Jōkyū called Shōkyū, was a Japanese era name after Kempō and before Jōō. This period spanned the years from April 1219 through April 1222; the reigning emperor was Juntoku-tennō. 1219 Jōkyū gannen: The new era name was created because the previous era ended and a new one commenced in Kempo 3, on the 6th day of the 12th month of 1213. February 12, 1219: Shōgun Sanetomo was assassinated on the steps of Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū in Kamakura; the 40 years during which Minamoto no Yoritomo, Minamoto no Yoriie and Minamoto no Sanetomo were successive heads of the Kamakura shogunate was sometimes called "the period of the three shōguns." A new shōgun was not to be named for several years during which the Kamakura bureaucracy continued to function without interruption. 1220: The emperor visited the Iwashimizu Shrine and the Kamo Shrines. May 13, 1221: In the 11th year of Juntoku-tennō's reign, the emperor abdicated. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Chūkyō is said to have acceded to the throne; the reign of Emperor Chūkyō spans a small number of months.
July 29, 1221: In the 1st year of what is now considered to have been Chūkyō-tennō's reign, he abruptly abdicated without designating an heir. 1221: The Jōkyū War was an armed attempt by Emperor Go-Toba and his supporters, trying unsuccessfully to take power from the Kamakura bakufu. January 14, 1222: Emperor Go-Horikawa acceded to the throne. Brown and Ichiro Ishida.. The Future and the Past: a translation and study of the'Gukanshō', an interpretative history of Japan written in 1219. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Nihon Odai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul.. A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki of Kitabatake Chikafusa. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231049405.
University of California Press
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. It was founded in 1893 to publish books and papers for the faculty of the University of California, established 25 years earlier in 1868, its headquarters are located in California. The University of California Press publishes in the following general subject areas: anthropology, ancient world/classical studies and the West, cinema & media studies, environmental studies and wine, music, psychology, public health and medicine and sociology, it is a non-profit publishing arm of the University of California. Of its authors 25% are affiliated with the University of California, it publishes on average 175 new books and 30 multi-issue journals in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences. It maintains 4,000 book titles in print, it is the publisher of Collabra and Luminos open access initiatives. The Press commissioned as its corporate typeface University of California Old Style from type designer Frederic Goudy from 1936-1938, although it no longer always uses the design.
Language As Symbolic Action, Kenneth Burke The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge, Carlos Castaneda Technicians of the Sacred: A Range of Poetries from Africa, Asia and Oceania, Jerome Rothenberg The Mysterious Stranger, Mark Twain Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution The Making of a Counter Culture, Theodore Roszak Self-Consuming Artifacts: The Experience of Seventeenth-Century Literature, Stanley Fish The Ancient Economy, Moses I. Finley Joan of Arc: The Image of Female Heroism, Marina Warner Strong Democracy: Participatory Politics for a New Age, Benjamin R. Barber Art in the San Francisco Bay Area, Thomas Albright Religious Experience, Wayne Proudfoot The War Within: America's Battle over Vietnam, Tom Wells George Grosz: An Autobiography, George Grosz Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy, Kevin Bales Mama Lola: A Vodou Priestess in Brooklyn, Karen McCarthy Brown A Culture of Conspiracy: Apocalyptic Visions in Contemporary America, Michael Barkun Beyond Chutzpah: On the Misuse of Anti-Semitism and the Abuse of History, Norman G. Finkelstein Autobiography of Mark Twain: Volume One, Mark Twain Collabra Collabra is University of California Press's open access journal program.
The Collabra program publishes two open access journals, Collabra: Psychology and Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, with plans for continued expansion and journal acquisition. Luminos Luminos is University of California Press’s open access response to the challenged monograph landscape. With the same high standards for selection, peer review and marketing as its traditional book publishing program, Luminos is a transformative model, built as a partnership where costs and benefits are shared; the University of California Press re-printed a number of novels under the California Fiction series from 1996–2001. These titles were selected for their literary merit and for their illumination of California history and culture; the Ford by Mary Austin Thieves' Market by A. I. Bezzerides Disobedience by Michael Drinkard Words of My Roaring by Ernest J. Finney Skin Deep by Guy Garcia Fat City by Leonard Gardiner Chez Chance by Jay Gummerman Continental Drift by James D. Houston The Vineyard by Idwal Jones In the Heart of the Valley of Love by Cynthia Kadohata Always Coming Home by Ursula K.
Le Guin The Valley of the Moon by Jack London Home and Away by Joanne Meschery Bright Web in the Darkness by Alexander Saxton Golden Days by Carolyn See Oil! by Upton Sinclair Understand This by Jervey Tervalon Ghost Woman by Lawrence Thornton Who Is Angelina? by Al Young Books portal California portal Official website Frugé, August. A Skeptic Among Scholars: August Frugé on University Publishing. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1993 1993. California Digital Library – University of California Libraries Free Online - UC Press E-Books Collection Mark Twain Project Online "Mark Twain's Biography Flying Off the Shelves", The New York Times, Nov. 19, 2010
Emperor Tenji known as Emperor Tenchi, was the 38th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Tenji's reign spanned the years from 661 through 672, he was the son of Emperor Jomei, but was preceded as ruler by his mother Empress Saimei. Prior to his accession, he was known as Prince Naka-no-Ōe; as prince, Naka no Ōe played a crucial role in ending the near-total control the Soga clan had over the imperial family. In 644, seeing the Soga continue to gain power, he conspired with Nakatomi no Kamatari and Soga no Kurayamada no Ishikawa no Maro to assassinate Soga no Iruka in what has come to be known as the Isshi Incident. Although the assassination did not go as planned, Iruka was killed, his father and predecessor, Soga no Emishi, committed suicide soon after. Following the Isshi Incident, Iruka's adherents dispersed without a fight, Naka no Ōe was named heir apparent, he married the daughter of his ally Soga no Kurayamada, thus ensuring that a significant portion of the Soga clan's power was on his side.
Naka no Ōe reigned as Emperor Tenji from 661 to 672. 661: In the 3rd year of Saimei's reign, the empress designated her son as her heir. Shortly after, she died, Emperor Tenji could be said to have acceded to the throne. 662: Tenji is said to have compiled the first Japanese legal code known to modern historians. The Ōmi Code, consisting of 22 volumes, was promulgated in the last year of Tenji's reign; this legal codification is no longer extant, but it is said to have been refined in what is known as the Asuka Kiyomihara ritsu-ryō of 689. 668: An account in Nihon Shoki becomes the first mention of petrochemical oil in Japan. In the 7th year of Tenji's reign, flammable water was presented as an offering to Emperor Tenji from Echigo Province; this presentation coincided with the emperor's ceremonial confirmation as emperor. He had postponed formalities during the period that the mausoleum of his mother was being constructed. Up until this time, although he had been de facto monarch, he had retained the title of Crown Prince.
Tenji was active in improving the military institutions, established during the Taika reforms. Following his death in 672, there ensued a succession dispute between his fourteen children. In the end, he was succeeded by his son, Prince Ōtomo known as Emperor Kōbun by Tenji's brother Prince Ōama known as Emperor Tenmu. One hundred years after Tenji's death, the throne passed to his grandson Emperor Kōnin. Post-Meiji chronology In the 10th year of Tenji, in the 11th month: Emperor Tenji, in the 10th year of his reign, designated his son as his heir. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Kōbun is said to have acceded to the throne. If this understanding were valid it would follow:In the 1st year of Kōbun: Emperor Kōbun, in the 1st year of his reign, died. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Tenmu could be said to have acceded to the throne. Pre-Meiji chronology Prior to the 19th century, Ōtomo was understood to have been a mere interloper, a pretender, an anomaly; the actual site of Tenji's grave is known. This emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine at Kyoto.
The Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Tenji's mausoleum. It is formally named Yamashina no misasagi; the Man ` yōshū includes poems attributed to empresses. The poem was long considered to be about two male hills in a quarrel over a female hill, but scholars now consider that Kagu and Miminashi might be female hills in love with the same male hill, Unebi; this still-unresolved enigma in poetic form is said to have been composed by Emperor Tenji while he was still Crown Prince during the reign of Empress Saimei: One of his poems was chosen by Fujiwara no Teika as the first in the popular Hyakunin Isshu anthology: After his death, his wife, Empress Yamato wrote a song of longing about her husband. The top court officials during Emperor Tenji's reign included: Daijō-daijin: Ōtomo no Ōji, 671–672. Naishin: Fujiwara no Kamatari, 645–669. Prince Ōtomo was the favorite son of Emperor Tenji; the years of Tenji's reign are not linked by scholars to any era or nengō. The Taika era innovation of naming time periods – nengō – languished until Mommu reasserted an imperial right by proclaiming the commencement of Taihō in 701.
See Japanese era name – "Non-nengo periods" See Tenji period. In this context, Brown and
The Meiji period, or Meiji era, is an era of Japanese history which extended from October 23, 1868 to July 30, 1912. This era represents the first half of the Empire of Japan, during which period the Japanese people moved from being an isolated feudal society at risk of colonisation by European powers to the new paradigm of a modern, industrialised nationstate and emergent great power, influenced by Western scientific, philosophical, political and aesthetic ideas; as a result of such wholesale adoption of radically-different ideas, the changes to Japan were profound, affected its social structure, internal politics, economy and foreign relations. The period corresponded to the reign of Emperor Meiji and was succeeded upon the accession of Emperor Taishō by the Taishō period. On February 3, 1867, the 14-year-old Prince Mutsuhito succeeded his father, Emperor Kōmei, to the Chrysanthemum Throne as the 122nd emperor. On November 9, 1867, then-shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu tendered his resignation to the Emperor, formally stepped down ten days later.
Imperial restoration occurred the next year on January 3, 1868, with the formation of the new government. The fall of Edo in the summer of 1868 marked the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, a new era, was proclaimed; the first reform was the promulgation of the Five Charter Oath in 1868, a general statement of the aims of the Meiji leaders to boost morale and win financial support for the new government. Its five provisions consisted of: Establishment of deliberative assemblies. Implicit in the Charter Oath was an end to exclusive political rule by the bakufu, a move toward more democratic participation in government. To implement the Charter Oath, a rather short-lived constitution with eleven articles was drawn up in June 1868. Besides providing for a new Council of State, legislative bodies, systems of ranks for nobles and officials, it limited office tenure to four years, allowed public balloting, provided for a new taxation system, ordered new local administrative rules; the Meiji government assured the foreign powers that it would follow the old treaties negotiated by the bakufu and announced that it would act in accordance with international law.
Mutsuhito, to reign until 1912, selected a new reign title—Meiji, or Enlightened Rule—to mark the beginning of a new era in Japanese history. To further dramatize the new order, the capital was relocated from Kyoto, where it had been situated since 794, to Tokyo, the new name for Edo. In a move critical for the consolidation of the new regime, most daimyōs voluntarily surrendered their land and census records to the Emperor in the abolition of the Han system, symbolizing that the land and people were under the Emperor's jurisdiction. Confirmed in their hereditary positions, the daimyo became governors, the central government assumed their administrative expenses and paid samurai stipends; the han were replaced with prefectures in 1871, authority continued to flow to the national government. Officials from the favored former han, such as Satsuma, Chōshū, Hizen staffed the new ministries. Old court nobles, lower-ranking but more radical samurai, replaced bakufu appointees and daimyo as a new ruling class appeared.
In as much as the Meiji Restoration had sought to return the Emperor to a preeminent position, efforts were made to establish a Shinto-oriented state much like it was 1,000 years earlier. Since Shinto and Buddhism had molded into a syncretic belief in the prior one-thousand years and Buddhism had been connected with the shogunate, this involved the separation of Shinto and Buddhism and the associated destruction of various Buddhist temples and related violence. Furthermore, a new State Shinto had to be constructed for the purpose. In 1871, the Office of Shinto Worship was established, ranking above the Council of State in importance; the kokutai ideas of the Mito school were embraced, the divine ancestry of the Imperial House was emphasized. The government supported a small but important move. Although the Office of Shinto Worship was demoted in 1872, by 1877 the Home Ministry controlled all Shinto shrines and certain Shinto sects were given state recognition. Shinto was released from Buddhist administration and its properties restored.
Although Buddhism suffered from state sponsorship of Shinto, it had its own resurgence. Christianity was legalized, Confucianism remained an important ethical doctrine. However, Japanese thinkers identified with Western ideology and methods. A major proponent of representative government was Itagaki Taisuke, a powerful Tosa leader who had resigned from the Council of State over the Korean affair in 1873. Itagaki sought peaceful, rather than rebellious, he started a school and a movement aimed at establishing a constitutional monarchy and a legislative assembly. Such movements were called People's Rights Movement. Itagaki and others wrote the Tosa Memorial in 1874, criticizing the unbridled power of the oligarchy and calling for the immediate establishment of representative government. Between 1871 and 1873, a series of land and tax laws were enacted as the basis for modern fiscal policy. Private ownership was legalized, deeds were issued, lands were assessed at fair market value with taxes paid in cash rather than in k
Imperial House of Japan
The Imperial House of Japan referred to as the Imperial Family or the Yamato Dynasty, comprises those members of the extended family of the reigning Emperor of Japan who undertake official and public duties. Under the present Constitution of Japan, the Emperor is "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people". Other members of the Imperial Family perform ceremonial and social duties, but have no role in the affairs of government; the duties as an Emperor are passed so on. The Japanese monarchy is claimed to be the oldest continuous hereditary monarchy in the world; the Imperial House recognizes 125 monarchs beginning with the legendary Emperor Jimmu and continuing up to the current emperor, Akihito. Historical evidence for the first 29 Emperors is marginal by modern standards, but there is firm evidence for the hereditary line since Emperor Kinmei ascended the throne 1,500 years ago. Article 5 of the Imperial Household Law defines the Imperial Family as the Empress. In English, shinnō and ō are both translated as "prince" as well as shinnōhi, naishinnō, ōhi and joō as "princess".
After the removal of 11 collateral branches from the Imperial House in October 1947, the official membership of the Imperial Family has been limited to the male line descendants of the Emperor Taishō, excluding females who married outside the Imperial Family and their descendants. There are 18 members of the Imperial Family: The Emperor was born at Tokyo Imperial Palace on 23 December 1933, the elder son and fifth child of the Emperor Shōwa and Empress Kōjun, he was married on 10 April 1959 to Michiko Shōda. Emperor Akihito succeeded his father as emperor on 7 January 1989; the Empress Michiko Shōda, was born in Tokyo on 20 October 1934, the eldest daughter of Hidesaburo Shōda, president and honorary chairman of Nisshin Flour Milling Inc.. The Crown Prince, the eldest son of the Emperor and the Empress, was born in the Hospital of the Imperial Household in Tokyo on 23 February 1960, he became heir apparent upon his father's accession to the throne. Crown Prince Naruhito was married on 9 June 1993 to Masako Owada.
The Crown Princess was born on 9 December 1963, the daughter of Hisashi Owada, a former vice minister of foreign affairs and former permanent representative of Japan to the United Nations. The Crown Prince and Crown Princess have one daughter: The Princess Toshi The Prince Akishino, the Emperor's second son, second on the succession line, was born on 30 November 1965 in the Hospital of the Imperial Household in Tokyo, his childhood title was Prince Aya. He received the title Prince Akishino and permission to start a new branch of the Imperial Family upon his marriage to Kiko Kawashima on 29 June 1990; the Princess Akishino was born on 11 September 1966, the daughter of Tatsuhiko Kawashima, professor of economics at Gakushuin University. Prince and Princess Akishino have two daughters and a son: Princess Mako of Akishino Princess Kako of Akishino Prince Hisahito of Akishino The Prince Hitachi was born on 28 November 1935, the second son and sixth child of the Emperor Shōwa and Empress Kojun.
His childhood title was Prince Yoshi. He received the title Prince Hitachi and permission to set up a new branch of the Imperial Family on 1 October 1964, the day after his wedding; the Princess Hitachi was born on the daughter of former Count Yoshitaka Tsugaru. Prince and Princess Hitachi have no children; the Princess Mikasa is the widow of the Prince Mikasa, the fourth son of Emperor Taishō and Empress Teimei and an uncle of Emperor Akihito. The Princess was born on 4 June 1923, the second daughter of Viscount Masanori Takagi. Princess Mikasa has three sons with the late Prince Mikasa. Princess Tomohito of Mikasa is the widow of Prince Tomohito of Mikasa, the eldest son of the Prince and Princess Mikasa and a first cousin of Emperor Akihito; the Princess was born on 9 April 1955, the daughter of Takakichi Asō, chairman of Asō Cement Co. and his wife, Kazuko, a daughter of former Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida. She has two daughters with the late Prince Tomohito of Mikasa: Princess Akiko of Mikasa Princess Yōko of Mikasa The Princess Takamado is the widow of the Prince Takamado, the third son of the Prince and Princess Mikasa and a first cousin of Emperor Akihito.
The Princess was born the eldest daughter of Shigejiro Tottori. She married the prince on 6 December 1984. Known as Prince Norihito of Mikasa, he received the title Prince Takamado and permission to start a new branch of the Imperial Family on 1 December 1984. Princess Takamado has three daughters, one of whom remains a member of the Imperial Family: Princess Tsuguko of Takamado The following family tree shows the lineage of the contemporary members of the Imperial Family. Princesses who le