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Emona

Emona or Aemona was a Roman castrum, located in the area where the navigable Ljubljanica river came closest to Castle Hill, serving the trade between the city's settlers - colonists from the northern part of Roman Italy - and the rest of the empire. Emona was the region's easternmost city, although it was assumed that it was part of the Pannonia or Illyricum, but archaeological findings from 2008 proved otherwise. From the late 4th to the late 6th century, Emona was the seat of a bishopric that had intensive contacts with the ecclesiastical circle of Milan, reflected in the architecture of the early Christian complex along Erjavec Street in present-day Ljubljana; the Visigoths camped by Emona in the winter of 408/9, the Huns attacked it during their campaign of 452, the Langobards passed through on their way to Italy in 568, came incursions by the Avars and Slavs. The ancient cemetery in Dravlje indicates that the original inhabitants and invaders were able to live peacefully side by side for several decades.

After the first half of the 6th century, there was no life left in Emona. The 18th-century Ljubljana Renaissance elite shared the interest in Antiquity with the rest of Europe, attributing the founding of Ljubljana to the mythical Jason and the Argonauts. Other ancient Roman towns located in present-day Slovenia include Nauportus, Celeia and Poetovio. During the 1st century BC a Roman military stronghold was built on the site of the present Ljubljana, below Castle hill. Construction of the Roman settlement of Emona, fortified with strong walls, followed in AD 14, it had a population of 5,000 to 6,000 people merchants and craftsmen, was an important Early Christian centre with its own goddess, Equrna. Emona’s administrative territory or ager stretched from Atrans along the Karawanks mountains towards the north, near Višnja Gora to the east, along the Kolpa River in the south, bordered to the west with the territory of Aquileia at the village of Bevke. After few months of occupation in 388, the citizens of Emona saluted Emperor Theodosius I entering the liberated city after the victorious Battle of the Save, where Theodosius I defeated the army of the Roman usurper Magnus Maximus.

In 452, Emona was destroyed by the Huns, led by Attila. Its remaining inhabitants fled the city. According to Herodotus, Emona was founded by Jason, when he travelled through the country with the Argonauts, named by him in honour of his Thessalian homeland. Sozomen wrote that when the Argonauts left from the Aeetes, they returned from a different route, crossed the sea of Scythia, sailed through some of the rivers there, when they were near the shores of Italy, they built a city in order to stay at the winter, which they called Emona. Zosimus wrote that after they left from the Aeetes, they arrived at the mouth of the Ister river which it discharges itself into the Black Sea and they went up that river against the stream, by the help of oars and convenient gales of wind. After they managed to do it, they built the city of Emona as a memorial of their arrival there. According to the 18th-century historian Johann Gregor Thalnitscher, the original predecessor of Emona was founded c. 1222 BC. According to 1938 article by the historian Balduin Saria, Emona was founded in late AD 14 or early AD 15, on the site of the Legio XV Apollinaris, after it left for Carnuntum, by a decree of Emperor Augustus and completed by his successor, Emperor Tiberius.

Archaeological findings have not rejected nor confirmed this hypothesis and it is most accepted. The location of Emona overlaps with the southwest part of the old nucleus of the modern city of Ljubljana. In a rectangle with a central square or forum and a system of rectangular intersecting streets, Emona was laid out as a typical Roman town. According to Roman custom, there were cemeteries along the northern and eastern thoroughfares into the city – from the directions of Celeia and Neviodunum; the wider area surrounding the town saw the development of typical Roman countryside: villages, hamlets and brickworks. Archaeological findings have been found in every construction project in the center of Ljubljana. Intensive archaeological research on Emona dates back 100 years, although it was the Roman town was portrayed from the 17th century onward. Numerous remains have been excavated there, such as parts of the Roman wall, residential houses, tombstones, several mosaics, parts of the early Christian baptistery, which can be still seen today.

Regarding its location within Roman Italy, in 2001 a boundary stone between Aquileia and Emona was discovered in the vicinity of Bevke in the bed of the Ljubljanica River. The stone is made of Aurisina limestone; because similar stones were only used to demarcate two communities belonging to the same Roman province and because it is not disputed that Aquileia belonged to Roman Italy, this means that both towns belonged to Italy and that Emona was never part of Illyricum. The architect Jože Plečnik redesigned the remains of the Roman walls: he cut two new passages to create a link to Snežnik Street and Murnik Street, behind the walls he arranged a park displaying architectural elements from Antiquity, with a stone monument collection in the E

Hajiani Lanjo

Hajiani Lanjo is a liberal political and social activist from Tharparkar, a remote and underdeveloped desert area of Sindh, Pakistan. She belongs to Sindhiani Tahreek, she reached prominence after challenged Arbab Ghulam Rahim, a powerful tribal leader from Tharparkar, in the constituency of NA-229 in election-2013. An attorney by profession, Hajiani became a symbol of social change and a voice of women in Tharparkar area. Prior to her political career, Lanjo had served in various social organisations around Tharparkar, she was a compere for Radio Pakistan at Mithi. Lanjo belongs to a landless peasant family from the Village in vicinity of Mithi, she was the first female in her family to obtain education up to a college. Hajiani Lanjo was born in small village of Alamsir in Mithi, her father Mubarak Lanjo was a poor farmer. She attended a government primary school at Rokdyar, she overcame economic problems to continue her studies. She graduated while meeting her family's home expenditures by teaching at a private school run by a non-governmental organization.

She worked at different non-governmental organizations of Thar, including Thardeep, Banh-Beli, Sukaar Foundation and Marvi Rural Development organisation. She graduated with a Masters in Sociology from University of Sindh and further pursued her career in Law. During her study of law at Hyderabad, Sindh she developed associations with members of Sindhiani Tahreek, a sister organisation of Qaumi Awami Tehreek struggling to empowering women and thus entered politics, she became its president. She participated in general elections from Tharparkar. Official webpage

Trygve Seim

Trygve Seim is a Norwegian jazz musician and composer. He started to play the saxophone in 1985 after hearing Jan Garbarek's CD Eventyr. Seim was born in Oslo, he studied music at Foss videregående skole and attended the Jazz program at the Trondheim Musikkonservatorium, where he completed studies in jazz saxophone. Further more Seim studied composition with Terje Bjørklund, Bertil Palmar Johansen, Edward Vesala and Bjørn Kruse. In 1991, he and fellow student, the pianist Christian Wallumrød founded the group Airamero in 1991, including bassist Johannes Eick and drummer Per Oddvar Johansen; the band released the album Airamero in 1994. It undertook several concert tours in Scandinavia and Germany. Seim became part of Jon Balke's band Oslo 13 in 1992, took over the joint leadership of this orchestra in 1994 together with Morten Halle and Torbjørn Sunde. Now the band is called 1300 Oslo, he is a member of jazz quartet The Source with Øyvind Brække, Mats Eilertsen and Per Oddvar Johansen. They have made five records and played several concert tours all over Europe and Russia, played with Edward Vesala and Kenny Wheeler.

Seim's debut CD release as a leader, Different Rivers, released on the German record label ECM in 2001, received good reviews all over the world, winning the German Record Critics Prize, "Jahrespreis – Preis der Deutschen Schallplattenkritik". Since he has released several records on ECM, he has, more composed music for classical musicians Norwegian mezzo-soprano Anne-Lise Berntsen, soprano Tora Augestad, violinist Atle Sponberg and such as his new work Between Voice and Presence for the Trio Mediaeval. For the 2006 Vossajazz Festival, he wrote Reiser. In 2014 Seim contributed on Mats Eilertsen's Rubicon, the commissioned work for Vossajazz 2014. On this occasion he was the stand-in for Tore Brunborg, he has been touring with his own Trygve Seim Ensemble performing his own compositions. In addition he collaborates in "Trygve Seim/Frode Haltli Duo", the quartet The Source and soprano Tora Augestad's "Music for a While", he tour and record within projects like Iro Haarla Quintet, Sinikka Langeland’s group "Starflowers", Jai Shankar Ensemble.

In October, Seim announced on Facebook that his next album Rumi Songs would be released on ECM in early 2016. Seim has two children with writer Åsne Seierstad. Trygve Seim on records released by ECM Records: Trygve Seim – “Rumi Songs“ Trygve Seim – “Sangam“ Trygve Seim – “Different Rivers“ Trygve Seim / Andreas Utnem – “Purcor” Trygve Seim / Frode Haltli – ”Yeraz” Trygve Seim / Øyvind Brække / Per Oddvar Johansen – “The Source and Different Cikadas“ The Source – “The Source“ Sinikka Langeland – “The Magical Forest” Mats Eilertsen – “Rubicon“ Iro Haarla – “Ante Lucem“ Sinikka Langeland – “The Half-Finished Heaven“ Jacob YoungForever Young Sinikka Langeland – “The Land That Is Not” Iro Haarla – “VespersManu Katché – Playground Sinikka Langeland – “Starflowers“ Iro Haarla – “Northbound“ Christian Wallumrød – “Sofienberg Variations“ Manu Katche – “Touchstones for Manu Katche“ Various Artists – “Selected Signs“ Arild Andersen – “Celebration“ Trygve Seim on records released by other record labels: The Source – “The Source: of Summer“ The Source – “The Source: of Christmas Live“ Motorpsycho and The Source – “The MotorSource Massacre“ Trygve Seim / Havard Lund / Njål Ølnes / Audun Kleive – “Decoy” The Source – “The Source: of Christmas“ The Source – “Olemanns kornett“ Trygve Seim / Christian Wallumrød / Johannes Eick / Per Oddvar Johansen – “Airamero“ Harr & Hartberg – “Døden er dårlig gjort” Odd Nordstoga – “Bestevenn“ 1300 Oslo – “Live In The North“ Jørn Skogheim – “Above WaterPetter Wettre – “Mystery unfolds” Jacob Young Band – “Glow” Geir Lysne Listening Ensemble – “Aurora Borealis” Motorpsycho – “Trust Us” Jacob Young Band – “Pieces of TimeSquid – “Super” Håvard Lund – “Letters” Jon Balke Oslo 13