The Meiji period, or Meiji era, is an era of Japanese history which extended from October 23, 1868 to July 30, 1912. This era represents the first half of the Empire of Japan, during which period the Japanese people moved from being an isolated feudal society at risk of colonisation by European powers to the new paradigm of a modern, industrialised nationstate and emergent great power, influenced by Western scientific, philosophical, political and aesthetic ideas; as a result of such wholesale adoption of radically-different ideas, the changes to Japan were profound, affected its social structure, internal politics, economy and foreign relations. The period corresponded to the reign of Emperor Meiji and was succeeded upon the accession of Emperor Taishō by the Taishō period. On February 3, 1867, the 14-year-old Prince Mutsuhito succeeded his father, Emperor Kōmei, to the Chrysanthemum Throne as the 122nd emperor. On November 9, 1867, then-shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu tendered his resignation to the Emperor, formally stepped down ten days later.
Imperial restoration occurred the next year on January 3, 1868, with the formation of the new government. The fall of Edo in the summer of 1868 marked the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, a new era, was proclaimed; the first reform was the promulgation of the Five Charter Oath in 1868, a general statement of the aims of the Meiji leaders to boost morale and win financial support for the new government. Its five provisions consisted of: Establishment of deliberative assemblies. Implicit in the Charter Oath was an end to exclusive political rule by the bakufu, a move toward more democratic participation in government. To implement the Charter Oath, a rather short-lived constitution with eleven articles was drawn up in June 1868. Besides providing for a new Council of State, legislative bodies, systems of ranks for nobles and officials, it limited office tenure to four years, allowed public balloting, provided for a new taxation system, ordered new local administrative rules; the Meiji government assured the foreign powers that it would follow the old treaties negotiated by the bakufu and announced that it would act in accordance with international law.
Mutsuhito, to reign until 1912, selected a new reign title—Meiji, or Enlightened Rule—to mark the beginning of a new era in Japanese history. To further dramatize the new order, the capital was relocated from Kyoto, where it had been situated since 794, to Tokyo, the new name for Edo. In a move critical for the consolidation of the new regime, most daimyōs voluntarily surrendered their land and census records to the Emperor in the abolition of the Han system, symbolizing that the land and people were under the Emperor's jurisdiction. Confirmed in their hereditary positions, the daimyo became governors, the central government assumed their administrative expenses and paid samurai stipends; the han were replaced with prefectures in 1871, authority continued to flow to the national government. Officials from the favored former han, such as Satsuma, Chōshū, Hizen staffed the new ministries. Old court nobles, lower-ranking but more radical samurai, replaced bakufu appointees and daimyo as a new ruling class appeared.
In as much as the Meiji Restoration had sought to return the Emperor to a preeminent position, efforts were made to establish a Shinto-oriented state much like it was 1,000 years earlier. Since Shinto and Buddhism had molded into a syncretic belief in the prior one-thousand years and Buddhism had been connected with the shogunate, this involved the separation of Shinto and Buddhism and the associated destruction of various Buddhist temples and related violence. Furthermore, a new State Shinto had to be constructed for the purpose. In 1871, the Office of Shinto Worship was established, ranking above the Council of State in importance; the kokutai ideas of the Mito school were embraced, the divine ancestry of the Imperial House was emphasized. The government supported a small but important move. Although the Office of Shinto Worship was demoted in 1872, by 1877 the Home Ministry controlled all Shinto shrines and certain Shinto sects were given state recognition. Shinto was released from Buddhist administration and its properties restored.
Although Buddhism suffered from state sponsorship of Shinto, it had its own resurgence. Christianity was legalized, Confucianism remained an important ethical doctrine. However, Japanese thinkers identified with Western ideology and methods. A major proponent of representative government was Itagaki Taisuke, a powerful Tosa leader who had resigned from the Council of State over the Korean affair in 1873. Itagaki sought peaceful, rather than rebellious, he started a school and a movement aimed at establishing a constitutional monarchy and a legislative assembly. Such movements were called People's Rights Movement. Itagaki and others wrote the Tosa Memorial in 1874, criticizing the unbridled power of the oligarchy and calling for the immediate establishment of representative government. Between 1871 and 1873, a series of land and tax laws were enacted as the basis for modern fiscal policy. Private ownership was legalized, deeds were issued, lands were assessed at fair market value with taxes paid in cash rather than in k
Shimonoseki is a city located in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. Shimonoseki is the biggest city in Yamaguchi Prefecture, it is at the southwestern tip of Honshu, facing the Tsushima Strait and Kitakyushu across the Kanmon Straits. Nicknamed the "Fugu Capital," it is known for the locally caught pufferfish and is the largest harvester of the pufferfish in Japan; as of October 1, 2016, the city has an estimated population of 265,684 and a population density of 370 persons per km². The total area is 716.14 km². The Heike and Genji fought at Dan-no-ura near the present Kanmonkyo Bridge; the city prior to 1902 was known as Bakan and formally Akamagaseki. On February 13, 2005, Shimonoseki absorbed the towns of Hōhoku, Kikugawa and Toyoura to create the new and expanded city of Shimonseki. Since October 1, 2005, the city has been designated as a core city by the Japanese Government; the geographical position of Shimonoseki has given it historical importance with the Bombardment of Shimonoseki in 1864 and the Treaty of Shimonoseki, where a defeated China handed over Taiwan and Port Arthur to the victorious Japanese in 1895.
An Imperial decree in July 1899 established Shimonoseki as an open port for trading with the United States and the United Kingdom. On January 7, 2006, the wooden station building at Shimonoseki station, which had dated back to 1942, was destroyed in a fire, the cause of, suspected to be arson. Shimonoseki has a humid subtropical climate with cool winters. Precipitation is heavier in summer. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. Shimonoseki Shipyard and Machinery Works Yamaguchi Financial Group, Inc; the Yamaguchi Bank, Ltd. Momiji Bank,Ltd. YM Securities Co. Ltd. Hayashikane Sangyo Co. Ltd. CHOFU SEISAKUSHO Co. Ltd. Harakosan Co. Ltd. Minato-Yamaguchi Co. Ltd. Yamaguchi Shimbun Minato Shimbun The Kanpu ferry to South Korea regularly; the Gwangyang Beech to Gwangyang, South Korea regularly. The Orient ferry to Shanghai, China regularly; the Orient ferry to Qingdao, China was suspended in November 2015. The main Shinkansen station Sanyō Shinkansen Shin-Shimonoseki Station The main JR West stations Sanyō Main Line Shimonoseki Station Hatabu Station - Hatabu Station is a railway station on the Sanyō Main Line and the San'in Main Line.
Shin-Shimonoseki Station - Shin-Shimonoseki Station is a railway station on the Sanyō Shinkansen Line and the Sanyō Main Line. Chōfu Station Ozuki Station San'in Main Line Hatabu Station Ayaragi Station Kajikuri-Gōdaichi Station Yasuoka Station Fukue Station Yoshimi Station Umegatō Station Kuroimura Station Kawatana-Onsen Station Kogushi Station Yutama Station Ukahongō Station Nagato-Futami Station Takibe Station Kottoi Station Agawa Station Nagato-Awano Station Regular bus services are provided by Sanden Kohtsu, as well as by group companies of Sanden Kohtsu. Bus companies Sanden Kohtsu Co. Ltd. Blue Line Kohtsu Co. Ltd. Intercity bus services go to the following destinations: Tokyo, Kobe, Fukuoka, Fukuoka Airport, etc. Chūgoku ExpresswayShimonoseki interchange Ozuki interchange Ozuki Bypass Shimonoseki-Kita Bypass National Route 2 National Route 9 National Route 191 National Route 435 National Route 491 Shimonoseki is served by four airports outside the city. Kitakyūshū Airport Kokura Airport Yamaguchi Ube Airport Fukuoka Airport National Fisheries University Shimonoseki City University University of East Asia Baiko Gakuin University Shimonoseki Junior College The city has a North Korean school, Yamaguchi Korean Elementary and Junior High School.
It housed two other North Korean schools, Yamaguchi Korean High School and Shimonoseki Korean Elementary and Junior High School|下関朝鮮初中級学校}}. As a city of a quarter million people, it has some public schools too. Fugu uni Sea urchin Whale Anko Goosefish Kawara Soba Ganryu Yaki Mentaiko Roe Fuku Chochin Akamagaseki Suzuri Jourou Ningyo Shimonoseki is home to many festivals that are held throughout the year. Of these, the most famous are Shimonoseki Bakan Festival. Shimonoseki Fugu Festival: Haedomari Market Kawatana Onsen Festival Shimonoseki Kaikyo Festival: Karato, Ganryujima Island Suhouteisai Festival: Castle town Chofu Kanmon Kaikyo Fireworks Festival: Karato Shimonoseki Bakan Festival: Along the street from Karato-cho to Shimonoseki Station TOUR de Shimonoseki Shimonoseki Kaikyo Marathon Shimonoseki Fish Festival: Shimonoseki Fishing Port Little Busan Fest: Green Mall Kōzan-ji - The butsuden completed in 1320 is a National Treasure of Japan. Akama Shrine Kaikyō Yume Tower Shimonoseki City Art Museum Shimonoseki Chofu Museum Shimonoseki City Archaeological Museum Shimonoseki Marine Science Museum Doigahama Site Anthropological Museum The firefly museum of toyota town The Yamagin Archive of the Yamaguchi Bank FC Baleine Shimonoseki Shimonoseki Baseball Stadium Shimonoseki Boat Race Stadium Shimonoseki City Gymnasium Shimonoseki Track and field stadium Shimonoseki city swimming pool Nogihama General Park The Goda-ikka yakuza syndicate is headquartered in Shimonoseki.
A designated yakuza group, the Goda-ikka is the largest yakuza syndicate in Yamaguchi Prefecture. Shimonoseki has one Japanese and six international sister cities: Santos (São Paulo
Minamoto no Yoshinaka
Minamoto no Yoshinaka, Kiso no Yoshinaka, or Lord Kiso was a general of the late Heian period of Japanese history. A member of the Minamoto samurai clan, Minamoto no Yoritomo was his cousin and rival during the Genpei War between the Minamoto and the Taira clans, he was born in Musashi province. Yoshinaka's father, Minamoto no Yoshikata, was killed by Minamoto no Yoshihira in 1155. Yoshihira sought to kill Yoshinaka but the latter escaped to Shinano Province, he was raised with Nakahara Shiro, his milkbrother. This Shiro would become Imai Kanehira, Yoshinaka's best friend and most loyal retainer. Yoshinaka changed his name from Minamoto to Kiso, to reflect the Kiso Mountains where he was raised. In 1181, Yoshinaka received Prince Mochihito's call to the members of the Minamoto clan to rise against the Taira. Yoshinaka entered the Genpei War invading Echigo Province, he defeated a Taira force sent to pacify the area. In 1183 a Taira army captured Hiuchi. In 1183, Yoshinaka was confronted by Minamoto no Yoritomo.
The two resolved to unite against the Taira. Yoshinaka sent his son to Kamakura as a hostage. However, having been shamed, Yoshinaka was now determined to beat Yoritomo to Kyoto, defeat the Taira on his own, take control of the Minamoto for himself. Yoshinaka defeated the army of Taira no Koremori at the Battle of Kurikara Pass and marched to Kyoto; the Taira retreated out of the capital. Yoshinaka's army entered the capital with the cloistered Emperor Go-Shirakawa. Go-Shirakawa issued a mandate for Yoshinaka to join with Yukiiye in "destroying Munemori and his army"; the emperor bestowed upon Yoshinaka the title of Asahi Shōgun. Yoshinaka plotted with Yukiie in "setting up a government in their own northern province". Learning Go-Shirakawa had sought help from his cousin Yoritomo, Yoshinaka seized the cloistered emperor and burned his palace. Yoritomo ordered his brothers Noriyori to destroy Yoshinaka. Yoshinaka was driven out of Kyoto and killed by his cousins at the Battle of Awazu in Ōmi Province along with his milk brother Kanehira.
With night coming and with many enemy soldiers chasing him, he attempted to find an isolated spot to kill himself. However, the story says that his horse became trapped in a field of frozen mud and his enemies were able to approach him and kill him, he was buried in Ōmi. Its name, Gichū-ji, has the same two kanji as his given name. Kanehira's grave is in Otsu, but it is not close to Yoshinaka's; the Edo period poet Matsuo Bashō, pursuant to his last wishes, was buried next to Minamoto no Yoshinaka in Gichū-ji. Minamoto no Yoshinaka is one of many main characters in the Tale of Heike; the story of Yoshinaka and Kanehira is well known in Japan. Tomoe Gozen Battle of Hojuji Yoshinaka's life is described in some detail in S. Turnbull's book The Samurai pages 55 to 66)
The Kanmon Straits or the Straits of Shimonoseki is the stretch of water separating two of Japan's four main islands. On the Honshu side of the water is Shimonoseki and on the Kyushu side is Kitakyushu, whose former city and present ward, gave the strait its "mon"; the straits silt up at the rate of about 15 centimetres per annum, dredging has made it possible to build the New Kitakyushu Airport at low cost. The total population of the Kanmon area is about 1.3 million, counting the whole of Kitakyushu and Shimonoseki, although detailed definitions vary widely. The New Kitakyushu Airport opened in Kitakyushu on March 16, 2006, is expected to bring further prosperity in the form of increased tourism and trade to the area; the Kanmon Straits Summer Fireworks Festival is held in August every year. The Voyager pleasure boat cruises the straits. Helicopter joyrides are available from Kaikyo Dramaship in Moji-kō. In October 2005, one of the world's largest airships flying passed through Moji on an all-Japan tour.
This airship was purchased by Nippon Airship Corporation in June 2004 and was used in the Tokyo area and at the Aichi Expo 2005. The Kanmon Straits can be crossed in a number of ways. There is a car ferry between Nishiminato and Hikinoshima which takes about ten minutes, a passenger ferry from Moji-ko to Shimonoseki. There is a bridge which carries an expressway. By far the most used method is a number of Kanmon Tunnels which carry the Sanyō Shinkansen, trains and one for pedestrians at the narrowest point; the first railway tunnel was opened on November 15, 1942. The highway tunnel was opened on March 9, 1958; the Kanmonkyo Bridge was opened to vehicles on November 14, 1973. The Shinkansen tunnel was opened on March 10, 1975; the Kanmon straits is the connection between the Sea of Japan and the Inland Sea. It is used by many cargo ships as a shortcut to Osaka and Tokyo from China; the New Kitakyushu Airport is nearby. Battle of Dan-no-ura Battle of Shimonoseki Straits Bombardment of Shimonoseki Treaty of Shimonoseki Ferries from Shimonoseki Port International Terminal: The Kanpu ferry to Pusan in South Korea The Orient ferry to Qingdao in China The Orient ferry to Shanghai in China Mekari Shrine Kanmon straits guide
Emperor of Japan
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan. Under the 1947 constitution, he is defined as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." He was the highest authority of the Shinto religion. In Japanese, the Emperor is called Tennō "heavenly sovereign". In English, the use of the term Mikado for the Emperor was once common, but is now considered obsolete; the Emperor of Japan is the only head of state in the world with the English title of "Emperor". The Imperial House of Japan is the oldest continuing monarchical house in the world; the historical origins of the Emperors lie in the late Kofun period of the 3rd–7th centuries AD, but according to the traditional account of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, Japan was founded in 660 BC by Emperor Jimmu, said to be a direct descendant of the sun-goddess Amaterasu. The current Emperor is Akihito, he acceded to the Chrysanthemum Throne upon the death of his father, Emperor Shōwa, in 1989. The Japanese government announced in December 2017 that Akihito will abdicate on 30 April 2019.
The role of the Emperor of Japan has alternated between a ceremonial symbolic role and that of an actual imperial ruler. Since the establishment of the first shogunate in 1199, the Emperors of Japan have taken on a role as supreme battlefield commander, unlike many Western monarchs. Japanese Emperors have nearly always been controlled by external political forces, to varying degrees. In fact, between 1192 and 1867, the shōguns, or their shikken regents in Kamakura, were the de facto rulers of Japan, although they were nominally appointed by the Emperor. After the Meiji Restoration in 1867, the Emperor was the embodiment of all sovereign power in the realm, as enshrined in the Meiji Constitution of 1889. Since the enactment of the 1947 Constitution, he has been a ceremonial head of state without nominal political powers. Since the mid-nineteenth century, the Imperial Palace has been called Kyūjō Kōkyo, is on the former site of Edo Castle in the heart of Tokyo. Earlier, Emperors resided in Kyoto for nearly eleven centuries.
The Emperor's Birthday is a national holiday. Unlike most constitutional monarchs, the Emperor is not the nominal chief executive. Article 65 explicitly vests executive power in the Cabinet, of which the Prime Minister is the leader; the Emperor is not the commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. The Japan Self-Defense Forces Act of 1954 explicitly vests this role with the Prime Minister; the Emperor's powers are limited only to important ceremonial functions. Article 4 of the Constitution stipulates that the Emperor "shall perform only such acts in matters of state as are provided for in the Constitution and he shall not have powers related to government." It stipulates that "the advice and approval of the Cabinet shall be required for all acts of the Emperor in matters of state". Article 4 states that these duties can be delegated by the Emperor as provided for by law. While the Emperor formally appoints the Prime Minister to office, Article 6 of the Constitution requires him to appoint the candidate "as designated by the Diet", without giving the Emperor the right to decline appointment.
Article 6 of the Constitution delegates the Emperor the following ceremonial roles: Appointment of the Prime Minister as designated by the Diet. Appointment of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as designated by the Cabinet; the Emperor's other duties are laid down in article 7 of the Constitution, where it is stated that "the Emperor, with the advice and approval of the Cabinet, shall perform the following acts in matters of state on behalf of the people." In practice, all of these duties are exercised only in accordance with the binding instructions of the Cabinet: Promulgation of amendments of the constitution, cabinet orders, treaties. Convocation of the Diet. Dissolution of the House of Representatives. Proclamation of general election of members of the Diet. Attestation of the appointment and dismissal of Ministers of State and other officials as provided for by law, of full powers and credentials of Ambassadors and Ministers. Attestation of general and special amnesty, commutation of punishment and restoration of rights.
Awarding of honors. Attestation of instruments of ratification and other diplomatic documents as provided for by law. Receiving foreign ambassadors and ministers. Performance of ceremonial functions. Regular ceremonies of the Emperor with a constitutional basis are the Imperial Investitures in the Tokyo Imperial Palace and the Speech from the Throne ceremony in the House of Councillors in the National Diet Building; the latter ceremony opens extra sessions of the Diet. Ordinary sessions are opened each January and after new elections to the House of Representatives. Extra sessions convene in the autumn and are opened then. Although the Emperor has been a symbol of continuity with the past, the degree of power exercised by the Emperor has varied throughout Japanese history. In the early 7th century, the Emperor had begun to be called the "Son of Heaven"; the title of Emperor was borrowed from China, being derived from Chinese characters and was retroactively applied to the legendary Japanese rulers who reigned before the 7th–8th centuries AD.
According to the traditional account of the Nihon Shoki, Japan was founded by Emperor Jimmu in 660 BC. Modern historians agree that the Emperors before the possible late 3rd century AD ruler known traditionally as Emperor Ōjin are legendary. Emperor Ank