Emperor Qinzong

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Emperor Qinzong of Song
Emperor of the Song dynasty
Reign 19 January 1126 – 20 March 1127
Coronation 19 January 1126
Predecessor Emperor Huizong
Successor Emperor Gaozong
Born Zhao Huan
(1100-05-23)23 May 1100
Died 14 June 1161(1161-06-14) (aged 61)
Era dates
Jingkang (靖康; 1126–1127)
Posthumous name
Gongwen Shunde Renxiao Huangdi
Temple name
Qinzong (欽宗)
House House of Zhao
Father Emperor Huizong
Mother Empress Xiangong
Emperor Qinzong of Song
Traditional Chinese 宋欽宗
Literal meaning "Venerate Ancestor of the Song"
Zhao Ji
Traditional Chinese 趙桓
Marquis Chonghun
Chinese 重昏侯
Literal meaning Doubly Besotted Marquis

Emperor Qinzong of Song (23 May 1100 – 14 June 1161), personal name Zhao Huan, was the ninth emperor of the Song dynasty in China and the last emperor of The Northern Song Dynasty.

Emperor Qinzong was the eldest son and heir apparent of Emperor Huizong, his mother was Emperor Huizong's empress consort, Empress Wang. In 1126, when the forces of the Jurchen-led Jin Empire invaded the Song Empire during the Jin–Song Wars, Emperor Huizong abdicated and passed on his throne to Emperor Qinzong, and then assumed the title Taishang Huang ("Retired Emperor") himself. Left to deal with the Jin invasion, Emperor Qinzong appointed the general Li Gang (李綱) to lead the Song military to fend off the invaders. However, the emperor was not a decisive leader and often made poor judgments. Eventually, he removed Li Gang from his appointment in the hope of starting peace talks with the Jin Empire. However, Jin forces eventually breached the walls of the Song capital, Bianjing, in 1127 and occupied the city in an event historically known as the Jingkang Incident ("Jingkang" was the era name of Emperor Qinzong's reign). Emperor Qinzong, along with his father Emperor Huizong and the rest of their family, were taken prisoner by Jin forces, this event also marked the end of the Northern Song dynasty. One of Emperor Huizong's sons managed to escape to southern China, where he reestablished the empire as the Southern Song dynasty and became historically known as Emperor Gaozong.

Emperor Qinzong and his father were demoted to the status of commoners on 20 March 1127 and deported to Huining Prefecture, the Jin capital, on 13 May 1127; in 1128, the two former Song emperors were forced to wear mourning dress and pay homage to the ancestors of the Jin emperors at their ancestral temple in Huining Prefecture.[1][2] Furthermore, the Jurchen ruler, Emperor Taizong, gave the two former Song emperors contemptuous titles to humiliate them: Emperor Qinzong was called "Marquis Chonghun" (重昏侯; literally "Doubly Besotted Marquis") while Emperor Huizong was called "Duke Hunde" (昏德公; literally "Besotted Duke").[2]

In 1141, as the Jin Empire normalised relations with the (Southern) Song Empire, the Jurchens renamed Emperor Qinzong's title to the more neutral-sounding "Duke of Tianshui Commandery" (天水郡公), which is based on a commandery located in the upper reaches of the Wei River. A few months later, the former emperor started receiving a stipend due to his nobility status, he lived the rest of his life as a captive in the Jin Empire, which used him as a hostage to put pressure on the Song Empire.[2]

Emperor Qinzong died as a sick and broken man in 1161,[3] he was 61. His temple name means "Esteemed Ancestor".



All of Qinzong's spouses were abducted during the Jingkang Incident. Zheng Qingyun, Han Jingguan & Di Yuhui were subjected to rape and impregnated during the march. Han Jingguan became a concubine of Wanyan Xiebao (完颜斜保).


Title Name Born Died Parents Issue Notes
Empress Renhuai
Lady Zhu
1102 1127 Zhu Bocai, Prince of Enping
(1117) 1. Crown Prince
(1121) 1. Princess of Roujia
1116: Crown Princess
1126: Empress
Committed suicide by drowning
1193: Empress Renhuai


Title Name Born Died Issue Notes
Virtuous Consort Shen
Lady Zhu
1110 1142 (1127) 2. Jin
(1130) 3. daughter


Title Name Born Died Issue Notes
Talented Lady
Zheng Qingyun
unknown unknown (1129) 3. Xun Bore a daughter in 1128
Han Jingguan
unknown unknown none Bore a son, who died young, in 1127
Di Yuhui
1114 unknown (1129) 2. daughter


Qinzong's son 3 & daughters 2-3 were born in Jin.


# Title Name Born Died Mother Notes
1 Crown Prince
1117 1128 Empress Renhuai 1126: Crown Prince
Died young
2 Jin
1127 unknown Virtuous Consort Shen
3 Xun
1129 unknown Talented Lady Zheng


# Title Name Born Died Mother Spouses Issue Notes
1 Princess of Roujia
unknown 1121 unknown Empress Renhuai
2 unknown 1129 unknown Talented Lady Di
3 unknown 1130 unknown Virtuous Consort Shen


See also[edit]

  1. Chinese emperors family tree (middle)
  2. List of emperors of the Song dynasty
  3. Architecture of the Song dynasty
  4. Culture of the Song dynasty
  5. Economy of the Song dynasty
  6. History of the Song dynasty
  7. Society of the Song dynasty
  8. Technology of the Song dynasty
  9. Jin–Song Wars


  1. ^ Tao, p. 32
  2. ^ a b c Franke (1994), p. 233-234.
  3. ^ Mote F.W. (2003). Imperial China 900-1800. Harvard University Press. p. 291. ISBN 0674012127. 


Emperor Qinzong
Born: May 23 1100 Died: June 14 1161
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Huizong
Emperor of the Song Dynasty
Succeeded by
Emperor Gaozong