A grave is a location where a dead body is buried. Graves are located in special areas set aside for the purpose of burial, such as graveyards or cemeteries. Certain details of a grave, such as the state of the body found within it and any objects found with the body, may provide information for archaeologists about how the body may have lived before its death, including the time period in which it lived and the culture that it had been a part of. In some religions, it is believed; the formal use of a grave involves several steps with associated terminology. Grave cutThe excavation. Excavations vary from a shallow scraping to removal of topsoil to a depth of 6 feet or more where a vault or burial chamber is to be constructed. However, most modern graves in the United States are only 4 feet deep as the casket is placed into a concrete box to prevent a sinkhole, to ensure the grave is strong enough to be driven over, to prevent floating in the instance of a flood. Excavated soilThe material dug up.
It is piled up close to the grave for backfilling and returned to the grave to cover it. As soil decompresses when excavated and space is occupied by the burial not all the volume of soil fits back in the hole, so evidence is found of remaining soil. In cemeteries this may end up as a thick layer of soil overlying the original ground surface. Burial or intermentThe body may be placed in a coffin or other container, in a wide range of positions, by itself or in a multiple burial, with or without personal possessions of the deceased. Burial vaultA vault is a structure built within the grave to receive the body, it may be used to prevent crushing of the remains, allow for multiple burials such as a family vault, retrieval of remains for transfer to an ossuary, or because it forms a monument. Grave backfillThe soil returned to the grave cut following burial; this material may contain artifacts derived from the original excavation and prior site use, deliberately placed goods or artifacts or material.
The fill may be mounded. Monument or markerHeadstones are best known, but they can be supplemented by decorative edging, foot stones, posts to support items, a solid covering or other options. Graveyards were established at the same time as the building of the relevant place of worship and were used by those families who could not afford to be buried inside or beneath the place of worship itself. In most cultures those who were vastly rich, had important professions, were part of the nobility or were of any other high social status were buried in individual crypts inside or beneath the relevant place of worship with an indication of the name of the deceased, date of death and other biographical data. In Europe this was accompanied with a depiction of their family coat of arms. Graveyards have been replaced by cemeteries. Burial at sea Cenotaph Christian burial Church monuments Cremation Crypt Dolmen Eco-Burial Funeral pyre Funerary art God's Acre Gravedigger Islamic burial Jewish burial Mass grave Mausoleum Monumental inscription Necropolis Premature burial Pyramid Tomb Tophet Tumulus Turn in one's grave War grave Media related to Graves at Wikimedia Commons Quotations related to Grave at Wikiquote The dictionary definition of grave at Wiktionary
Emperor of Japan
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan. Under the 1947 constitution, he is defined as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." He was the highest authority of the Shinto religion. In Japanese, the Emperor is called Tennō "heavenly sovereign". In English, the use of the term Mikado for the Emperor was once common, but is now considered obsolete; the Emperor of Japan is the only head of state in the world with the English title of "Emperor". The Imperial House of Japan is the oldest continuing monarchical house in the world; the historical origins of the Emperors lie in the late Kofun period of the 3rd–7th centuries AD, but according to the traditional account of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, Japan was founded in 660 BC by Emperor Jimmu, said to be a direct descendant of the sun-goddess Amaterasu. The current Emperor is Akihito, he acceded to the Chrysanthemum Throne upon the death of his father, Emperor Shōwa, in 1989. The Japanese government announced in December 2017 that Akihito will abdicate on 30 April 2019.
The role of the Emperor of Japan has alternated between a ceremonial symbolic role and that of an actual imperial ruler. Since the establishment of the first shogunate in 1199, the Emperors of Japan have taken on a role as supreme battlefield commander, unlike many Western monarchs. Japanese Emperors have nearly always been controlled by external political forces, to varying degrees. In fact, between 1192 and 1867, the shōguns, or their shikken regents in Kamakura, were the de facto rulers of Japan, although they were nominally appointed by the Emperor. After the Meiji Restoration in 1867, the Emperor was the embodiment of all sovereign power in the realm, as enshrined in the Meiji Constitution of 1889. Since the enactment of the 1947 Constitution, he has been a ceremonial head of state without nominal political powers. Since the mid-nineteenth century, the Imperial Palace has been called Kyūjō Kōkyo, is on the former site of Edo Castle in the heart of Tokyo. Earlier, Emperors resided in Kyoto for nearly eleven centuries.
The Emperor's Birthday is a national holiday. Unlike most constitutional monarchs, the Emperor is not the nominal chief executive. Article 65 explicitly vests executive power in the Cabinet, of which the Prime Minister is the leader; the Emperor is not the commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. The Japan Self-Defense Forces Act of 1954 explicitly vests this role with the Prime Minister; the Emperor's powers are limited only to important ceremonial functions. Article 4 of the Constitution stipulates that the Emperor "shall perform only such acts in matters of state as are provided for in the Constitution and he shall not have powers related to government." It stipulates that "the advice and approval of the Cabinet shall be required for all acts of the Emperor in matters of state". Article 4 states that these duties can be delegated by the Emperor as provided for by law. While the Emperor formally appoints the Prime Minister to office, Article 6 of the Constitution requires him to appoint the candidate "as designated by the Diet", without giving the Emperor the right to decline appointment.
Article 6 of the Constitution delegates the Emperor the following ceremonial roles: Appointment of the Prime Minister as designated by the Diet. Appointment of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as designated by the Cabinet; the Emperor's other duties are laid down in article 7 of the Constitution, where it is stated that "the Emperor, with the advice and approval of the Cabinet, shall perform the following acts in matters of state on behalf of the people." In practice, all of these duties are exercised only in accordance with the binding instructions of the Cabinet: Promulgation of amendments of the constitution, cabinet orders, treaties. Convocation of the Diet. Dissolution of the House of Representatives. Proclamation of general election of members of the Diet. Attestation of the appointment and dismissal of Ministers of State and other officials as provided for by law, of full powers and credentials of Ambassadors and Ministers. Attestation of general and special amnesty, commutation of punishment and restoration of rights.
Awarding of honors. Attestation of instruments of ratification and other diplomatic documents as provided for by law. Receiving foreign ambassadors and ministers. Performance of ceremonial functions. Regular ceremonies of the Emperor with a constitutional basis are the Imperial Investitures in the Tokyo Imperial Palace and the Speech from the Throne ceremony in the House of Councillors in the National Diet Building; the latter ceremony opens extra sessions of the Diet. Ordinary sessions are opened each January and after new elections to the House of Representatives. Extra sessions convene in the autumn and are opened then. Although the Emperor has been a symbol of continuity with the past, the degree of power exercised by the Emperor has varied throughout Japanese history. In the early 7th century, the Emperor had begun to be called the "Son of Heaven"; the title of Emperor was borrowed from China, being derived from Chinese characters and was retroactively applied to the legendary Japanese rulers who reigned before the 7th–8th centuries AD.
According to the traditional account of the Nihon Shoki, Japan was founded by Emperor Jimmu in 660 BC. Modern historians agree that the Emperors before the possible late 3rd century AD ruler known traditionally as Emperor Ōjin are legendary. Emperor Ank
A memorial is an object which serves as a focus for the memory of something a deceased person or an event. Popular forms of memorials include landmark objects or art objects such as sculptures, statues or fountains and parks; the most common type of memorial is the memorial plaque. Common are war memorials commemorating those who have died in wars. Memorials in the form of a cross are called intending crosses. Online memorials are created on websites and social media to allow digital access as an alternative to physical memorials which may not be feasible or accessible; when somebody has died, the family may request that a memorial gift be given to a designated charity, or that a tree be planted in memory of the person. Those temporary or makeshift memorials are called grassroots memorials. Sometimes, when a high school student has died, the memorials are placed in the form of a scholarship, to be awarded to high-achieving students in future years. Bell Memorial Culture of Remembrance Ghost bike Historical marker List of memorials Memorial bench Monument National memorial National monument Public history Roadside memorial Viewlogy War memorial Commemorative Landscapes of North Carolina
Ninna was a Japanese era name after Gangyō and before Kanpyō. This period spanned the years from February 885 through April 889; the reigning emperors were Kōkō-tennō and Uda-tennō. January 20, 885 Ninna gannen: The new era name was created to mark an event or series of events; the previous era ended and the new one commenced in Gangyō 9, on the 21st day of the 2nd month of 885. January 11, 887: Kōkō traveled to Seri-gawa to hunt with falcons, he much enjoyed this kind of hunting, he took time for this kind of activity. September 17, 887: Kōkō died at the age of 57. Kōkō's third son received the succession. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Uda formally acceded to the throne. May 12, 887: Mototsune asks Uda for permission to retire from his duties. Therefore, Mototsune continued to serve. 887: Construction of the newly created Buddhist temple of Ninna-ji was completed. Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0.
Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul.. A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki of Kitabatake Chikafusa. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231049405.
A shrine is a holy or sacred place, dedicated to a specific deity, hero, saint, daemon, or similar figure of awe and respect, at which they are venerated or worshipped. Shrines contain idols, relics, or other such objects associated with the figure being venerated. A shrine at which votive offerings are made is called an altar. Shrines are found in many of the world's religions, including Christianity, Hinduism, Chinese folk religion and Asatru as well as in secular and non-religious settings such as a war memorial. Shrines can be found in various settings, such as churches, cemeteries, museums, or in the home, although portable shrines are found in some cultures. A shrine may become a focus of a cult image. Many shrines are located within buildings and in the temples designed for worship, such as a church in Christianity, or a mandir in Hinduism. A shrine here is the centre of attention in the building, is given a place of prominence. In such cases, adherents of the faith assemble within the building in order to venerate the deity at the shrine.
In classical temple architecture, the shrine may be synonymous with the cella. In Hinduism and Roman Catholicism, in modern faiths, such as Neopaganism, a shrine can be found within the home or shop; this shrine is a small structure or a setup of pictures and figurines dedicated to a deity, part of the official religion, to ancestors or to a localised household deity. Small household shrines are common among the Chinese and people from South and Southeast Asia, whether Hindu, Buddhist or Christian. A small lamp and small offerings are kept daily by the shrine. Buddhist household shrines must be on a shelf above the head. Small outdoor yard shrines are found at the bottom of many peoples' gardens, following various religions, including Christianity. Many consist of a statue of Christ or a saint, on a pedestal or in an alcove, while others may be elaborate booths without ceilings, some include paintings and architectural elements, such as walls, glass doors and ironwork fences, etc. In the United States, some Christians have small yard shrines.
Religious images in some sort of small shelter, placed by a road or pathway, sometimes in a settlement or at a crossroads. Shrines are found in many religions; as distinguished from a temple, a shrine houses a particular relic or cult image, the object of worship or veneration. A shrine may be constructed to set apart a site, thought to be holy, as opposed to being placed for the convenience of worshippers. Shrines therefore attract the practice of pilgrimage. Shrines are found in many, forms of Christianity. Roman Catholicism, the largest denomination of Christianity, has many shrines, as do Orthodox Christianity and Anglicanism. In the Roman Catholic Code of Canon law, canons 1230 and 1231 read: "The term shrine means a church or other sacred place which, with the approval of the local Ordinary, is by reason of special devotion frequented by the faithful as pilgrims. For a shrine to be described as national, the approval of the Episcopal Conference is necessary. For it to be described as international, the approval of the Holy See is required."Another use of the term "shrine" in colloquial Catholic terminology is a niche or alcove in most – larger – churches used by parishioners when praying in the church.
They were called Devotional Altars, since they could look like small Side Altars or bye-altars. Shrines were always centered on some image of Christ or a saint – for instance, a statue, mural or mosaic, may have had a reredos behind them. However, Mass would not be celebrated at them. Side altars, where Mass could be celebrated, were used in a similar way to shrines by parishioners. Side altars were dedicated to The Virgin Mary, Saint Joseph as well as other saints. A nativity set could be viewed as a shrine, as the definition of a shrine is any holy or sacred place. Islam's holiest structure, the Kaaba in the city of Mecca, though an ancient temple, may be seen as a shrine due to it housing a venerated relic called the Hajar al-Aswad and being the focus of the world's largest pilgrimage practice, the Hajj. A few yards away, the mosque houses the Maqam Ibrahim shrine containing a petrosomatoglyph associated with the patriarch and his son Ishmael's building of the Kaaba in Islamic tradition; the Green Dome sepulcher of the Islamic prophet Muhammad in Medina, housed in the Masjid an-Nabawi, occurs as a venerated place and important as a site of pilgrimage among Muslims.
Two of the oldest and notable Islamic shrines are the Dome of the Rock and the smaller Dome of the Chain built on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. The former was built over the rock that marked the site of the Jewish Temple and according to Islamic tradition, was the point of departure of Muhammad's legendary ascent heavenwards. More than any other shrines in the Muslim world, the tomb of Muhammad is considered a source of blessings for the visitor. Among sayings attributed to
Emperor Kōkō was the 58th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Kōkō reigned from 884 to 887. Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name was Komatsu-tei, he would be identified sometimes as "the Emperor of Komatsu". This resulted in the Emperor Go-Komatsu adopting this name. Tokiyatsu Shinnō was the third son of Emperor Ninmyō, his mother was Fujiwara no Sawako. Kōkō had 41 Imperial sons and daughters; the first kampaku Fujiwara no Mototsune was influential in the process by Kōkō became emperor. At the time Emperor Yōzei was deposed, Prince Tokiaytsu was Governor of Hitachi and Chief Minister of Ceremonies According to Kitabatake Chikafusa's 14th-century account, Mototsune resolved the problem of succession by going to visit Tokiyatsu-shinnō, where the kampaku addressed the prince as a sovereign and assigned imperial guards; the prince signaled his acceptance by going into the imperial palanquin, which conducted him to the emperor's residence within the palace.
Curiously, he was still wearing the robes of a prince when he decided to take this ride into an unanticipated future. February 4, 884: In the 8th year of Emperor Yōzei's reign, the emperor was deposed. March 23, 884: Emperor Kōkō is said to have acceded to the throne. 885: The era name was changed accordingly in 885. During his reign, Kōkō revived many ancient court rituals and ceremonies, one example is the imperial hawking excursion to Serikawa, initiated in 796 by Emperor Kanmu; this ritual event was revived by Kōkō after a lapse of 50 years. January 11, 886: Kōkō traveled to Seri-gawa to hunt with falcons, he much enjoyed this kind of hunting, he took time for this kind of activity. September 17, 887 仁和三年八月二十六日 -->: Kōkō died at the age of 57. The actual site of Kōkō's grave is known; this emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine at Kyoto. The Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Kōkō's mausoleum, it is formally named Kaguragaoka no Higashi no misasagi. Kugyō is a collective term for the few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras.
In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Kōkō's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included: Kampaku, Fujiwara no Mototsune, 836–891. Daijō-daijin, Fujiwara no Mototsune. Sadaijin, Minamoto no Tōru. Udaijin, Minamoto no Masaru. Naidaijin Dainagon, Fujiwara no Yoshiyo Dainagon, Fujiwara no Fuyuo The years of Kōkō's reign are more identified by more than one era name or nengō. Gangyō Ninna Consort: Princess Hanshi Toin-Kisaki, Imperial Prince Nakano's daughter First Son: Minamoto no Motonaga, die before Emperor Kōkō's succession Twelfth son: Imperial Prince Koretada Thirteenth Son: Imperial Prince Koresada Fifteenth Son: Imperial Prince Sadami Emperor Uda Fourth Daughter: Imperial Princess Tadako, married to Emperor Seiwa Fifth Daughter: Imperial Princess Kanshi Eighth Daughter: Imperial Princess Yasuko, married to Emperor Yōzei Sixteenth Daughter: Imperial Princess Ishi, married to Emperor DaigoConsort: Fujiwara no Kamiko, Fujiwara no Mototsune's daughter Consort: Fujiwara no Genjiko, Fujiwara no Yamakage's daughter Consort: Taira no Motoko/Tōshi, Taira no Yoshikaze's daughter Court Attendant: Shigeno no Naoko Fourth Daughter: Imperial Princess Shigeko, 23rd Saiō in Ise Shrine 884–887Court Attendant: Sanuki no Naganao's daughter Ninth Son: Minamoto no Motomi Court Attendant: Fujiwara Motoko Court lady: Sugawara no Ruishi, Sugawara no Koreyoshi's daughter Court lady: Princess Keishin, Prince Masami's daughter Seventh Daughter: Imperial Princess Bokushi, 8th Saiin in Kamo Shrine 882–887Court lady: daughter of Tajihi clan Minamoto no Kanshi/Ayako Court lady: A daughter of Fuse clan Twelfth Son: Shigemizu no Kiyozane, given the family name "Shigemizu" by the Emperor in 886Court Attendant: Fujiwara no Kadomune's daughter married Minamoto no Noboru Thirteenth Son: Minamoto no Koreshige, Minamoto no Noboru‘s son Second Son: Minamoto no Kaneyoshi Third son: Minamoto no Nazane Fourth Son: Minamoto no Atsuyuki Fifth Son: Minamoto no Seiyoshi Sixth Son: Minamoto no Chikayoshi Seventh son: Minamoto no Ototsune Eighth Son: Minamoto no Koretsune Tenth Son: Minamoto no Sadatsune Eleventh Son: Minamoto no Narikage Fourteenth Son: Minamoto no Kuninori Sixteenth Son: Minamoto no Kosen Seventeenth Son: Minamoto no Tomosada First Daughter: Minamoto no Osoko Second Daughter: Minamoto no Reishi Third Daughter: Minamoto no Onshi/Kusuko Sixth Da