Masfout is a village that forms part of the eponymous exclave of Masfout in Ajman, one of the seven emirates forming the United Arab Emirates. It is surrounded by the Dubai exclave of Hatta and Oman, it is only accessible from Ajman itself by crossing territories of Sharjah, Ras Al Khaimah, Oman. The village has a number of government facilities and municipal centres, including a dedicated courthouse built in 2017; the 13,500 square metre Waraqa Park surrounds the former house of the founder of Ajman, Sheikh Rashid bin Humaid Al Nuaimi. In 2017 the Masfout Heights Resort Project was announced, intended as a mixed use hotel and tourism project. Digging water wells in the exclave was banned by the Ajman government as water depletion became an issue with over 80 unregulated wells sunk into the area's aquifers. Masfout is home to UAE Division One football club Masfout CFC. Masfout Fort is located on the craggy mountains above the village, restored in the 1940s by Sheikh Rashid bin Humaid, it was intended to protect against bandits from Oman.
The village is home to the 1815 Bin Sultan Mosque. The nearby village forming the other densely inhabited part of the exclave is Sayh Mudayrah. Masfout was traditionally home to the Na'im tribe, who were in the main settled in Buraimi, they found themselves under threat in 1905 when the Bedouin Bani Qitab built a fort at Wadi Hatta and started to harass caravans passing through the pass to the Omani Batina coast. Appealing to Zayed bin Khalifa Al Nahyan of Abu Dhabi, following a meeting of the Trucial Sheikhs in Dubai in April of that year, they gained Zayed's support and retained Masfout; the Na'im of Masfout were in constant conflict with their neighbours, the people of Hajarain, which became a dependency of Dubai and more known as Hatta. In 1948, following a period of decline for the Na'im, Masfout was seized from its Na'im Sheikh, Saqr bin Sultan Al Hamouda, by Sheikh Rashid bin Humaid Al Nuaimi III of Ajman when Hamouda was unable to raise a force of men to oppose Rashid. A period of uncertainty followed as the various Sheikhs of the region attempted to jostle for influence in order to sign petroleum concessions, with the Sultan in Muscat and the Saudis paying tribute in return for fealty which turned out to be short-lived from both the Bani Qitab and the Na'im, as well as other tribes of the interior of the Trucial States.
These attempts to harness title to areas of the interior among the rulers and tribes led to the Buraimi Dispute. Masfout has been part of the Emirate of Ajman since
Ras Al Khaimah
Ras Al Khaimah, to an extent identified with the historical area of Julfar, is one of the seven emirates that make up the United Arab Emirates. The city of Ras Al Khaimah, sometimes abbreviated to RAK City, is the capital of the Emirate, home to most of the Emirate's residents, its name in English means "headland of the tent". The emirate borders Oman's exclave of Musandam, occupies part of the same peninsula, it has 64 km of beach coastline. As of 2015, the emirate had a population of about 345,000. RAK city has two main areas - the Old Town and Nakheel - on either side of a creek, home to mangroves and is framed by the North-Western Hajar Mountains; the emirate consists of several villages and new gated residential developments, such as Al-Hamra Village and Mina Al-Arab. The emirate is served by Ras Al Khaimah International Airport, its geography consists of a northern part and a large southerly inland exclave, a few small islands in the Persian Gulf. Ras Al Khaimah has the most fertile soil in the country, due to a larger share of rainfall and underground water streams from the Hajar.
Ras Al Khaimah has been the site of continuous human habitation for 7,000 years, one of the few places in the country and the world where this is the case, there are many historical and archaeological sites throughout the emirate - local sources cite 1,000 - dating from different time periods, including remnants of the Umm Al Nar Culture. The area of Shimal contains both Umm Al Nar and Wadi Suq burials and a number of notable finds, including one grave that contained no fewer than 18 fine bronze arrowheads. Wadi Suq era graves found at Seih Al Harf in the Emirate in October 2012 held up the construction of the northern spur of the arterial E611 road. Ras Al Khaimah is considered to be the historical area of Julfar, according to Sheikh Sultan bin Muhammad Al-Qasimi, current ruler of Sharjah Emirate, it was founded by Armenians who escaped Persia during the Mongol invasion. Archaeological evidence has however demonstrated that the settlement known as Julfar shifted location over time as harbour channels silted up.
Excavations of a sizable tell, which revealed remnants of a Sassanid era fortification, indicate that early Julfar was located in the north of the present city of Ras Al Khaimah, not far from other sites of historical and archaeological interest such as'Sheba's Palace'. Hafit abounds in palm trees. Dibba and Julfar, both in the direction of the Hajar, are close to the sea... Like Dibba and the region of Tawam, this region witnessed events relevant to the history of Islam during the Umayyad and Abbasid eras. One of Ras Al Khaimah's most well-known sons, Ibn Majid, was a seaman and navigator, who navigated Vasco da Gama from Malindi to Calicut in 1498. There is considerable debate locally regarding the 18th-century charge of maritime piracy, attracting the British label'The Pirate Coast' to the Eastern Gulf. Local interpretations of the dispute with the British were that the British became aggressive in protecting their trade but this resulted in interference in locals' livelihoods, so they took exception to it.
However, in the early 18th century, the Al Qasimi dynasty established itself in Ras Al Khaimah and Sharjah on the Arabian Peninsula, growing to become a significant maritime force with holdings on both the Persian and Arabian coasts that came into conflict with British flagged shipping. It was the Al Qasimi links to Persia that drew them to the attention of Ahmed bin Said, the Ruler of Muscat, who had wrested control of the coast and interior of Oman back from the Persian forces who had taken it under Nadir Shah and Mirza Taki Khan, the governor of Shiraz. Ahmed bin Said threw 12,000 men under the command of Kandhala bin Saif Al Suwaidi in an attack on Ras Al Khaimah, met at Buraimi by 14,000 men of the Al Qasimi and Na'im, they were defeated, to surrender. He went on to take Khasab and blockaded Ras Al Khaimah, Jazirat Al Hamra and Sharjah; this led to all but Ras Al Khaimah suing for peace in 1763. The Sheikhs of Ras Al Khaimah submitted in 1771, but in 1775 revolted and re-took the towns on the West and East coast, consolidating their gains under the weak rule of Sultan bin Ahmed bin Saeed.
This longstanding war between the Al Qasimi and Muscat pitted them against Muscat's ally – Britain. In the aftermath of a series of attacks in 1808 off the coast Sindh involving 50 Qasimi raiders and following the 1809 monsoon season, the British authorities in India decided to make a significant show of force against the Al Qasimi, in an effort not only to destroy their larger bases and as many ships as could be found, but to counteract French encouragement of them from their embassies in Persia and Oman; the British mounted the Persian Gulf campaign of 1809, in which the Al Qasimi fleet was destroyed. The British operation continued to Linga on the Persian coast which was, like the Greater and Lesser Tunbs islands, administered by the Al Qasimi. By the morning of 14 November, the military expedition was over and the British forces returned to their ships, having suffered light casualties of five killed and 34 wounded. Arab losses are unknown, but were significant, while the damage done to the Al Qasimi fleets was severe: a significant portion of their vessels had been destroyed.
With the 1809 camp
Hatta, United Arab Emirates
Hatta is the inland exclave of the emirate of Dubai in the United Arab Emirates. It is about 134 km east of Dubai City, it is located high in the Hajar Mountains. It borders Oman to the east and the south, the Ajmani exclave of Masfout to the west, Ras al-Khaimah to the north. Known as Hajarain, Hatta became a dependency of Dubai during the reign of Hasher Bin Maktoum after the Omani Sultan Turki bin Said transferred the territory, finding himself unable to defend it against the Na'im of Buraimi, who had settled neighbouring Masfout; the village was still called Hajarain as as 1906. The old village of Hatta includes two prominent military towers from the 18th century and the Juma mosque, built in 1780 and is the oldest building in Hatta; the traditional water supply was through the falaj system, restored. Since it is located in the mountains, traditionally it was the summer habitation of Dubai-based families escaping the heat and humidity of the coast. Since the early 1980s, Hatta has been a popular destination for adventuring expatriates and local families alike'wadi bashing' through the tracks between Hatta, Mahdah and Al Ain.
Hatta's main economic factor is water. The area was able to grow date palms, the fruits were used as a food source, while the tree was used for building material, it has a popular heritage village, including a collection of reconstructed traditional mountain dwellings and is popular for weekend getaways with both people camping in the winter months or staying at the Hatta Fort Hotel, located only 2.7 km from away from Hatta Dam. Hatta Dam was built in 1990's to supply the area with water. Hatta Kayak is a popular tourist destination and a favourite spot for kayaking in UAE. Dubai Electricity and Water Authority plans a 250 MW pumped-storage hydroelectricity at Hatta using 880 million gallons of water 300 metres above a lower dam, it is home to football side Hatta Club. Media related to Hatta at Wikimedia Commons Data Dubai: Hatta’s history at the Wayback Machine Department of Tourism and Commerce Marketing, Government of Dubai: Historical Sites — Hatta Village at the Wayback Machine
Sayh Mudayrah, pronounced locally Sayḥ Muzayraʿ, is a township in Masfout, an exclave of the Emirate of Ajman, the United Arab Emirates. It is located on the Madam/Hatta Highway. A large village which has developed parallel to the E44, Sayh Mudayrah gives its name to a geological fault line linked to the Hatta fault zone; the village, located on an alluvial fan, is rich in soil and water resources and its fertile land has long encouraged settlement. It sits on a watershed between the east and west coasts of the UAE, which gives rise to the unusual wadi formation at Sinadil, which sees water flowing from the same spot both West towards the Persian Gulf and East towards the Indian Ocean
Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum
Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum is the vice president and prime minister of the United Arab Emirates, ruler of the Emirate of Dubai. Since his accession in 2006, after the death of his brother Sheikh Maktoum, he has undertaken reforms in the UAE's government, starting with the UAE Federal Government Strategy in April 2007. In 2010 he launched the UAE vision 2021 with the aim of making the UAE'one of the best countries in the world' by 2021, he is responsible for the growth of Dubai into a global city, as well as the launch of a number of major enterprises including Emirates Airline, DP World, the Jumeirah Group. Many of these are held by Dubai Holding, a company with multi-diversified businesses and investments. Sheikh Mohammed has overseen the development of numerous projects in Dubai including the creation of a technology park and a free economic zone, Dubai Internet City, Dubai Media City, the Dubai International Finance Centre, the Palm Islands and the Burj Al Arab hotel, he drove the construction of Burj Khalifa, the tallest building in the world.
An equestrian, he is the founder of the Maktoum family-owned Godolphin racing stable and the owner of Darley, a thoroughbred breeding operation with operations in six countries. In 2012, he rode, he is a recognised poet in his native Arabic. He has a special relationship with Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, the Crown Prince of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, the Deputy Supreme Commander of the UAE Armed Forces, is seen as the de facto leader of the UAE. Sheikh Mohammed is the third of Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum's four sons, members of Dubai's ruling Al Maktoum family and descendants of the House of Al-Falasi, of which Sheikh Mohammed is the tribal leader, his mother was Sheikha Latifa bint Hamdan Al Nahyan, daughter of Sheikh Hamdan bin Zayed bin Khalifa Al Nahyan the ruler of Abu Dhabi. From the age of four, he was tutored in Arabic and Islamic Studies. In 1955, he began his formal education at Al Ahmedia School. At the age of 10, he moved to Al Shaab School, two years went to Dubai Secondary School.
In 1966, with his cousin Mohammed bin Khalifa Al Maktoum, he attended the Bell Educational Trust's English Language School in the United Kingdom. He subsequently studied at the Mons Officer Cadet School in Aldershot, passing out with the sword of honour as the top Commonwealth student, he travelled to Italy to train as a pilot. As a young man, in January 1968, he was present when Sheikh Rashid and Sheikh Zayed first met in the desert between Dubai and Abu Dhabi at Argoub El Sedira to agree to the formation of a union of emirates following British notification of intent to withdraw from the Trucial States; when the new nation of the United Arab Emirates was founded on 2 December 1971, he became its first Minister of Defence. On his return from military training to Dubai, Sheikh Mohammed's father appointed him head of the Dubai Police Force and the Dubai Defence Force, to become part of the Union Defence Force. A period of uncertainty and instability followed the Union of the United Arab Emirates, including skirmishes between tribes over property straddling new borders.
On 24 January 1972, the exiled former ruler of the Emirate of Sharjah, Saqr bin Sultan Al Qasimi led an insurrectionist coup against the ruler, Khalid bin Mohammed Al Qasimi. Following a spirited firefight between the Union Defence Force and Saqr's forces - Egyptian mercenaries who had entered the UAE through Ras Al Khaimah - Sheikh Mohammed accepted Saqr's surrender. Sheikh Khalid had been killed in the action, leading to the accession of his brother Sultan bin Muhammad Al-Qasimi as ruler of Sharjah. Mohammed delivered Saqr to Sheikh Zayed. In 1973, Sheikh Mohammed was involved in protracted negotiations with the hijackers of JAL 404, led by Japanese Red Army member Osamu Maruouka, which landed in Dubai after being hijacked as it departed Schiphol. Although unsuccessful in obtaining the release of the hostages, he was more successful in a negotiation with the three hijackers of KLM 861, who released the balance of their hostages and handed over the plane in return for safe passage. Sheikh Mohammed has been responsible for the creation and growth of a number of businesses and economic assets of Dubai, with a number held by two companies under his ownership, Dubai World and Dubai Holding.
Dubai World was launched on 2 July 2006, as a holding company consolidating a number of assets including logistics company DP World, property developer Nakheel Properties, investment company Istithmar World. With more than 50,000 employees in over 100 cities around the globe, the group has real estate and other business investments in the United States, the United Kingdom, South Africa. Dubai Holding develops and manages hospitality, business parks, real estate, telecommunications through four operating units: Jumeirah Group, TECOM Investments, Dubai Properties Group and Emirates International Telecommunications; the company's investment group operating units include Dubai International Capital. He holds a controlling interest in property developer and event management, investment company Meraas Holding, developing a number of retail and themed developments in Dubai, including Legoland and a Bollywood movie theme park. Sheikh Mohammed was responsible for the launch of Emirates Airline, as well as heading the development of both Dubai International Airport and Dubai World Central - Al Maktoum International Airport.
He was al
Enclave and exclave
An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, surrounded by the territory of one other state. Territorial waters have the same sovereign attributes as land, enclaves may therefore exist within territorial waters. An exclave is a portion of a state or territory geographically separated from the main part by surrounding alien territory. Many exclaves are enclaves. Enclave is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory, only surrounded by another state. Vatican City and San Marino, enclaved by Italy, Lesotho, enclaved by South Africa, are enclaved states. Unlike an enclave, an exclave can be surrounded by several states; the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan is an example of an exclave. Semi-enclaves and semi-exclaves are areas that, except for possessing an unsurrounded sea border, would otherwise be enclaves or exclaves. Enclaves and semi-enclaves can exist as independent states, while exclaves always constitute just a part of a sovereign state. A pene-enclave is a part of the territory of one country that can be conveniently approached—in particular, by wheeled traffic—only through the territory of another country.
Pene-enclaves are called functional enclaves or practical enclaves. Many pene-exclaves border their own territorial waters, such as Point Roberts, Washington. A pene-enclave can exist on land, such as when intervening mountains render a territory inaccessible from other parts of a country except through alien territory. A cited example is the Kleinwalsertal, a valley part of Vorarlberg, accessible only from Germany to the north; the word enclave is French and first appeared in the mid-15th century as a derivative of the verb enclaver, from the colloquial Latin inclavare. It was a term of property law that denoted the situation of a land or parcel of land surrounded by land owned by a different owner, that could not be reached for its exploitation in a practical and sufficient manner without crossing the surrounding land. In law, this created a servitude of passage for the benefit of the owner of the surrounded land; the first diplomatic document to contain the word enclave was the Treaty of Madrid, signed in 1526.
The term enclave began to be used to refer to parcels of countries, fiefs, towns, etc. that were surrounded by alien territory. This French word entered the English and other languages to denote the same concept, although local terms have continued to be used. In India, the word "pocket" is used as a synonym for enclave. In British administrative history, subnational enclaves were called detachments or detached parts, national enclaves as detached districts or detached dominions. In English ecclesiastic history, subnational enclaves were known as peculiars; the word exclave, modeled on enclave, is a logically extended back-formation of enclave. Enclaves exist for a variety of historical and geographical reasons. For example, in the feudal system in Europe, the ownership of feudal domains was transferred or partitioned, either through purchase and sale or through inheritance, such domains were or came to be surrounded by other domains. In particular, this state of affairs persisted into the 19th century in the Holy Roman Empire, these domains exhibited many of the characteristics of sovereign states.
Prior to 1866 Prussia alone consisted of more than 270 discontiguous pieces of territory. Residing in an enclave within another country has involved difficulties in such areas as passage rights, importing goods, provision of utilities and health services, host nation cooperation. Thus, over time, enclaves have tended to be eliminated. For example, two-thirds of the then-existing national-level enclaves were extinguished on August 1, 2015, when the governments of India and Bangladesh implemented a Land Boundary Agreement that exchanged 162 first-order enclaves; this exchange thus de-enclaved another two dozen second-order enclaves and one third-order enclave, eliminating 197 of the Indo-Bangladesh enclaves in all. The residents in these enclaves had complained of being stateless. Only Bangladesh's Dahagram–Angarpota enclave remained. For illustration, in the figure, A1 is a semi-enclave. Although A2 is an exclave of A, it cannot be classed as an enclave because it shares borders with B and C; the territory A3 is both an exclave of A and an enclave from the viewpoint of B.
The singular territory D, although an enclave, is not an exclave. An enclave is a part of the territory of a state, enclosed within the territory of another state. To distinguish the parts of a state enclosed in a single other state, they are called true enclaves. A true enclave cannot be reached without passing through the territory of a single other state that surrounds it. Vinokurov calls this the restrictive definition of "enclave" given by international law, which thus "comprises only so-called'true enclaves'". Two examples are Büsingen am Hochrhein, a true enclave of Germany, Campione d'Italia, a true enclave of Italy, both of which are surrounded by Switzerland; the definition of a territory comprises territorial waters. In the case of enclaves in territorial waters, they are called maritime (those surrounded by ter
An emirate is a political territory, ruled by a dynastic Arabic or Islamic monarch-styled emir. The term may refer to a kingdom. Etymologically emirate or amirate is the quality, office or territorial competence of any emir. In English, the term is pronounced or in American English; the United Arab Emirates is a federal state that comprises seven federal emirates, each administered by a hereditary emir, these seven forming the electoral college for the federation's President and Prime Minister. As most emirates have either disappeared, been integrated in a larger modern state or changed their rulers' styles, e.g. to malik or sultan, such true emirate-states have become rare. Furthermore, in Arabic the term can be generalized to mean any province of a country, administered by a member of the ruling class of a member of the royal family, as in Saudi Arabian governorates. A list of present independent Emirates. Kuwait, emirate since 1757 Qatar, emirate since 1878 United Arab Emirates, united since 1971- Emirate of Abu Dhabi Emirate of Ajman Emirate of Dubai Emirate of Fujairah Emirate of Ras al-Khaimah Emirate of Sharjah Emirate of Umm al-Quwain A list of emirates that have either ceased to exist, are not recognized and hold no real power, or were integrated into another country and preserved as "traditional states" arranged by location and in order of the date of the first leader styled "emir."
Emirate of Córdoba, modern Spain and Portugal 756-929 Emirate of Badajoz, modern Portugal and western Spain 1009-1151 Emirate of Almería, region of Almería and Cartagena in modern Spain off and on 1013-1091 Emirate of Jerez, towns of Jerez de la Frontera and Arcos de la Frontera in modern southern Spain 1145-1147 Emirate of Granada, modern southeast Spain 1228-1492 Emirate of Crete, modern Greece, 824 or 827/828 to 961 Emirate of Bari, city of Bari in southern Italy 847-871 Emirate of Malta, 870-1091 Emirate of Sicily, Sicily 965-1072 Emirate of Darband, Azerbaijan 869 — 1075 The Emirate of Armenia, Caucasus 637-884 Emirate of Tbilisi, modern Georgia 736-1080, nominally to 1122 North Caucasian Emirate and Dagestan in the Caucasus 1919-1920 Caucasian Emirate, Caucasus 2007- Emirate of Mosul, modern Iraq 905-1096, 1127-1222, 1254-1383, 1758-1918 Emirate of Melitene, modern central Turkey mid-ninth century to 934 Emirate of Amida, modern Eastern Turkey 983-1085 Karaman Emirate, south-central Anatolia 1250-1487 Ottoman Empire, Middle East, considered an emirate off and on before the title of sultan was adopted, 1299-1383 Emirate of Aydin, state composed of Oghuz Turks in modern Turkey from the early 14th century to 1390 Emirate of Dulkadir, modern Eastern Turkey 1337-1522 Emirate of Ramazan, modern Eastern Turkey 1352-1608 Timurid Emirates, Timur's empire and the minor emirates left behind after the fall of the Timurid dynasty in the Middle East, 1526-c.1550 Soran Emirate, modern northern Iraq 1816–35 Az Zubayr, town in Basra Governorate, Iraq during 19th century Emirate of Transjordan, modern Jordan 1921–46 Uyunid Emirate, the modern Arabian Peninsula 1076–1253 Emirate of Beihan, modern southern Yemen 1680-1967 Emirate of Diriyah in modern Saudi Arabia and UAE 1744-1818 Emirate of Nejd, eastern Arabia 1818–91 Emirate of Dhala, modern southern Yemen early 19th century to 1967 Emirate of Jabal Shammar, northcentral Arabia 1836-1921 Emirate of Nejd and Hasa, central Arabia 1902–21 Idrisid Emirate of Asir, Jizan in modern southwestern Saudi Arabia 1906–34 Emirate of Mecca, Hejaz of modern Saudi Arabia 1916–24 Emirate of Bahrain, 1971–2002 The Al-Qaeda Emirate in Yemen in the interior of Yemen affiliated with Al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula Emirates of Saudi Arabia, the thirteen provinces of Saudi Arabia Emirate of Bukhara, modern Uzbekistan 1785–1920 Emirate of Afghanistan, Afghanistan 1823–1929 Khotan Emirate, 1933 northwest China, merged into First East Turkestan Republic Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, Taliban state in Afghanistan 1996–2001 Islamic Emirate of Waziristan, western Pakistan 2004–2014 Emirate of Nekor, Rif region of modern Morocco 710-1019 Emirate of Ifriqiya, Aghlabid Ifriqiya within modern Tunisia, Sicily and Libya 800-909 Emirate of Tunis, Hafsid Ifriqiya within modern Tunisia and Libya 1229-1574 Zab Emirate, modern Algeria circa 1400 Emirate of Trarza, modern southwest Mauritania 1640s-1910s Emirate of Harar, modern Ethiopia 1647-1887 Emirate of Cyrenaica, modern eastern Libya 1949-1951 Fika Emirate, northeastern Nigeria 15th century - Gwandu Emirate, northwestern Nigeria 15th century to 2005 Kebbi Emirate, northwestern Nigeria 1516- Borgu Emirate, westcentral Nigeria, formed from Bussa Emirate 1730–1954 and Kaiama Emirate 1912–54, unified 1954- Gumel Emirate, northcentral Nigeria 1749- Yauri Emirate, northwestern Nigeria 1799- Gombe Emirate, northeast Nigeria 1804- Kano Emirate, northcentral Nigeria 1805- Bauchi Emirate, northeast Nigeria 1805- Daura Emirate, northcentral Nigeria off and on 1805- Katagum Emirate, northcentral Nigeria 1807- Zaria Emirate, northcentral Nigeria 1808- Potiskum Emirate, northeastern Nigeria 1809- Adamawa Emirate, eastern Nigeria and into western Cameroon 1809- (integrated where prese