Fujiwara no Kaneie
Fujiwara no Kaneie was a Japanese statesman and politician during the Heian period. Kaneie served as a minister during the reigns of Emperor En'yū, Emperor Kazan and Emperor Ichijō. After his rival brother Kanemichi's death in 977 he was appointed to Udaijin by his cousin Yoritada who became Kampaku after Kanemichi's death, he and his son Michikane encouraged Emperor Kazan to abdicate to accelerate Kaneie's accession to regent, by the succession of Emperor Ichijō, he became Sesshō of Emperor Ichijō. 969: Ju Sammi 970: Chūnagon 972: Kaneie was promoted from the office of Chūnagon to Dainagon 978: Kaneie was named Udaijin. 986: Sesshō for Emperor Ichijō 986: retire from Udaijin 989: Kaneie is named daijō daijin. 990: Kaneie fell ill. July 26, 990: Kaneie died at the age of 62. Kaneie had four brothers: Kanemichi, Kinsue and Tamemitsu. Father: Fujiwara no Morosuke Mother: Fujiwara no Moriko, daughter of Fujiwara no Tsunekuni. Wife: Fujiwara no Tokihime, daughter of Fujiwara no Nakamasa.1st son: Fujiwara no Michitaka, Sesshō and Kampaku of Emperor Ichijō.
3rd son: Fujiwara no Michikane, Kampaku of Emperor Ichijō. 5th son: Fujiwara no Michinaga, Kampaku of Emperor Go-Ichijō. 1st daughter: Fujiwara no Chōshi, consort of Emperor Reizei and mother of Emperor Sanjō. 2nd daughter: Fujiwara no Senshi, consort of Emperor En'yū and mother of Emperor Ichijō. Wife: known as Udaisyō Michitsuna no Haha, she was the daughter of Fujiwara no Tomoyasu. 2nd son: Fujiwara no Michitsuna, Dainagon. Wife: Yasukonaishinnō, third daughter of Emperor Murakami. Wife: Tai no Ankata, daughter of Fujiwara no Kuninori. 3rd daughter: Fujiwara no Yasuko/Suishi, consort of Emperor Sanjō. Wife: name unknown, Chūjō miyasudokoro daughter of Fujiwara no Kanetada. Wife: name unknown. Wife: daughter of Fujiwara no Tadamoto 4th son: Fujiwara no Michiyoshi Wife: daughter of Minamoto no Kanetada Daughter: name unknown, lady in waiting for her sister Michitsuna no Haha. Brinkley and Dairoku Kikuchi.. A History of the Japanese People from the Earliest Times to the End of the Meiji Era. New York: Encyclopædia Britannica.
OCLC 413099 Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Nihon Odai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691
An emperor is a monarch, the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife, mother, or a woman who rules in her own right. Emperors are recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings. In Europe, the title of Emperor has been used since the Middle Ages, considered in those times equal or equal in dignity to that of Pope due to the latter's position as visible head of the Church and spiritual leader of the Catholic part of Western Europe; the Emperor of Japan is the only reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as Emperor. Both emperors and kings are monarchs, but emperor and empress are considered the higher monarchical titles. Inasmuch as there is a strict definition of emperor, it is that an emperor has no relations implying the superiority of any other ruler and rules over more than one nation, therefore a king might be obliged to pay tribute to another ruler, or be restrained in his actions in some unequal fashion, but an emperor should in theory be free of such restraints.
However, monarchs heading empires have not always used the title in all contexts—the British sovereign did not assume the title Empress of the British Empire during the incorporation of India, though she was declared Empress of India. In Western Europe, the title of Emperor was used by the Holy Roman Emperor, whose imperial authority was derived from the concept of translatio imperii, i.e. they claimed succession to the authority of the Western Roman Emperors, thus linking themselves to Roman institutions and traditions as part of state ideology. Although ruling much of Central Europe and northern Italy, by the 19th century the Emperor exercised little power beyond the German-speaking states. Although technically an elective title, by the late 16th century the imperial title had in practice come to be inherited by the Habsburg Archdukes of Austria and following the Thirty Years' War their control over the states had become nearly non-existent. However, Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned Emperor of the French in 1804 and was shortly followed by Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who declared himself Emperor of Austria in the same year.
The position of Holy Roman Emperor nonetheless continued until Francis II abdicated that position in 1806. In Eastern Europe, the monarchs of Russia used translatio imperii to wield imperial authority as successors to the Eastern Roman Empire, their status was recognised by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1514, although not used by the Russian monarchs until 1547. However, the Russian emperors are better known by their Russian-language title of Tsar after Peter the Great adopted the title of Emperor of All Russia in 1721. Historians have liberally used emperor and empire anachronistically and out of its Roman and European context to describe any large state from the past or the present; such pre-Roman titles as Great King or King of Kings, used by the Kings of Persia and others, are considered as the equivalent. Sometimes this reference has extended to non-monarchically ruled states and their spheres of influence such as the Athenian Empire of the late 5th century BC, the Angevin Empire of the Plantagenets and the Soviet and American "empires" of the Cold War era.
However, such "empires" did not need to be headed by an "emperor". Empire became identified instead with vast territorial holdings rather than the title of its ruler by the mid-18th century. For purposes of protocol, emperors were once given precedence over kings in international diplomatic relations, but precedence amongst heads of state who are sovereigns—whether they be kings, emperors, princes, princesses and to a lesser degree presidents—is determined by the duration of time that each one has been continuously in office. Outside the European context, emperor was the translation given to holders of titles who were accorded the same precedence as European emperors in diplomatic terms. In reciprocity, these rulers might accredit equal titles in their native languages to their European peers. Through centuries of international convention, this has become the dominant rule to identifying an emperor in the modern era. In the Roman tradition a large variety in the meaning and importance of the imperial form of monarchy developed: in intention it was always the highest office, but it could as well fall down to a redundant title for nobility that had never been near to the "Empire" they were supposed to be reigning.
The name of the position split in several branches of Western tradition, see below. The importance and meaning of coronation ceremonies and regalia varied within the tradition: for instance Holy Roman Emperors could only be crowned emperor by the Pope, which meant the coronation ceremony took place in Rome several years after these emperors had ascended to the throne in their home country; the first Latin Emperors of Constantinople on the other hand had to be present in the newly conquered capital of their empire, because, the only place where they could be granted to become emperor. Early Roman Emperors avoided any type of ceremony or regalia different from what was usual for republican offices in the Roman Republic: the most intrusive change had been changing the color of their robe to purple. New symbols of worldly and/or spiritual power, like the orb, became an essential part of the imperial accessories. Rules for indicating successors varied: there was a tendency towards male inheritance of the supreme o
Guanyin or Guan Yin is the most used Chinese translation of the bodhisattva known as Avalokiteśvara. In English usage, Guanyin refers to the Buddhist bodhisattva associated with compassion and venerated chiefly by followers of Mahayana Buddhist schools as practiced in the sinosphere. Guanyin refers to the bodhisattva as adopted by other Eastern religions such as Taoism, where she is revered as an immortal, as well as Chinese folk religions, where the mythical accounts about Guanyin's origins do not associate with the Avalokiteśvara described in Buddhist sutras.. In English, she is known as the "Goddess of Mercy" or the Mercy Goddess; the Chinese name Guanyin, is short for Guanshiyin, which means " Perceives the Sounds of the World". In Nepal Mandal Guanyin is worshipeed as Jana Baha Dyah, Seto Machindranath; some Buddhists believe that when one of their adherents departs from this world, they are placed by Guanyin in the heart of a lotus, sent to the western Pure Land of Sukhāvatī. Guanyin is referred to as the "most beloved Buddhist Divinity" with miraculous powers to assist all those who pray to her, as is said in the Lotus Sutra and Karandavyuha Sutra.
Several large temples in East Asia are dedicated to Guanyin including Shitennō-ji, Sensō-ji, Kiyomizu-dera, Sanjūsangen-dō, Dharma Drum Mountain. Guanyin is beloved by all Buddhist traditions in a non-denominational way and found in most Tibetan temples under the name Chenrezig, found in some influential Theravada temples such as Gangaramaya and Kelaniya in Sri Lanka. Statues are a depicted subject of Asian art and found in the Asian art sections of most museums in the world. Guānyīn is a translation from the Sanskrit Avalokitasvara or Avalokiteśvara, referring to the Mahāyāna bodhisattva of the same name. Another name for this bodhisattva is Guānzìzài, it was thought that the Chinese mis-transliterated the word Avalokiteśvara as Avalokitasvara which explained why Xuanzang translated it as Guānzìzài instead of Guānyīn. However, the original form was indeed Avalokitasvara with the ending svara, which means "sound perceiver" "he who looks down upon sound"; this is the exact equivalent of the Chinese translation Guānyīn.
This etymology was furthered in the Chinese by the tendency of some Chinese translators, notably Kumarajiva, to use the variant Guānshìyīn "he who perceives the world's lamentations"—wherein lok was read as meaning both "to look" and "world". Direct translations from the Sanskrit name Avalokitasvara include: Chinese: Guanyin, Guanshiyin The name Avalokitasvara was supplanted by the Avalokiteśvara form containing the ending -īśvara, which does not occur in Sanskrit before the seventh century; the original form Avalokitasvara appears in Sanskrit fragments of the fifth century. The original meaning of the name "Avalokitasvara" fits the Buddhist understanding of the role of a bodhisattva; the reinterpretation presenting him as an īśvara shows a strong influence of Śaivism, as the term īśvara was connected to the Hindu notion of Śiva as a creator god and ruler of the world. While some of those who revered Avalokiteśvara upheld the Buddhist rejection of the doctrine of any creator god, Encyclopædia Britannica does cite Avalokiteśvara as the creator god of the world.
This position is taken in the used Karandavyuha Sutra with its well-known mantra Oṃ maṇi padme hūṃ. In addition, the Lotus Sutra is the first time. Chapter 25 refers to him as Lokeśvara and Lokanātha and ascribes extreme attributes of divinity to him. Direct translations from the Sanskrit name Avalokiteśvara include: Chinese: 觀自在. In Hokkien, she is called Kuan Im or Kuan Se Im In Japanese, Guanyin is pronounced Kannon Kan'on, or more formally Kanzeon; this rendition was used for an earlier spelling of the well-known camera manufacturer Canon Inc., named for Guanyin. When iconography of Kannon depicts her with the Nyoihōju wishing gem she is known as Nyoirin Kannon, the Japanese adaptation of the Hindu deity Cintamanicakra. In Korean, Guanyin is called Gwanse-eum. In Thai's pronunciation duplicate from Hokkien Kuan Im, Phra Mae Kuan Im or Chao Mae Kuan Im. In Burmese, the name of Guanyin is Kwan Yin Medaw meaning Mother Kwan Yin. In Vietnamese, the name is Quán Thế Âm. In Indonesian, the name is Dewi Kwan Im.
She is called Mak Kwan Im "Mother Guanyin". In Malaysian Mandarin, the name is Guan Shi Yin Pusa. In Khmer, the name is Preah Mae Kun Ci Iem. In Sinhalese, the name is Natha Deviyo. In Tibetan, the name is Chenrézik. In Hmong, the name is Kab Yeeb. In these same countries, the variant Guanzizai "Lord of Contemplation" and its equivalents are used, such as in the Heart Sutra, among other sources; the Lotus Sūtra
The Chrysanthemum Throne is the throne of the Emperor of Japan. The term can refer to specific seating, such as the Takamikura throne in the Shishin-den at Kyoto Imperial Palace. Various other thrones or seats that are used by the Emperor during official functions, such as those used in the Tokyo Imperial Palace or the throne used in the Speech from the Throne ceremony in the National Diet, however, not known as the "Chrysanthemum Throne". In a metonymic sense, the "Chrysanthemum Throne" refers rhetorically to the head of state and the institution of the Japanese monarchy itself. Japan is the oldest continuing hereditary monarchy in the world. In much the same sense as the British Crown, the Chrysanthemum Throne is an abstract metonymic concept that represents the monarch and the legal authority for the existence of the government. Unlike its British counterpart, the concepts of Japanese monarchy evolved differently before 1947 when there was, for example, no perceived separation of the property of the nation-state from the person and personal holdings of the Emperor.
According to legend, the Japanese monarchy is said to have been founded in 660 BC by Emperor Jimmu. The extant historical records only reach back to Emperor Ōjin, considered to have reigned into the early 4th century. In the 1920s, then-Crown Prince Hirohito served as regent during several years of his father's reign, when Emperor Taishō was physically unable to fulfill his duties. However, the Prince Regent lacked the symbolic powers of the throne which he could only attain after his father's death; the current Constitution of Japan considers the Emperor as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." The modern Emperor is a constitutional monarch. The metonymic meanings of "Chrysanthemum Throne" encompass the modern monarchy and the chronological list of legendary and historical monarchs of Japan; the actual throne Takamikura is located in the Kyoto Imperial Palace. It is the oldest surviving throne used by the monarchy, it sits on 5 metres above the floor. It is separated from the rest of the room by a curtain.
The sliding door that hides the Emperor from view is called the kenjō no shōji, has an image of 32 celestial saints painted upon it, which became one of the primary models for all of Heian period painting. The throne is used for the enthronement ceremony, along with the twin throne michodai; this flexible English term is a rhetorical trope. Depending on context, the Chrysanthemum Throne can be construed as a metonymy, a rhetorical device for an allusion relying on proximity or correspondence, as for example referring to actions of the Emperor or as "actions of the Chrysanthemum Throne." The Chrysanthemum throne is understood as a synecdoche, related to metonymy and metaphor in suggesting a play on words by identifying a related conceptualization, e.g. referring to a part with the name of the whole, such as "Chrysanthemum Throne" for the mystic process of transferring Imperial authority—as in:December 18, 876: In the 18th year of Emperor Seiwa's reign, he ceded the Chrysanthemum Throne to his son, which meant that the young child received the succession.
Shortly thereafter, Emperor Yōzei is said to have formally acceded to the throne.referring to the whole with the name of a part, such as "Chrysanthemum Throne" for the serial symbols and ceremonies of enthronement—as in:January 20, 877 Yōzei was formally installed on the Chrysanthemum Throne. During the State Visit in 2007 of the Emperor and Empress of Japan to the United Kingdom, the Times reported that "last night’s dinner was as informal as it could get when the House of Windsor entertains the Chrysanthemum Throne." Order of the Chrysanthemum List of Emperors of Japan Imperial Regalia of Japan National seals of Japan Imperial House of Japan National emblem Dragon Throne of the Emperors of China Throne of England and the Kings of England Phoenix Throne of the Kings of Korea Lion Throne of the Dalai Lama of Tibet Peacock Throne of the Mughal Empire Sun Throne of the Persian Empire and Iran Silver Throne - the Throne of Sweden The Lion Throne of Myanmar Aston, William George.. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.
D. 697. London: Kegan Paul, Trubner. Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03460-0 Martin, Peter.. The Chrysanthemum Throne: A History of the Emperors of Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2029-9 McLaren, Walter Wallace.. A Political History of Japan During the Meiji Era, 1867-1912. London: G. Allen & Unwin. OCLC 2371314 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard.. The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Post and Robert S. Robins; when Illness Strikes the Leader. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-06314-1 Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Odai Ichiran.
The Shūi Wakashū abbreviated as Shūishū, is the third imperial anthology of waka from Heian period Japan. It was compiled by Emperor Kazan in about 1005, its twenty volumes contain 1,351 poems. The details of its publication and compilation are unclear; the Shūishū was an expansion of Fujiwara no Kintō's earlier anthology, the Shūishō, compiled between 996 and 999. Until the early nineteenth century, it was mistakenly believed that the Shūishō was a selection of the best poems from the Shūishū, so the former was more regarded; the Shūi Wakashū is the first imperial anthology to include tan-renga, or waka composed by two poets - the earliest form of renga recorded. Cranston, Edwin A. 1993. A Waka Anthology, Volume Two: Grasses of Remembrance. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-804-74825-4. Keene, Donald, 1999. Seeds in the Heart: A History of Japanese Literature, Volume 1. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-11441-7
A nickname is a substitute for the proper name of a familiar person, place, or thing - used for affection. The term hypocoristic is used to refer to a nickname of affection between those in love or with a close emotional bond, compared with a term of endearment, it is a form of amusement. As a concept, it is distinct from both pseudonym and stage name, from a title, although there may be overlap in these concepts. "Moniker" means a nickname or personal name.. The compound word ekename meaning "additional name", was attested as early as 1303; this word was derived from the Old English phrase eaca "an increase", related to eacian "to increase". By the 15th century, the misdivision of the syllables of the phrase "an ekename" led to its rephrasing as "a nekename". Though the spelling has changed, the pronunciation and meaning of the word have remained stable since. To inform an audience or readership of a person's nickname without calling them by their nickname, English nicknames are represented in quotes between the bearer's first and last names.
However, it is common for the nickname to be identified after a comma following the full real name or in the body of the text, such as in an obituary. The middle name is eliminated in speech. Like English, German uses quotation marks between the last names. Other languages may use other conventions; the latter may cause confusion because it resembles an English convention sometimes used for married and maiden names. In Viking societies, many people had heiti, viðrnefni, or kenningarnöfn which were used in addition to, or instead of the first name. In some circumstances, the giving of a nickname had a special status in Viking society in that it created a relationship between the name maker and the recipient of the nickname, to the extent that the creation of a nickname often entailed a formal ceremony and an exchange of gifts known in Old Norse as nafnfestr. Slaves have used nicknames, so that the master who heard about someone doing something could not identify the slave. In capoeira, a Brazilian martial art, the slaves had nicknames to protect them from being caught, as practising capoeira was illegal for decades.
In Anglo-American culture, a nickname is based on a shortening of a person's proper name. However, in other societies, this may not be the case. For example: "my nickname is farmer Phil" In Indian society, for example people have at least one nickname and these affection names are not related to the person's proper name. Indian nicknames often are a trivial word or a diminutive. In Hispanic culture, a nickname is used for a term of endearment and family love, for example: "Papi", it is a colloquial term for “daddy” in Spanish, but in many Spanish-speaking cultures in the Caribbean, it is used as a general term of affection for any man, whether it's a relative, friend, or love. In Australian society, Australian men will give ironic nicknames. For example, a man with red hair will be given the nickname'Blue' or'Bluey'. A tall man will be called ` an obese person ` Slim' and so on. In England, some nicknames are traditionally associated with a person's surname. A man with the surname'Clark' will be nicknamed'Nobby': the surname'Miller' will have the nickname'Dusty': the surname'Adams' has the nickname'Nabby'.
There are several other nicknames linked traditionally with a person's surname, including Chalky White, Bunny Warren, Tug Wilson, Spud Baker. Other English nicknames allude to a person's origins. A Scotsman may be nicknamed'Jock', an Irishman'Paddy' or'Mick', a Welshman may be nicknamed'Taffy'; some nicknames referred to a person's physical characteristics, such as'Lofty' for a short person, or'Curly' for a bald man. Traditional English nicknaming - for men rather than women - was common through the first half of the 20th century, was used in the armed services during World War I and World War II, but has become less common since then. In Chinese culture, nicknames are used within a community among relatives and neighbors. A typical southern Chinese nickname begins with a "阿" followed by another character the last character of the person's given name. For example, Taiwanese politician Chen Shui-bian is sometimes referred as "阿扁". In many Chinese communities of Southeast Asia, nicknames may connote one's occupation or status.
For example, the landlord might be known as Towkay to his tenants or workers while a bread seller would be called "Mianbao Shu" 面包叔. Among Cantonese-speaking communities, the character "仔" may be used in a similar context of "Junior" in Western naming practices. Many writers, performing artists, actors have nicknames, which may
Japanese names in modern times consist of a family name, followed by a given name. More than one given name is not used. Japanese names are written in kanji, which are characters Chinese in origin but Japanese in pronunciation; the kanji for a name may have a variety of possible Japanese pronunciations, hence parents might use hiragana or katakana when giving a birth name to their newborn child. Names written in hiragana or katakana are phonetic renderings, so lack the visual meaning of names expressed in the logographic kanji. Japanese family names are varied: according to estimates, there are over 100,000 different surnames in use today in Japan; the three most common family names in Japan are Satō, Takahashi. This diversity is in stark contrast to the situation in other nations of the East Asian cultural sphere, which reflects a different history: while Chinese surnames have been in use for millennia and were reflective of an entire clan or adopted from nobles and were thence transferred to Korea and Vietnam via noble names, the vast majority of modern Japanese family names date only to the 19th century, following the Meiji restoration, were chosen at will.
The recent introduction of surnames has two additional effects: Japanese names became widespread when the country had a large population instead of dating to ancient times, since little time has passed, Japanese names have not experienced as significant a surname extinction as has occurred in the much longer history in China. Surnames occur with varying frequency in different regions. Many Japanese family names derive from features of the rural landscape. While family names follow consistent rules, given names are much more diverse in pronunciation and character usage. While many common names can be spelled or pronounced, many parents choose names with unusual characters or pronunciations, such names cannot in general be spelled or pronounced unless both the spelling and pronunciation are given. Unusual pronunciations have become common, with this trend having increased since the 1990s. For example, the popular masculine name 大翔 is traditionally pronounced "Hiroto", but in recent years alternative pronunciations "Haruto", "Yamato", "Taiga", "Sora", "Taito", "Daito", "Masato" have all entered use.
Male names end in -rō -ta or -o, or contain ichi, kazu, ji, or dai. Female names end in -ko or -mi. Other popular endings for female names include -ka and -na; the majority of Japanese people have one surname and one given name with no other names, except for the Japanese imperial family, whose members bear no surname. The family name – myōji, uji or sei – precedes the given name, called the "name" – or "lower name"; the given name may be referred to as the "lower name" because, in vertically written Japanese, the given name appears under the family name. People with mixed Japanese and foreign parentage may have middle names. Myōji, uji and sei had different meanings. Sei was the patrilineal surname, why up until now it has only been granted by the emperor as a title of male rank; the lower form of the name sei being tei, a common name in Japanese men, although there was a male ancestor in ancient Japan from whom the name'Sei' came. There were few sei, most of the medieval noble clans trace their lineage either directly to these sei or to the courtiers of these sei.
Uji was another name used to designate patrilineal descent, but merged with myōji around the same time. Myōji was what a family chooses to call itself, as opposed to the sei granted by the emperor. While it was passed on patrilineally in male ancestors including in male ancestors called haku, one had a certain degree of freedom in changing one's myōji. See Kabane. Multiple Japanese characters have the same pronunciations, so several Japanese names have multiple meanings. A particular kanji itself can have multiple meanings and pronunciations. In some names, Japanese characters phonetically "spell" a name and have no intended meaning behind them. Many Japanese personal names use puns. Few names can serve either as surnames or as given names. Therefore, to those familiar with Japanese names, which name is the surname and, the given name is apparent, no matter which order the names are presented in; this thus makes it unlikely that the two names will be confused, for example, when writing in English while using the family name-given name naming order.
However, due to the variety of pronuncia