The Chrysanthemum Throne is the throne of the Emperor of Japan. The term can refer to specific seating, such as the Takamikura throne in the Shishin-den at Kyoto Imperial Palace. Various other thrones or seats that are used by the Emperor during official functions, such as those used in the Tokyo Imperial Palace or the throne used in the Speech from the Throne ceremony in the National Diet, however, not known as the "Chrysanthemum Throne". In a metonymic sense, the "Chrysanthemum Throne" refers rhetorically to the head of state and the institution of the Japanese monarchy itself. Japan is the oldest continuing hereditary monarchy in the world. In much the same sense as the British Crown, the Chrysanthemum Throne is an abstract metonymic concept that represents the monarch and the legal authority for the existence of the government. Unlike its British counterpart, the concepts of Japanese monarchy evolved differently before 1947 when there was, for example, no perceived separation of the property of the nation-state from the person and personal holdings of the Emperor.
According to legend, the Japanese monarchy is said to have been founded in 660 BC by Emperor Jimmu. The extant historical records only reach back to Emperor Ōjin, considered to have reigned into the early 4th century. In the 1920s, then-Crown Prince Hirohito served as regent during several years of his father's reign, when Emperor Taishō was physically unable to fulfill his duties. However, the Prince Regent lacked the symbolic powers of the throne which he could only attain after his father's death; the current Constitution of Japan considers the Emperor as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." The modern Emperor is a constitutional monarch. The metonymic meanings of "Chrysanthemum Throne" encompass the modern monarchy and the chronological list of legendary and historical monarchs of Japan; the actual throne Takamikura is located in the Kyoto Imperial Palace. It is the oldest surviving throne used by the monarchy, it sits on 5 metres above the floor. It is separated from the rest of the room by a curtain.
The sliding door that hides the Emperor from view is called the kenjō no shōji, has an image of 32 celestial saints painted upon it, which became one of the primary models for all of Heian period painting. The throne is used for the enthronement ceremony, along with the twin throne michodai; this flexible English term is a rhetorical trope. Depending on context, the Chrysanthemum Throne can be construed as a metonymy, a rhetorical device for an allusion relying on proximity or correspondence, as for example referring to actions of the Emperor or as "actions of the Chrysanthemum Throne." The Chrysanthemum throne is understood as a synecdoche, related to metonymy and metaphor in suggesting a play on words by identifying a related conceptualization, e.g. referring to a part with the name of the whole, such as "Chrysanthemum Throne" for the mystic process of transferring Imperial authority—as in:December 18, 876: In the 18th year of Emperor Seiwa's reign, he ceded the Chrysanthemum Throne to his son, which meant that the young child received the succession.
Shortly thereafter, Emperor Yōzei is said to have formally acceded to the throne.referring to the whole with the name of a part, such as "Chrysanthemum Throne" for the serial symbols and ceremonies of enthronement—as in:January 20, 877 Yōzei was formally installed on the Chrysanthemum Throne. During the State Visit in 2007 of the Emperor and Empress of Japan to the United Kingdom, the Times reported that "last night’s dinner was as informal as it could get when the House of Windsor entertains the Chrysanthemum Throne." Order of the Chrysanthemum List of Emperors of Japan Imperial Regalia of Japan National seals of Japan Imperial House of Japan National emblem Dragon Throne of the Emperors of China Throne of England and the Kings of England Phoenix Throne of the Kings of Korea Lion Throne of the Dalai Lama of Tibet Peacock Throne of the Mughal Empire Sun Throne of the Persian Empire and Iran Silver Throne - the Throne of Sweden The Lion Throne of Myanmar Aston, William George.. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.
D. 697. London: Kegan Paul, Trubner. Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03460-0 Martin, Peter.. The Chrysanthemum Throne: A History of the Emperors of Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2029-9 McLaren, Walter Wallace.. A Political History of Japan During the Meiji Era, 1867-1912. London: G. Allen & Unwin. OCLC 2371314 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard.. The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Post and Robert S. Robins; when Illness Strikes the Leader. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-06314-1 Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Odai Ichiran.
Hakuchi was a Japanese era name after the Taika era and before Shuchō. This period spanned the years from February 650 through December 654; the reigning emperor was Kōtoku-tennō. The era began in 650, the sixth year of the Taika era, thus known as Hakuchi gannen; the daimyō of Nagato Province brought a white pheasant to the court as a gift for the emperor. This white pheasant was construed as a good omen. Emperor Kōtoku was extraordinarily pleased by this special avian rarity, he wanted the entire court to see this white bird for themselves, he commanded a special audience in which he could formally invite the sadaijin and the udaijin to join him in admiring the rare bird. In Japan, this was the second nengō, derived from the Chinese system of eras; the system of Japanese era names was not the same as Imperial reign dates. 650: Kōtoku commanded that all prisoners were to be granted liberty throughout the country. 654: A great number of rats moved into the province of Yamato. 654: Kōtoku died at the age of 59 after a reign of 10 years—five years during Taika, five years during Hakuchi.
Bialock, David T.. Eccentric Spaces, Hidden Histories: Narrative and Royal Authority from the Chronicles of Japan to the Tale of the Heike. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804751582 ISBN 0804751587. Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Nihon Odai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul.. A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki of Kitabatake Chikafusa. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231049405.
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Empress Kōgyoku known as Empress Saimei, was the 35th and 37th monarch of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Kōgyoku's reign spanned the years from 642 to 645, her reign as Saimei encompassed 655 to 661. In other words, 642: She ascended the throne as Kōgyoku-tennō, she stepped down in response to the assassination of Soga no Iruka. 645: She abdicated in favor of her brother, who would become known as Emperor Kōtoku. 654: Kōtoku died and the throne was vacant. 655: She re-ascended, beginning a new reign as Saimei-tennō. 661: Saimei ruled until her death caused the throne to be vacant again. The two reigns of this one woman spanned the years from 642 through 661. In the history of Japan, Kōgyoku/Saimei was the second of eight women to take on the role of empress regnant; the sole female monarch before Kōgyoku/Saimei was Suiko-tennō. The six women sovereigns reigning after Kōgyoku/Saimei were Jitō, Genshō, Kōken/Shōtoku, Meishō, Go-Sakuramachi. Before her ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, her personal name was Takara.
As empress, her name would have been Ametoyo Takara Ikashi Hitarashi hime. Princess Takara was a great-granddaughter of Emperor Bidatsu. During her first reign the Soga clan seized power, her son Naka no Ōe planned a coup slew Soga no Iruka at the court in front of her throne. The Empress, shocked by this incident, abdicated the throne. Kōgyoku's contemporary title would not have been tennō, as most historians believe this title was not introduced until the reigns of Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō. Rather, it was Sumeramikoto or Amenoshita Shiroshimesu Ōkimi, meaning "the great queen who rules all under heaven". Alternatively, Kōgyoku might have been referred to as or the "Great Queen of Yamato". Empress Kōgyoku reigned for four years; the years of Kōgyoku's reign are not linked by scholars to any era or nengō. The Taika era innovation of naming time periods – nengō – was yet to be initiated during her son's too-brief reign. In this context and Ishida's translation of Gukanshō offers an explanation about the years of Empress Jitō's reign which muddies a sense of easy clarity in the pre-Taiho time-frame: "The eras that fell in this reign were: the remaining seven years of Shuchō.
In the third year of the Taka era, Empress Jitō yielded the throne to the Crown Prince."The years of Kōgyoku's reign are not more identified by more than one era name or nengō, an innovation of Kōtoku's brief reign. When Kōtoku died, his designated heir was Naka no Ōe; when Naka no Ōe's mother re-ascended, he continued in the role of her crown prince. In this role, he did remain active in the political life of Japan. In the fifth year of Saimei's reign, Paekche in Korea was destroyed in 660. Japan assisted Paekche loyals in an attempt to aid the revival of Paekche dynasty. Early in 661, Saimei responded to the situation by leaving her capital in Yamato Province, her plan was to lead a military expedition to Korea. The empress stayed in Ishiyu Temporary Palace in today Dōgo Onsen. In May she arrived at Asakura Palace in the north part of Tsukushi province in Kyūshū, today a part of Fukuoka Prefecture; the allied army of Japan and Baekje was preparing for war against Silla, but the death of the empress thwarted those plans.
In 661, Saimei died in the Asakura Palace. In October her body was brought from Kyūshū by sea to Port Naniwa-zu. Empress Saimei ruled for seven years; the years of Saimei's reign are not linked by scholars to any era or nengō. The Taika era innovation of naming time periods – nengō – languished until Mommu reasserted an imperial right by proclaiming the commencement of Taihō in 701; the actual site of Kōgyoku/Saimei's grave is known, having been identified as the Kengoshizuka tomb in the village of Asuka, Nara Prefecture. This empress is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine at Nara; the Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Kōgyoku/Seimei's mausoleum. It is formally named Ochi-no-Okanoe no misasagi. Kugyō is a collective term for the few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time; these were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career.
During Kōgyoku's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included: Sadaijin UdaijinThe kugyō during Saimei's reign included: Sadaijin, Kose no Tokoda, 649–658 Udaijin Naidaijin, Nakatomi no Kamako, 645–669 First Husband: Prince Takamuku, Prince Tame’s son First Son: Prince Kara Second Husband: Prince Tamura Emperor Jomei, Prince Oshisaka-no-hikohito-no-Ōe‘s son Second Son: Prince Naka no Ōe Emperor Tenji) First Daughter: Princess Hashihito, married Emperor Kōtoku Third Son: Prince Ōama Emperor Tenmu Portrayed by Kim Min-kyung in the 2012–2013 KBS1 TV series The King's Dream. Japanese empresses Emperor of Japan List of Emperors of Japan Imperial cult Aston, William George.. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A. D. 697. London: Kegan Paul, Trubner. OCLC 448337491 Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press
Soga no Iruka
Soga no Iruka was the son of Soga no Emishi, a statesman in the Asuka Period of Japan. He was a son of Soga no Emishi, he was assassinated at court in a coup d'état involving Nakatomi no Kamatari and Prince Naka-no-Ōe, who accused him of trying to murder Prince Yamashiro, a charge which Soga no Iruka denied. Soga no Emishi committed suicide soon after his son's death, the main branch of the Soga clan became extinct. Prince Naka-no-Oe ascended the throne as Emperor Tenji, Nakatomi no Kamatari was promoted and given the name Fujiwara no Kamatari. In 2005, the remains of a building which may have been Soga no Iruka's residence were discovered in Nara; this discovery appeared to be consistent with the description found in Nihon Shoki. Portrayed by Jung Jin-gak in the 2012-2013 KBS1 TV series The King's Dream
Imperial Household Agency
The Imperial Household Agency is an agency of the government of Japan in charge of state matters concerning the Imperial Family, keeping of the Privy Seal and State Seal of Japan. From around the 8th century AD up to the Second World War, it was named the Imperial Household Ministry; the agency is unique among conventional government agencies and ministries, in that it does not directly report to the Prime Minister at the cabinet level, nor is it affected by legislation that establishes it as an Independent Administrative Institution. The Agency is headed by the Grand Steward and he is assisted by the Vice-Grand Steward; the main elements of the organization are: the Grand Steward's Secretariat the Board of Chamberlains the Crown Prince's Household the Board of Ceremonies the Archives and Mausolea Department the Maintenance and Works Department the Kyoto OfficeThe current Grand Steward is Shin'ichirō Yamamoto. The Agency's headquarters is located within the grounds of the Imperial Palace in Tokyo.
The Agency's duties and responsibilities encompass the daily activities, such as state visits, organising events, preservation of traditional culture, administrative functions, etc. the agency is responsible for the various imperial residences scattered throughout the country. Visitors who wish to tour the Tokyo Imperial Palace, the Kyoto Imperial Palace, the Katsura Detached Palace, other sites, should register for guided tours with the agency first; the Agency has responsibility for the health and travel arrangements of the Imperial family, including maintaining the Imperial line. The Board of the Chamberlains, headed by the Grand Chamberlain, manages the daily life of the Emperor and the Empress, it keeps the Privy Seal and State Seal of Japan. A "Grand Master of the Board of the Crown Prince's Household" helps manage the schedules, dining menus, household maintenance of the Crown Prince and his family; the Imperial Household Agency can trace its origins back to the institutions established by the Taihō Code promulgated in 701–702 AD.
The Ritsuryō system established the namesake Ministry of the Imperial Household, a precursor to the present agency. The old code gave rise to the Ministry of Ceremonial which has its legacy in the Board of Ceremonies under the current agency, the Ministry of Civil Administration which oversaw the Bureau of Music that would now correspond to the Agency's Music Department; the basic structures remained in place until the Meiji Restoration. The early Meiji government installed Imperial Household Ministry on 15 August 1869. However, there is a convoluted history of reorganization around how the government bodies that correspond to constituent subdivisions of the current Agency were formed or empowered during this period; the Department of Shinto Affairs and the Ministry of Shinto Affairs were in existence and placed in charge of, e.g. the Imperial mausolea under the Office of Imperial Mausolea, one of the tasks designated to the Agency today. Meanwhile, the Meiji government created the Board of Ceremonies in 1871, soon renamed Bureau of Ceremonies in 1872.
And by 1872 the Ministry of Shinto Affairs was abolished, with the bulk of duties moved to the Kyōbu shō and the administration of formal ceremonial functions transferred to the aforementioned Board/Bureau of the Ceremonies. The Bureau of the Ceremonies was under the sway of the Great Council of State but was transferred to the control of the Imperial Household Ministry in September 1877; the Bureau underwent yet another name change to Board of Ceremonies in October 1884. Since the name remained unchanged and is, headed by the Master of Ceremonies. An Imperial Order in 1908 confirmed that the Imperial Household Minister, as the chief official was called, was responsible for assisting the Emperor in all matters concerning the Imperial House; the ministry oversaw the official appointments of Imperial Household Artists and commissioned their work. The Imperial Household Office was a downgraded version of the ministry, created pursuant to Imperial Household Office Law Law No. 70 of 1947 during the American Occupation of Japan.
Its staff size was downscaled from 6,200 to less than 1,500, the Office was placed under the Prime Minister of Japan. In 1949, Imperial Household Office became the Imperial Household Agency, placed under the fold of the newly created Prime Minister's Office, as an external agency attached to it. In 2001, the Imperial Household Agency was organizationally re-positioned under the Cabinet Office; the Agency has been criticized for isolating members of the Imperial Family from the Japanese public, for insisting on hidebound customs rather than permitting a more approachable, populist monarchy. These criticisms have become more muted in recent years. Prince Naruhito, in May 2004, criticised the then-Grand Steward of the Imperial Household, Toshio Yuasa, for putting pressure on Princess Masako, Naruhito's wife, to bear a male child. At a press conference, Naruhito said that his wife had "completely exhausted herself" trying to adapt to the imperial family's life, added "there were developments that denied Masako's career as well as her personality."
It has been stat