep convection increased further as the depression moved more into the Gulf of Mexico, steered by a ridge over southern Florida, although it remained ragged and displaced from the circulation. Dry air to the system's west negated the otherwise favorable warm waters; the depression failed to organize more on August 30 as the low- and mid-level circulations remained misaligned. A large plume of convection developed over the system on August 31 as outflow improved and wind shear decreased; that day, reports from the Hurricane Hunters indicated that the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Hermine about 395 mi southwest of Apalachicola, Florida. Late on August 31, Hermine began accelerating to the northeast, influenced by a developing mid-level trough over the southeastern United States. Lessening shear and water temperatures around 86 °F allowed the storm to intensify. Although outflow was restricted to the northwest, curved rainbands increased over the eastern half of the system, increasing the extent of tropical storm-force winds.
Additionally, a ragged eye became visible on satellite imagery on September 1, at 18:00 UTC, Hermine intensified into a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson scale. The hurricane strengthened further to a peak intensity of 80 mph by 00:00 UTC on September 2. At around 05:30 UTC
Dejima was a Dutch trading post located in Nagasaki, Japan from 1641 to 1854. Dejima was a small fan-shaped artificial island in the bay of Nagasaki covering an area of 120 m × 75 m or 9,000 m2, is listed in old Western documents Latinised as Deshima, Decuma, Dezima, Disma, or Disima. Dejima was built in 1634 to house Portuguese traders and separate them from Japanese society by digging a canal through a small peninsula; the Dutch were moved to Dejima in 1641 and during most of the Edo period the island was the single place of direct trade and exchange between Japan and the outside world. Dejima was abolished after the Treaty of Kanagawa in 1854 and the island was integrated into Nagasaki city through land reclamation. In 1922, the "Dejima Dutch Trading Post" was designated a Japanese national historic site. In 1543, the history of direct contacts between Japan and Europe began with the arrival of storm-blown Portuguese merchants on Tanegashima. Six years the Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier landed in Kagoshima.
At first Portuguese traders were based in Hirado. In 1570 daimyō Ōmura Sumitada converted to Catholicism and made a deal with the Portuguese to develop Nagasaki. In 1580 Sumitada gave the jurisdiction of Nagasaki to the Jesuits, the Portuguese obtained the de facto monopoly on the silk trade with China through Macau; the shōgun Iemitsu ordered the construction of the artificial island in 1634, to accommodate the Portuguese traders living in Nagasaki and prevent the propagation of their religion. This was one of the many edicts put forth by Iemitsu between 1633 and 1639 moderating contact between Japan and other countries. However, in response to the uprising of the predominantly Christian population in the Shimabara-Amakusa region, the Tokugawa government decided to expel the Portuguese in 1639. Since 1609, the Dutch East India Company had run a trading post on the island of Hirado; the departure of the Portuguese left the Dutch employees of the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie as the sole Westerners with trade access to Japan.
For 33 years they were allowed to trade freely. At its maximum the Hirado trading post covered a large area. In 1637 and 1639 stone warehouses were constructed within the ambit of this Hirado trading post. Christian-era year dates were used on the stonework of the new warehouses and these were used in 1640 as a pretext to demolish the buildings and relocate the trading post to Nagasaki. With the expulsion of the last Portuguese in 1639, Dejima became a failed commercial post and without the annual trading with Portuguese ships from Macau, the economy of Nagasaki suffered greatly; the Dutch were forced by government officials to move from Hirado to Dejima in Nagasaki. From 1641 on, only Chinese and Dutch ships were allowed to come to Japan, Nagasaki harbor was the only harbor they were allowed to enter. On the administrative level, the island of Dejima was part of the city of Nagasaki; the 25 local Japanese families who owned the land received an annual rent from the Dutch. Dejima was a small island, 120 metres by 75 metres, linked to the mainland by a small bridge, guarded on both sides, with a gate on the Dutch side.
It contained houses for about twenty Dutchmen and accommodation for Japanese officials. The Dutch were watched by a number of Japanese officials, night watchmen, a supervisor with about fifty subordinates. Numerous merchants supplied goods and catering, about 150 interpreters served, they all had to be paid by the VOC. As the city of Nagasaki, Dejima was under the direct supervision of Edo through a governor; every ship that arrived in Dejima was inspected. Its sails were held by the Japanese, they confiscated religious weapons. The Dutch were not allowed to hold any religious services on the island. Despite the financial burden of maintaining the isolated outpost on Dejima, the trade with Japan was profitable for the Dutch yielding profits of 50% or more. Trade declined in the 18th century. After the bankruptcy of the East-India Company in 1795, the Dutch government took over the exchange with Japan. Times were hard when the Netherlands was under French Napoleonic rule. All ties with the homeland were severed at Dejima, for a while, it was the only place in the world where the Dutch flag was flown.
The chief Dutch official in Japan was called the Opperhoofd by the Dutch, or Kapitan by the Japanese. This descriptive title did not change. Throughout these years, the plan was to have one incumbent per year with some flexibility; the Dutch traded in silk and materia medica from China and India, but sugar became more important later. Deer pelts and shark skin were transported to Japan from Taiwan, as well as books, scientific instruments and many other rarities from Europe. In return, the Dutch traders bought Japanese copper, camphor, lacquer ware, rice. To this was added the personal trade of VOC employees on Dejima, an important source of income for them and their Japanese counterparts, they sold more than 10,000 foreign books on various scientific subjects to the Japanese from the end of the 18th to the early 19th century. These became the basis of knowledge and a factor in Dutch studies. In all, 606 Dutch ships arrived at Dejima during its two centuries of settlement