Emma Goldman was an anarchist political activist and writer. She played a pivotal role in the development of anarchist political philosophy in North America and Europe in the first half of the 20th century. Born in Kaunas, Russian Empire to a Jewish family, Goldman emigrated to the United States in 1885. Attracted to anarchism after the Chicago Haymarket affair, Goldman became a writer and a renowned lecturer on anarchist philosophy, women's rights, social issues, attracting crowds of thousands, she and anarchist writer Alexander Berkman, her lover and lifelong friend, planned to assassinate industrialist and financier Henry Clay Frick as an act of propaganda of the deed. Frick survived the attempt on his life in 1892, Berkman was sentenced to 22 years in prison. Goldman was imprisoned several times in the years that followed, for "inciting to riot" and illegally distributing information about birth control. In 1906, Goldman founded the anarchist journal Mother Earth. In 1917, Goldman and Berkman were sentenced to two years in jail for conspiring to "induce persons not to register" for the newly instated draft.
After their release from prison, they deported to Russia. Supportive of that country's October Revolution that brought the Bolsheviks to power, Goldman changed her opinion in the wake of the Kronstadt rebellion, she left the Soviet Union and in 1923 published a book about her experiences, My Disillusionment in Russia. While living in England and France, she wrote an autobiography called Living My Life, it was published in two volumes, in 1931 and 1935. After the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, Goldman traveled to Spain to support the anarchist revolution there, she died in Toronto, Canada, on May 14, 1940, aged 70. During her life, Goldman was lionized as a freethinking "rebel woman" by admirers, denounced by detractors as an advocate of politically motivated murder and violent revolution, her writing and lectures spanned a wide variety of issues, including prisons, freedom of speech, capitalism, free love, homosexuality. Although she distanced herself from first-wave feminism and its efforts toward women's suffrage, she developed new ways of incorporating gender politics into anarchism.
After decades of obscurity, Goldman gained iconic status in the 1970s by a revival of interest in her life, when feminist and anarchist scholars rekindled popular interest. Emma Goldman was born into an Orthodox Jewish family in Kovno in the Russian Empire, now known as Kaunas in Lithuania. Goldman's mother Taube Bienowitch had been married before to a man with whom she had two daughters—Helena in 1860 and Lena in 1862; when her first husband died of tuberculosis, Taube was devastated. Goldman wrote: "Whatever love she had had died with the young man to whom she had been married at the age of fifteen."Taube's second marriage was arranged by her family and, as Goldman puts it, "mismated from the first". Her second husband, Abraham Goldman, invested Taube's inheritance in a business that failed; the ensuing hardship, combined with the emotional distance of husband and wife, made the household a tense place for the children. When Taube became pregnant, Abraham hoped for a son, they had three sons, but their first child was Emma.
Emma Goldman was born on June 27, 1869. Her father used violence beating them when they disobeyed him, he used a whip on the most rebellious of them. Her mother provided scarce comfort calling on Abraham to tone down his beatings. Goldman speculated that her father's furious temper was at least a result of sexual frustration. Goldman's relationships with her elder half-sisters and Lena, were a study in contrasts. Helena, the oldest, provided the comfort. Lena, was distant and uncharitable; the three sisters were joined by brothers Louis and Moishe. When Emma was a young girl, the Goldman family moved to the village of Papilė, where her father ran an inn. While her sisters worked, she became friends with a servant named Petrushka, who excited her "first erotic sensations". In Papilė she witnessed a peasant being whipped with a knout in the street; this event contributed to her lifelong distaste for violent authority. At the age of seven, Goldman moved with her family to the Prussian city of Königsberg, she was enrolled in a Realschule.
One teacher punished disobedient students—targeting Goldman in particular—by beating their hands with a ruler. Another teacher was fired when Goldman fought back, she found a sympathetic mentor in her German-language teacher, who loaned her books and took her to an opera. A passionate student, Goldman passed the exam for admission into a gymnasium, but her religion teacher refused to provide a certificate of good behavior and she was unable to attend; the family moved to the Russian capital of Saint Petersburg, where her father opened one unsuccessful store after another. Their poverty forced the children to work, Goldman took an assortment of jobs, including one in a corset shop; as a teenager Goldman begged her father to allow her to return to school, but instead he threw her French book into the fire and shouted: "Girls do not have to learn much! All a Jewish daughter needs to know is how to prepare gefilte fish, cut noodles fine, give the man p
The GF6C was an electric locomotive for freight duties built by General Motors Diesel in collaboration with ASEA of Sweden. Seven of these locomotives were built in 1983 and 1984, for use on the BC Rail's electrified Tumbler Ridge subdivision. Similar to EMD's GM6C testbed locomotive, the GF6C used a frame and running gear, identical to that of EMD's popular SD40-2 diesel-electric locomotive, but had a wide cab and carbody similar to that of GMD's SD40-2F. BC Rail chose electrification for the Tumbler Subdivision because of the long, non-ventilated tunnels, as well as steep grades and sharp curves; the line served the Quintette and Bull-Moose coal mines, hauled coal from said mines to an interchange with CN, where diesel power took over to haul the coal to Prince Rupert where it was loaded onto deep-sea coal carrier ships. A combination of the declining coal market, lack of coal being produced from the Quintette mine led to the electric system being shut down due to low traffic, high maintenance costs.
The system transferred over to diesel hauled trains after the last electrically hauled train left the Teck loadout on October 1, 2000. Towards the years of operation, the GF6C units were de-rated due to the high amount of traction motor failures during operation, it is not known what their horsepower rating was after this modification, however loaded trains leaving the east side of the subdivision saw the use of 3 leading units, 3 helper units per train. Each loaded train would have 2 leading units, 2 helper units; the helper units would be cut from the train upon reaching the summit. In 2004, the Paul D. Roy family purchased locomotive 6001 and donated it to the Prince George Railway and Forestry Museum in Prince George. 6001 is preserved and in remarkable condition, according to the museum's curator and park manager, is still operable if provided with 50 kV of electricity. List of GMD Locomotives
With translated information from the corresponding Japanese Wikipedia article Vice-Admiral Masaichi Niimi was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. Niimi was born in what is now Asakita Ward, Hiroshima City, in Hiroshima Prefecture, as the second son to a farming and soy sauce producing family, he entered the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy on 2 December 1905 and graduated from its 36th class on 21 November 1908, ranking 15th out of 191 cadets. As a midshipman, he served on the cruisers Izumo, he was commissioned an ensign on 15 January 1910 and promoted to sub-lieutenant on 1 December 1911. He attended naval artillery and torpedo school in 1910, was assigned back to the Aso, followed by the destroyer Yayoi. Promoted to lieutenant on 1 December 1914, he served on the cruiser Katori, battlecruiser Ibuki, battleship Kawachi and destroyer Umikaze, he attended the Naval War College in 1917, specializing in naval artillery, graduating fourth in his class of 24 on 26 November 1919.
He became chief gunnery officer on the battleship Ise and was promoted to lieutenant commander on 1 December 1920. He was sent to the United Kingdom as a naval attaché from 1923–1925, during which time he was further promoted to commander on 1 December 1924. In 1922, he wrote a report to the Navy General Staff on the importance of protecting merchant shipping in times of war. On his return to Japan, he was assigned as executive officer on the cruiser Kuma in 1926, he was promoted to captain on 30 November 1929. On 1 April 1931, he was given his first command: the cruiser Ōi, he subsequently served as captain of the cruisers Maya. Niimi was promoted to rear admiral on 15 November 1935. In 1937, he accompanied Prince Chichibu to England for the Coronation Ceremonies of King George VI, afterwards visiting France and the United States. After serving as chief of staff of the Kure Naval District and of the IJN 2nd Fleet, he was further promoted to vice admiral and Commandant of the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy on 15 November 1939.
On 4 April 1941, he assumed command of the 2nd China Expeditionary Fleet, was responsible for the naval component of the invasion of Hong Kong, where his duties involved the blockade of Hong Kong harbor with small patrol craft and a couple of light cruisers. He nominally shared the position of Head of Japanese Occupation Forces in Hong Kong with General Takashi Sakai, but his authority was limited to offshore areas. On 14 July 1942, he became Commander in Chief of the Maizuru Naval District, he retired from active service in March 1944. Niimi survived the war and died in 1993, aged 106. At his death, he was the last surviving vice-admiral of the Imperial Navy. Notes BooksEvans, David. Kaigun: Strategy and Technology in the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1887-1941. US Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-192-7. Lindsay, Oliver; the Battle for Hong Kong, 1941-1945: Hostage to Fortune. McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-3162-9. Nishida, Hiroshi. "Imperial Japanese Navy". Retrieved 2007-08-25