Emperor Chūai known as Tarashinakatsuhiko no Sumeramikoto was the 14th Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Both the Kojiki, the Nihon Shoki record events that took place during Chūai's alleged lifetime. Chūai is the first monarch to ascended the throne, not a son of the previous Emperor as the latter's only child died young, he is noted for having his capital in Kyushu, rather than Yamato like his predecessors. The records state that Chūai had a wife named Okinagatarashihime-no-Mikoto, 2 consorts that all bore him 4 children. Chūai's reign is conventionally considered to have been from 192 to 200 AD; the events leading up to the Emperor's death have been subject to interpretation as they involve a vengeful Kami indirectly killing Chūai. This event occurred after the Emperor disrespectfully scoffed at the Kami's request, his wife Jingū carried out the Kami's request, to invade Korea, but this has since been considered legendary rather than factual. While the location of Chūai's grave is unknown, he is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto tomb, at a Hachiman shrine.
Modern historians have come to the conclusion that the title of "Emperor" and the name "Chūai" were used by generations to describe this legendary Emperor. It has been proposed that Chūai reigned much than he is attested. Emperor Chūai is traditionally listed as the last Emperor of the Yayoi period; the Japanese have traditionally accepted this sovereign's historical existence, a mausoleum for Chūai is maintained. The following information available is taken from the pseudo-historical Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, which are collectively known as Kiki or Japanese chronicles; these chronicles include legends and myths, as well as potential historical facts that have since been exaggerated and/or distorted over time. The records state that Chūai was born to Futaji no Iri Hime sometime in 149 AD, was given the name Tarashinakahiko or Tarashinakatsuhiko. Chūai's father was the legendary prince, Yamato Takeru, he was the first Emperor, not the child of the previous Emperor, being instead the nephew of his predecessor Emperor Seimu.
The title of Crown Prince was given to him by his uncle before his death in 170 AD, two years Chūai became the next Emperor. Unlike his predecessors who had maintained their capitals in Yamato Province, the records state his palace was first located on the northern shores of Shimonoseki Strait south of that in Kyushu. Emperor Chūai is described in the Kiki as having been ten feet tall, with "a countenance of perfect beauty", he had one wife, named Okinagatarashi, two consorts who all bore him four children. During the start of his reign he made progress to modern day Tsuruga, led an expedition to Kii where he heard news of a revolt. Jingū accompanied him to the west to fight against a tribe in Tsukushi called Kumaso. On the eve of battle though, his wife was possessed by some unknown kami who advised Chūai to invade and conquer Korea; the Kami gave the reasoning that the Kumaso were not worthy of "his steel". Chūai refused with scorn for a number of reasons which included giving up a military campaign, doubting that such a land existed.
It is said that the Kami was so enraged by this disrespect, that Emperor Chūai was killed in a battle that beat down his troops. The death of the Emperor was kept quiet by Jingū, who vanquished the Kumaso soon afterwards in a fit of revenge. Jingū respected the wishes of the Kami by invading Korea, subjugated the eastern Korean kingdom of Shiragi; the other two Korean kingdoms at the time voluntarily submitted, Jingū ascended to the throne as Empress. Jingū's occupation of the Korean Peninsula, reign as Empress are now considered to be legendary rather than factual; the modern traditional view is that Chūai's son became the next Emperor after Jingū acted as a regent. She would have been de facto ruler in the interim. Emperor Chūai is regarded by historians as a "legendary Emperor" as there is insufficient material available for further verification and study; the lack of this information has made his existence open to debate. There is no evidence to suggest that the title tennō was used during the time to which Chūai's reign has been assigned.
It is possible that he was a chieftain or local clan leader, that the polity he ruled would have only encompassed a small portion of modern-day Japan. The name Chūai-tennō was more than assigned to him posthumously by generations, his name might have been regularized centuries after the lifetime ascribed to Chūai during the time in which legends about the origins of the Yamato dynasty were compiled as the chronicles known today as the Kojiki. The manner in which Chūai died has since been broken down to at least two theories. In his book Confucianism O - Z, professor Xinzhong Yao notes that it is possible the late Emperor could have succumbed to illness rather than death on the battlefield. Sources which include Yao, Francis Brinkley, Kikuchi Dairoku cite the enemy arrow scenario. While the actual site of Chūai's grave is not known, the Emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine at Nara; the Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Chūai's mausoleum, is formally named Ega no Naganu no nishi no misasagi.
The Kami of Chūai is enshrined at the Tamukeyama Hachiman Shrine in Nara. Chūai is traditionally listed as the last Emperor of the Yayoi period, who could have in reality ruled in the 4th century; the next era is known as the Kofun period
Justin Louis Raisen is an American record producer, songwriter and multi-instrumentalist. He has worked with notable artists such as Yves Tumor, Angel Olsen, Sky Ferreira, Kim Gordon, John Cale, Ariel Pink, Lawrence Rothman, Charli XCX, Marissa Nadler, Billy Corgan, Miya Folick, Michael Stipe, Sunflower Bean. Raisen, a native of Massapequa, New York, now resides in Los Angeles. “It’s this alchemy—West Coast free-spiritedness and a no-bullsh*t New York Edge—that makes Raisen magnetic…He is eccentric and electric, prone to spirited stream-of-consciousness monologues such as the conspiracy of radio, 1970s Krautrock, the virtues of golfing. Methods he uses in recording include Brian Eno’s “Oblique Strategies” deck, the “power of manifestation,” and using the Self Realization Fellowship near his home in L. A.” -PitchforkRaisen has his own specific vision: “we’re addicted to being told what we want. Which is. Ask them what’s wrong. I’m trying to X-Ray the whole situation. I’m keen to find out what a person has gone through, their philosophy on life, & how they feel about the modern world.
I say ’we’re going to capture this moment in time, it’s going to spin on until time ends’.”His affinity for live musicianship is shown by his collaborations with the likes of Jim Keltner, Pino Paladino, Patty Schemel, Duff McKagan, Joey Warnoker, Stella Mozgawa, Victor Indrizzo, Nick Zinner, Jenny Lee, Justin Meldal-Johnson, Eva Gardner, Dennis Hamm, many more. Some of Raisen’s notable credits include Sky Ferreira’s “Night Time My Time”, Angel Olsen’s “My Woman”, Lawrence Rothman’s “The Book of Law”, Yves Tumor's “Safe in the Hands of Love”, which received best new music & a score of 9.1 from Pitchfork. His upcoming releases include Miya Folick’s debut LP “Premontions” and Marissa Nadler’s “For My Crimes.” In 2019, the L. A. producer launched his own record label KRO Records releasing never before released tracks from River Phoenix's Aleka's Attic along with a single from Rain Phoenix feat. Michael Stipe. A week the label dropped a Double A-Side single by Marissa Nadler feat. John Cale of The Velvet Underground.
Meleki Hatun was a lady-in-waiting to Kösem Sultan, Sultan Ibrahim, to Turhan Hatice Sultan. Meleki Hatun had been a member of Kösem Sultan's suite, she became a lady-in-waiting to Sultan Ibrahim after he ascended the throne in 1640. In early 1648, the treasury of Egypt was lavished on Ibrahims favourite wives and women, which included Meleki. In the same year Ibrahim was deposed, replaced by his six-year-old son, Prince Mehmed as Mehmed IV. Instead of retiring to the Old Palace, Kösem was asked by the leading statesmen of the state to act as Valide Sultan to her grandson, the new Sultan, Meleki remained with her. However, Mehmed's mother Turhan Sultan turned out to be ambitious. Kösem planned to replace Mehmed by another grandson, whose mother could be controlled. However, her plan was exploited by Meleki Hatun. Kösem was killed in a palace coup in 1651 lead by Turhan's chief black eunuch. Meleki became a favourite retainer of the new Valide Sultan because of her loyalty to her, she married a former page in the palace training school.
The couple set up a residence in Istanbul. They suited to act as channel for information and intercessors on behalf of individuals with petitions for the palace. Meleki received female petitioners, her husband received male petitioners. Meleki exploited her relationship with Turhan Sultan, while Şaban exploited contacts he had formed while serving within the palace. Meleki was accused of having an incestuous relationship with one of Turhan's step sons; the political influence of the couple grew so much that they lost their lives in 1656, when the troops stationed at Istanbul rebelled against alleged abuses in government. In the 2010 film Mahpeyker: Kösem Sultan Meleki Hatun is portrayed by a Turkish actress Bulut Köpük. In the 2015 TV series Muhteşem Yüzyıl: Kösem, Meleki Hatun is portrayed by Turkish actress Burcu Gül Kazbek. Helly, Dorothy O.. Gendered Domains: Rethinking Public and Private in Women's History: Essays from the Seventh Berkshire Conference on the History of Women. Cornell University Press.
ISBN 978-0-801-49702-5. Walthall, Anne. Servants of the Dynasty: Palace Women in World History. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25443-5. Hunt, Margaret. Women in Eighteenth Century Europe. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-88388-3. Peirce, Leslie P.. The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-195-08677-5. Akalin, Esin. Staging the Ottoman Turk: British Drama, 1656Ð1792. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-3-838-26919-1. Ottoman Women in Public Space. BRIIL. May 9, 2016. ISBN 978-9-004-31662-1. Thys-Şenocak, Lucienne. Ottoman Women Builders: The Architectural Patronage of Hadice Turhan Sultan. Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-754-63310-5. Çelebi, Evliya. Turk Klasikleri - Issue 34
Power Stone 2 is a multiplayer fighting game that built on the innovative gameplay introduced by its predecessor, Power Stone. Power Stone 2 allows up to four players to choose from multiple characters and utilize items such as tables and rocks in battle. Power Stone 2 originated like many others on the Dreamcast; the Dreamcast served as a testing ground for successful arcade games. Power Stone 2 included some differences from the original, including new character voices, the removal of the existing combo system and a new, horizontal status bar. There are four different modes available for the game 1-on-1: Much like the original Power Stone, a two-character storyline game. Arcade: A four-character storyline game, with two characters advancing each round. Original: Multiplayer mode, with free choice of characters and stages. Adventure: An unpredictable storyline game, where players can collect items and money. Power Stone 2 offers five interactive 3-D stages to begin with, plus the two boss stages which players can access in Original mode.
All but the Original mode is played out like a storyline, where two battles are fought on the regular stages, followed by the Pharaoh Walker boss another battle, ending with the Dr. Erode boss stage. Three extra stages may be unlocked for Original mode by meeting certain requirements in Arcade mode, as well as a desert area stage, the Pharaoh Walker boss stage, but without the boss. Though each player has their own set of default ground and air attacks, the character can execute more powerful fusion attacks after collecting three Power Stones and transforming. Power Stone 2 does not offer an opportunity to block, although tapping on the control pad just before an enemy attacks will cause you to dodge. Most of the stages will change as the battle progresses. For example, the airplane stage starts out on a warplane. After a set amount of time, the plane will fall apart, forcing all the players to battle while skydiving toward the ground. Shortly after, the players will fall onto a floating platform, where the remainder of the battle will be held.
This, in essence, creates three sub-stages within a single one. Each stage is littered with item boxes, which hold a random item that a player has acquired and unlocked in Adventure mode or created in the Item Shop, they may contain Power Stones. Items are diverse. Damaging items range from guns, gigantic hammers, a wide assortment of swords, to bear traps, roller blades, a magazine that can be thrown. Non-damaging items include food that will replenish health, shields for defense, elixirs for invisibility, adhesive sprays to slow your opponents, wings for extra jumps. Cards that can be used to mix items can be found in Adventure mode. Furthermore, most stages have their own collection of unique items and fixtures that the player can use. For example, the submarine level comes with turrets, small planes to drop bombs, icebergs to throw at opponents; each level is highly interactive, as players can use many of the stage elements themselves. All players can gain extra height by jumping off a wall.
An addition to Power Stone 2 is the "Adventure" mode. This mode is functionally identical to the "1-on-1" and "Arcade" modes; these may be taken to the game's "Item Shop", run by secret character Mel. The overall goal of the Item Shop is to allow players to gain access to new items; this gives the game considerable additional longevity, as many of the best or most entertaining items are available only from the Item Shop. Power Stone 2 includes; this can be used to inspect trade items with another player. Additionally, a player may register up to five items in their inventory as "Handy Items"; these may appear to the player in Original mode, offering a tactical advantage. Matt Sammons reviewed the Dreamcast version of the game for Next Generation, rating it four stars out of five, stated that "An innovative and beautiful fighting game, Power Stone 2 will keep you entertained for hours. Just make sure to bring along a few friends."The Dreamcast version received "favorable" reviews according to video game review aggregator Metacritic.
The U. S. state of Oregon has large wind energy resources. Many projects have been completed, most of them in rural Eastern Oregon and near the Columbia River Gorge. Wind power accounted for 12.1% of the electricity generated in Oregon in 2016. Laws passed by the Oregon Legislative Assembly in 1999 and 2007 have aimed to encourage both small and large wind projects. Oregon passed a net metering law in 1999 that helped encourage installation of small wind power systems; as of 2008, a handful of Oregonians have installed small-scale wind-power systems to reduce their carbon footprint. Under Senate Bill 838, solar and other types of renewable power must account for 25 percent of an electric utility's retail sales by 2025. Intermediate requirements set the standard at 5 percent by 2011, climbing until 2025. In 2016, Oregon's RPS requirement target was raised to 50%, as two companies must supply 50% of Oregon's power as renewable by 2040; the US Energy Information Administration expects this to increase windpower in Oregon, as older hydropower is exported to California and not eligible for the RPS.
Vestas, the largest wind turbine manufacturer in the world as of 2009, has its North American headquarters in Portland. Iberdrola Renovables, one of the larger wind farm operators bases their American offices in Portland. Estimates from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory showed that Oregon has potential to install over 27,000 megawatts of onshore wind power; the offshore wind potential is estimated at 225,000 MW, would be capable of generating 962,723 million kWh. Installed wind power capacity in Oregon saw large growth from 2007 to 2012. Oregon ranks among the top ten states with the most wind power installed. Climbing from 1 percent in the early 2000s, wind power accounted for 12.4 percent of total electricity generated in Oregon during 2013. In 2009, 691 MW of wind-powered capacity was added in Oregon, the fourth biggest increase in the U. S. that year. In 2009 GE Wind Energy was awarded a $1.48 billion contract to build the Shepherds Flat Wind Farm. The 845-megawatt project uses over 300 turbines and spans across 30 square miles of Gilliam and Morrow Counties in north-central Oregon.
When it was completed in September 2012, it became the largest wind farm in Oregon, the second largest in the world, although many larger ones are planned. It was completed in 2012 to take advantage of the 2.2 cent/kWh Production Tax Credit. About four gigawatts of new wind energy development in Eastern Oregon and Washington has not been built due to the interference it could cause with aviation radar; the radar in Fossil was upgraded in June 2015 to stop "radar clutter" caused by nearby wind farms. List of wind farms in the United States Northwest Wind Industry Alliance official webpage Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Oregon U. S. Wind Energy Projects - Oregon Oregon Wind Activities
Pseudospongosorites is a genus of sea sponges belonging to the family Suberitidae. The genus is considered as monotypic, consisting of a single species Pseudospongosorites suberitoides, it is found in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico and on the Atlantic coast of the United States as far north as North Carolina. This species is known by the common name Florida hermit crab sponge, so named because hermit crabs use it as shelter. Pseudospongosorites suberitoides was thought to represent a species in the genus Suberites, due to its superficial resemblance and similar ecology. Suberites contains nearly all other sponges known as the'hermit crab sponges,' most notably Suberites domuncula; however the Suberites hermit crab sponges are only found in deep water greater than 20m, while Pseudospongosorites suberitoides is found in shallow water near shore. In 1993 the species was named as a species in the genus Spongosorites, under the family Halichondriidae and order Halichondrida, with its similarities to Suberites attributed to convergent evolution.
Genetic work in 2002 led to its current classification as the sole member of a new genus under family Suberitidae and order Hadromerida. P. suberitoides has a smooth, waxy texture and is compressible. It can grow over 10 centimeters long, it is polymorphic appearing as green, brown, or tan, but 10% of specimens are bright orange. Dead, desiccated specimens that may wash up on a beach are turquoise-blue. All P. suberitoides specimens contain gemmules, which are not produced by marine sponges. P. suberitoides is found in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, though a few specimens have been collected from the North Carolina coast. They may occur in greatest abundance on the shores of the Apalachee Bay, along the Gulf Coast in northwestern Florida. P. suberitoides colonizes gastropod shells those of the genus Cantharus. These shells are empty, but P. suberitoides has been known to colonize living gastropods as well. The sponge begins as a thin crust and continues to grow around the shell until the shell is engulfed entirely.
These shells are inhabited by hermit crabs. A hermit crab using the gastropod shell as shelter continues to live in the shell as it is covered by the sponge; as the shell becomes engulfed, the hermit crab inside relocates to a chamber within the sponge itself. This chamber conforms to fit the spiral-shape of the hermit crab's abdomen and grows with the crab as needed, the hermit crab shapes and maintains an opening to continue to move about and function normally. Only certain hermit crab species use sponge shelters. Pagurus impressus and Paguristes hummi are the most occurring occupants; this arrangement is believed to be mutually beneficial. The sponge gains access to sand and mud bottomed habitats; the sponge gains increased feeding opportunities and better-oxygenated water due to the feeding activities of the crustacean, there is a decreased chance of the sponge being buried in sediment. The hermit crab gets a home which grows in size, so the hermit crab does not need to hunt to find larger empty gastropod shells.
The hermit crab may benefit from the unpalatibility of the sponge and camouflage the sponge provides