click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Emperor Shōmu

Emperor Shōmu was the 45th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Shōmu's reign spanned the years 724 through 749. Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name is not known, but he was known as Oshi-hiraki Toyosakura-hiko-no-mikoto. Shōmu was Fujiwara no Miyako, a daughter of Fujiwara no Fuhito. Shōmu had six Imperial sons and daughters. Shōmu was still a child at the time of his father's death. 724: In the 9th year of Genshō-tennō's reign, the empress abdicated. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Shōmu is said to have acceded to the throne. January 31, 724: The era name is changed to mark the accession of Emperor Shōmu. 735–737: A major smallpox epidemic raged throughout Japan, incurring adult mortality rates of about 25% to 35%. Shōmu continued to reside in the Hezei Palace. Shōmu is known as the first emperor, his consort Kōmyō was a non-royal Fujiwara commoner. A ritsuryō office was created for the Kogogushiki. While battle maneuvers of the Fujiwara no Hirotsugu Rebellion were still underway, in Tenpyō 12 10th month Emperor Shōmu left the capital at Heijō-kyō and traveled eastward via Horikoshi, Nabari, Ao to Kawaguchi in Ichishi District, Ise Province where he retreated together with his court to a temporary palace.

One of his generals was left in command of the capital. Shōmu feared Fujiwara supporters in Nara and was hoping to quell potential uprisings in other parts of the country with his presence. After four days travelling through heavy rain and thick mud, the party reached Kawaguchi on Tenpyō 12 11th month, 2nd day A couple of days they learn of Hirotsugu's execution and that the rebellion had been quelled. Despite the good news, Shōmu did not return to Heijō-kyō but stayed in Kawaguchi until Tenpyō 12 11th month, 11th day, he continued his journey east north via Mino Province and back west along the shores of Lake Biwa to Kuni in Yamashiro Province which he reached on Tenpyō 12 12th month, 15th day. Places passed along the way included Akasaka (赤坂頓宮. 1st d.: Dec 23), Inukami (犬上頓宮. Situated among the hills and near a river north of Nara, Kuni was defensible. In addition, the area was linked with the Minister of the Right, Tachibana no Moroe, while Nara was a center of the Fujiwara clan. On Tenpyō 12 12th month, 15 day Shōmu proclaimed a new capital at Kuni-kyō.

724: Emperor Shōmu rises to throne. 740: In the Imperial court in Nara, Kibi no Makibi and Genbō conspire to discredit Fujiwara no Hirotsugu, Dazai shoni in Kyushu. 740: Hirotsugu rebels in reaction to the growing influence of Genbō and others. 740: Under the command of Ōno no Azumabito, an Imperial army of 17,000 is sent to Kyushu to stop the potential disturbance. 740: Hirotsugu is decisively beaten in battle. 740: The capital is moved to Kuni-kyō 741: The Emperor calls for nationwide establishment of provincial temples. Provincial temples and provincial nunneries were established throughout the country; the more formal name for these "kokubunji" was "konkomyo-shitenno-gokoku no tera". The more formal name for these "bokubunniji" was "hokke-metuzai no tera". 743: The Emperor issues a rescript to build the Daibutsu to be completed and placed in Tōdai-ji, Nara. 743: The law of Perpetual Ownership of Cultivated Lands issued 744: In the spring, the court was moved to Naniwa-kyō which became the new capital.

745: The Emperor declares by himself Shigaraki-kyō the capital 745: The capital returns to Heijō-kyō, construction of the Great Buddha resumes. 749: Shōmu, accompanied by the empress, their children, all the great men and women of the court, went in procession to Todai-ji. The emperor stood before the statue of the Buddha and proclaimed himself to be a slave to the three precious precepts of the Buddhist religion, which are the Buddha, the Buddhist law, the Buddhist church. 749: After a 25-year reign, Emperor Shōmu abdicates in favor of his daughter, Princess Takano, who would become Empress Kōken. After abdication, Shōmu took the tonsure, thus becoming the first retired emperor to become a Buddhist priest. Empress

Martin Shalli

Lieutenant General Martin Shalli is a former Namibian diplomat and military commander. In 2005, he was appointed as Namibia's High Commissioner to Zambia by President Sam Nujoma, but he was recalled in October 2006 by Nujoma's successor, Hifikepunye Pohamba, appointed as Chief of the Namibia Defence Force, he replaced controversial NDF commander Solomon Huwala, he was replaced as High Commissioner to Zambia by regional councillor Solomon Witbooi. In July 2009, Shalli was suspended by President Pohamba due to "serious allegations of irregularities". Without the alleged irregularities being proven, refuted, or officially substantiated, Shalli retired with full military privileges in January 2011. Shalli joined SWAPO's military wing, the People's Liberation Army of Namibia in 1971 in exile and was trained as an anti-aircraft artillery battalion commander in the Soviet Union before becoming a PLAN platoon commander; when PLAN merged into the military structure to help create independent Namibia's military, the Namibia Defence Force, Shalli was given the position of Policy and Operations Director with the rank of Brigadier General.

Between 2000 and 2005 he was the Army Commander with the rank of Major General. In he was appointed in 2005 to 2006 as the Namibian High Commissioner to Zambia. In 2006 he was promoted to Lieutenant General and appointed to Chief of Defence Force, Namibian Defence Force. In 2009, Shalli was suspended from the NDF due to allegations of fraud, he had large amounts of money given to him by a company working in Namibia from the People's Republic of China from which the NDF bought equipment. He was replaced by Major General Peter Nambundunga. Prior to his suspension, Shalli earned three medals for his service, the Order of Eagle 2nd Class, the Omugulugwombashe Medal, the Namibia Cross for Bravery in Silver. Despite the allegations, Shalli retired with full military privileges in January 2011

South African Class 5A 4-6-2

The South African Railways Class 5A 4-6-2 of 1903 was a steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in the Cape of Good Hope. In 1903, the Cape Government Railways placed two Karoo Class steam locomotives with a 4-6-2 Pacific type wheel arrangement in passenger service. In 1912, when they were assimilated into the South African Railways, they were renumbered and designated Class 5A; the Karoo Class of the Cape Government Railways was the first tender locomotive with a 4-6-2 Pacific type wheel arrangement to be introduced in Africa. It was the logical development of the CGR 6th Class 2-6-2 Prairie type which became the Class 6Y on the South African Railways. Designed by CGR Chief Locomotive Superintendent H. M. Beatty at the Salt River shops in Cape Town, it was acquired to cope with the increasing weight of passenger trains on the one-in-eighty gradients between Beaufort West and De Aar; the locomotive had Stephenson valve gear and used saturated steam. At the time, there was a general belief that any appreciable raising of the boiler pitch would result in a top-heavy locomotive.

Since Beatty was cautious about raising the boiler's centre line to more than twice the rail gauge, or 7 feet, in this case to accommodate the large 60 inches diameter coupled wheels, he resorted to cutting the boiler shell and installing specially shaped pockets to obtain the required clearance. In 1903, two of these locomotives were built by Kitson and Company after building the two 6th Class 2-6-2 Prairie locomotives since their works numbers follow in sequence, they were numbered 903 and 904, but were not allocated class numbers by the CGR and instead became known as the Karoo Class after the region of the Western System which they were designed to work in. Kitson’s used the Karoo design as basis for a batch of Pacific type locomotives which it built for the Midland Railway of Western Australia. One of the most striking features of the Karoo Class was the length of its boiler, accentuated by the extended smokebox; the length of the smokebox was over 8 feet and the distance between the boiler's tube-plates was 14 feet 6 1⁄4 inches.

The engine used Richardson slide valves, arranged above the cylinders and actuated by the Stephenson motion and rocker shafts. The eccentrics were fitted to the trailing coupled wheel axle, which resulted in exceptionally long valve connecting rods of 7 feet 10 1⁄4 inches; when the Union of South Africa was established on 31 May 1910, the three Colonial government railways were united under a single administration to control and administer the railways and harbours of the Union. Although the South African Railways and Harbours came into existence in 1910, the actual classification and renumbering of all the rolling stock of the three constituent railways were only implemented with effect from 1 January 1912. In 1912, these two locomotives were renumbered 721 and 722 and designated Class 5A on the SAR. In service, the Class 5A locomotives performed excellently. Beatty's annual report for 1905 stated that they ran 159,000 miles before a failure occurred, that failure being a hot box, they spent most of their working lives in the Karoo.

They were placed in suburban service working out of Cape Town, where they remained until they were withdrawn from service c. 1940

Canoeing at the 2020 Summer Olympics – Qualification

This article details the canoeing at the 2020 Summer Olympics qualifying phase. Similar to 2012 and 2016 format, a qualification system has been set up for both slalom and sprint canoeing at these games; the quotas have been set for each event by the International Canoe Federation in October 2018. For the slalom events, the men and women competed each in C-1 and K-1. Qualifications were allocated to NOCs, not to specific competitors. NOCs were limited to one boat per event. Qualification spots were earned as follows: World Championships: The top placed boats earned their NOCs a qualification. 18 qualification spots were available in the K-1 events, 11 in the C-1. Continental Qualification Events: Only NOCs that did not earn qualification in a given event through the World Championships were eligible. For the K-1 and C-1 events, 1 qualification spot was available for each continent. Host country: Japan, as the host country, is guaranteed one entry in each event if not qualified. Tripartite Commission: Canoeing has a total of 2 qualification spots that would be awarded through Tripartite Commission invitations.

Reallocation: Unused quota spots were reallocated. Italic: National federation has qualified a boat but the athlete that did this was counted in another boat * No continental qualifying race held as less than three nations are eligible. ** National federation is limited to two athlete quota places at a continental qualifying event. NOCs are limited to one boat per event, in kayaking to 6 men and 6 women positions. Qualification enables an NOC to participate, not in the person of the paddler who gained the place. Quotas given are for boats. Qualification spots were earned as follows: World Championships: The top placed boats earned their NOCs a qualification. 5 boat qualification spots were available in the K-1 events with an additional place reserved for the host country each in the men's 1000 m and women's 500 m, 6 in the K-2 events, 10 in the K-4 events, 6 in the C-1 events, 8 in the C-2 event. World Cup 2: The top placed boat in each individual event earned their NOCs a qualification. Continental Qualification Events: Only NOCs that did not earn qualification in a given event through the World Championships were eligible.

For the K-1 and C-1 events, 1 boat qualification spot was available for each continent. For the K-2 events, Europe was guaranteed two boat qualification spots but only 6 total qualification spots were available for the remaining 4 continents. Host country: Japan, as the host country, was guaranteed entries in certain events as listed in the World Championship section. Tripartite Commission: Canoeing had a total of 2 qualification spots that would be awarded through Tripartite Commission invitations. Reallocation: Unused quota spots were reallocated. In practice, this was used where some of an NOC's competitors in a larger boat category competed in a smaller category, freeing up the athlete quota spot that NOC had earned in the smaller category; the following boats and athletes qualified. In the men's kayak category, Josef Dostál of the Czech Republic qualified in the K-1 1000m and was a part of a qualifying K-2 1000m boat; the athlete quota spot from the K-1 was reallocated. Spain had qualifying boats in the K-4 500m, K-2 1000m, K-1 200m.

These 2 reallocated spots could fill a K-2 spot. This put Russia in the same situation as Spain, with a K-4, a K-2, a K-1 boat, requiring further reallocation of that K-1 spot; the spot went to the next best in K-1 1000m, but could not be allocated to France or to Spain, so went to Argentina as the first possible recipient. In the men's canoe category, Isaquias Queiroz of Brazil qualified in both the C-2 events; this spot went to the next-best NOC in C-2, the Czech Republic, as it could fill the C-2 boat because one the two athletes had earned an athlete quota spot in C-1 and only 1 spot was needed to fill the boat. In the women's kayak category, numerous quota spots were reallocated, in a two-step process; the first step was that athletes who qualified in both K-1 events were assigned the 500m place and the 200m place was reallocated to the next boat in the 200m. Lisa Carrington of New Zealand and Emma Jørgensen fit that criterion; because the Serbia spot would have gone to Milica Starović, who had qualified in the 500m, that spot was further reallocated to Portugal.

The second step in women's kayak was for athletes qualifying in multiple boat sizes. Volha Khudzenka of Belarus was part of the K-4, K-2, K-1 500m boats that qualified, requiring reallocation of her K-2 and K-1 quota places. Maryna Litvinchuk was in both the K-4 and K-2 boats for Belarus, so her K-2 quota place had to reallocated. Karolina Naja and Anna Puławska were in Poland's K-2 boats; the same was true of Sar

Taghdumbash Pamir

Taghdumbash Pamir or Taxkorgan Valley is a pamir or high valley in the south west of Tashkurgan Tajik Autonomous County, in Xinjiang, China. It lies to the west of the Karakoram Highway, it is inhabited by Wakhi and Tajik animal herders, who graze yaks and other animals on the grasslands of the pamir. The name Taghdumbash Pamir is sometimes applied to the mountain ranges surrounding the pamir, on the borders of Pakistan and Tajikistan, straddling the Pamir Mountains along the Sarikol Range, the Hindu Kush, the Mustagh mountains, the Wakhan; the range divides Badakhshan Province in Afghanistan, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province in Tajikistan, Gilgit-Baltistan in Pakistan. During the Qing dynasty, the Chinese claimed suzerainty over the area but permitted the Mir of Hunza to administer the region in return for a tribute. According to British colonial sources, this arrangement started during early Ayosh dynasty of Mir of Hunza, as the Mir conquered the Kirghiz nomads of Taghdumbash Pamir; the Mir erected a cairn in Dafdar to evidence his control.

The tribute system continued up until 1937. In 1984, the pamir and surrounding area was designated Taxkorgan Nature Reserve. Chalachigu Valley, an offshoot of the pamir is the only place in China where Marco Polo sheep can be found. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Pamirs". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 711–713

Patricia Deegan

Patricia E. Deegan is a disability-rights advocate and researcher living in the United States, she is known as an advocate of the mental health recovery movement and is an international speaker and trainer in the field of mental health. Deegan co-founded M-POWER.. She created CommonGround, “a web application to support shared decision making in the psychopharmacology consultation.” Deegan was diagnosed with schizophrenia as a teenager. She credits her grandmother with putting her on the road to recovery. Deegan received her B. S. from Fitchburg State College in 1977 and her PhD in clinical psychology from Duquesne University in 1984. As of 2010, she is an adjunct professor at the Dartmouth College Medical School, Department of Community and Family Medicine and the Boston University, Sargent College of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences. 2015 Wayne Fenton Award for Exceptional Clinical Care 2013 APA Gold Award: Amplifying the Voices of Individuals Who Use Mental Health Services: A Commitment to Shared Decision Making 2013 Scattergood Foundation Innovation Award 2013 New York Association of Psychiatric Rehabilitation Services Lifetime Achievement Award Patient Empowerment by the Ashoka Changemakers Foundation finalist in the international competition Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality recognition as a practice innovation Recovery model Personal medicine CommonGround Patricia Deegan's Company Recovery and the Conspiracy of Hope, a lecture by Patricia Deegan Recovery From Mental Disorders, a lecture by Patricia Deegan