Zhao Jiong, known as Zhao Guangyi from 960 to 977 and Zhao Kuangyi before 960 known by his temple name Taizong after his death, was the second emperor of the Song dynasty in China. He reigned from 976 to his death in 997, he was a younger brother of his predecessor Emperor Taizu, the father of his successor Emperor Zhenzong. Why Emperor Taizong succeeded his brother rather than Emperor Taizu's grown sons is not understood by historians. According to official history, his succession was confirmed by Emperor Taizu on their mother Empress Dowager Du's deathbed as a result of her instruction. A popular story dating back from at least the 11th century suggests that Emperor Taizong murdered his brother in the dim candlelight when the sound of an axe was heard. Whatever the truth, Zhao Guangyi had been prefect of the Song capital Kaifeng since 961 where he consolidated power, he was the only living prince during Emperor Taizu's reign and placed above all grand councilors in regular audiences. In the first three years of his reign, he intimidated the Qingyuan warlord Chen Hongjin and Wuyue king Qian Chu into submission and conquered Northern Han, thus reunifying China Proper for the first time in 72 years.
However, subsequent irredentist wars to conquer former Tang dynasty territories from the Liao dynasty in the north and the Early Lê dynasty in the southwest proved disastrous: after the failures in the Battle of Gaoliang River and the Battle of Bạch Đằng, the Sixteen Prefectures and Northern Vietnam would remain beyond Chinese control until the Ming dynasty in the 14th century. Emperor Taizong is remembered as a diligent emperor, he made the Song Empire more prosperous. He adopted the centralization policies of the Later Zhou, which include increasing agricultural production, broadening the imperial examination system, compiling encyclopaedias, expanding the civil service and further limiting the power of jiedushis. All subsequent emperors of the Northern Song were his descendants, as well as the first emperor of the Southern Song. However, from Emperor Xiaozong onwards, subsequent emperors were descendants of his brother, Emperor Taizu; this stemmed from the Jingkang Incident, whereby most of Emperor Taizong's descendants were abducted by the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, forcing Emperor Gaozong to seek a successor among Taizu's descendants, as Gaozong's only son had died young.
Emperor Taizong was born in 939 in Kaifeng. After his brother Emperor Taizu took the throne, he was appointed prefect of Kaifeng, he was the Prince of Jin in his brother's reign. Emperor Taizong succeeded the throne in 976 after the death of his elder brother, Emperor Taizu, 49 and had no recorded illness, it is rather unusual in Chinese history for a brother rather than the son to succeed the throne, so the event fueled popular belief that foul play was involved. According to official history, Empress Dowager Du before her death in 961 asked the 34-year-old Emperor Taizu to promise that his brother will succeed him so as to ensure the continuation of the Song dynasty, she asked Emperor Taizu, "Do you know why you came to power? It was because Later Zhou had a seven-year-old emperor!" The so-called "Golden Shelf Promise" was allegedly recorded and sealed, by secretary Zhao Pu and reopened after Emperor Taizong's succession to prove the latter's legitimacy. Emperor Taizu's eldest son, Zhao Dezhao, was 25 years old in 976 old enough to handle an emperor's duties.
Suspicious is that Zhao Pu, banished in 973 by Emperor Taizu for allegations of corruption, returned to the capital in 976 and was made the chancellor in 977. Wen Ying, a Buddhist monk who lived in the era of Emperor Taizong's grandson, Emperor Renzong, wrote an account about the last night of Emperor Taizu. According to this account, he was dining and drinking with Emperor Taizong still the "Prince of Kaifeng", beside some candles. Palace eunuchs and maids standing in a distance saw that Emperor Taizong's shadow on the window moved a lot and appeared antsy, it was getting late and several inches of snow have fallen on the inside of the hall. They heard an axe chopping the snow, with Emperor Taizu saying, "Do it right! Do it right!" Soon enough Emperor Taizu was heard snoring. Several hours he was pronounced dead by his brother, who spent the night in his palace; this legend has been referred to as "sound of the axe in the shadow of the flickering candle" and proved to be popular to this day. Modern historians were unable to find any concrete evidence suggesting murder.
Worth mentioning is the suicide of Zhao Dezhao, Emperor Taizu's eldest son, three years after his father's death. During Emperor Taizong's first campaign against the Khitan-led Liao dynasty, Zhao Dezhao was leading an army when rumours spread that Emperor Taizong had disappeared, that Zhao Dezhao should be the new emperor. Upon hearing that, Emperor Taizong did not award the troops; when Zhao Dezhao asked him, Emperor Taizong barked back, "You do that when you become the new emperor!" According to this account, Zhao Dezhao went to his palace and killed himself and when Taizong heard about the suicide, he was sad and hugged the corpse crying. Emperor Taizu's second son, Zhao Defang, died in 981 from an unidentified illness. Just 22, he was unusually young. Emperor Taizong was sad and visited Defang’s grave and cancelled meetings for 5 days. During the same year, Emperors Taizong and Taiz
St. Molua's Church, Killaloe is a medieval church and National Monument in Killaloe, Ireland. St. Molua's Church was constructed on Friar's Island in the River Shannon, to the south of Killaloe town. In 1929–30 the Shannon hydroelectric scheme raised the water level and submerged Friar's Island, the church was dismantled and brought north to be constructed on its present site in the grounds of Killaloe Cathedral. A monastery was founded on Friar's Island by Mo Lua in the 6th century; the stone church was built c. 1000, in the era of Brian Boru. The stone roof is one of the first in Ireland; the church consists of narrow chancel, built of limestone and mortar. The roof was built without a barrel vault and so collapsed in a storm
Adelbert Althouse was a United States Navy Captain who served as the 27th and 29th Naval Governor of Guam. Prior to his Governorship, he served on ships in the Navy and participated in both the Spanish–American War and World War I, he earned the Navy Cross for his actions commanding USS Brooklyn and serving as Chief of Staff for the Commander and Chief of the United States Asiatic Fleet during the World War. As Governor, he focused on reforming the island's education system, he modeled a new system after that of co-educational California but outlawed the speaking of the Chamorro language at schools in an effort to improve the English language skills of the local children. Most of his education reform took place in his first term. Althouse was born in 1869 in Illinois, he died on May 17, 1954. In 1930, the Navy named the Adelbert Althouse School, after him. Althouse entered the United States Naval Academy on May 21, 1887, graduating in 1891, he was commissioned as an ensign on July 1, 1893. He achieved the rank of lieutenant 1900.
The same year, he served aboard USS New Orleans. As a lieutenant, he served as division officer aboard USS Massachusetts. During this time, he participated in the Spanish–American War. In 1901, the navy assigned him to USS Constellation; as a lieutenant commander, he served as navigating officer aboard USS Vermont. During World War I, Althouse served as Chief of Staff to the Commander in Chief of the United States Asiatic Fleet and commanded USS Brooklyn, for which he received the Navy Cross, he retired with the rank of Captain. Althouse served two terms as Naval Governor of Guam. During his first term, he made significant changes to the Guamanian education system. In an effort to promote the spread of English among local children, he burned a large number of Chamorro-English dictionaries and banned the use of Chamorro in the classroom and on playgrounds. Do to a shortage of classrooms, classrooms were made co-educational, he based the new system on the educational system of California and demanded that teachers stick to a rigid syllabus.
His second term took place from December 14, 1922, to August 4, 1923
Gontran Georges Henri Hamel was a French phycologist. In 1927 he earned his doctorate in natural sciences with a thesis on the red algae genera Acrochaetium and Rhodochorton, he is known for research performed in the "Laboratoire de Cryptogamie" at the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris. He died while trying to reach Paris by bicycle prior to its liberation in August 1944. In 1924 with Pierre Allorge, he was co-founder of the journal Revue algologique, he was a contributor to the exsiccatae series Algues de France. In 1942 Frederik Børgesen named; the red algae species Lithothamnion hamelii is one of several species that bear his name. Recherches sur les genres Acrochaetium Naeg. Et Rhodochorton Naeg. 1927. Chlorophycées des côtes française, Revue algologique, 1928 - Chlorophyceae of coastal France. Floridées de France Laboratoire de Cryptogamie, - Florideae of France. Phéophycées de France, 1931–1939 - Phaeophyceae of France. Corallinacées de France et d'Afrique du Nord - Corallinaceae of France and northern Africa
Sonny Burke was an American musical arranger, Big Band leader and producer. In 1937, he graduated from Duke University, where he had formed and led the jazz big band known as the Duke Ambassadors. During the 1930s and 1940s, Burke was a big band arranger in New York City, worked with Sam Donahue's band, during the 1940s and 1950s worked as an arranger for the Charlie Spivak and Jimmy Dorsey bands, among others. In 1955 he wrote, along with the songs to Disney's Lady and the Tramp, he wrote songs with John Elliot for Disney's Toot, Whistle and Boom, which won the 1953 Oscar for Best Short Animated Feature. He wrote the music for number of popular songs; these include, "Black Coffee", with lyric by Paul Francis Webster, "Midnight Sun", co-written with jazz vibraphonist Lionel Hampton. The song's famous lyrics were added by Johnny Mercer. Burke was an active arranger, conductor and A&R man at major Hollywood record labels Decca Records where he worked with Charles "Bud" Dant, he wrote and arranged the theme for the early 1960s television show Hennesey, a jazzy update of the Sailor's Hornpipe.
Burke became musical director of Warner Bros. Records / Reprise Records and was responsible for many of Frank Sinatra's albums, was producer of Sinatra's iconic recording of "My Way" and Petula Clark’s classic “This Is My Song” written by Charles Chaplin for his movie A Countess From Hong Kong, he was bandleader for recordings of leading singers such as Dinah Shore, Bing Crosby, The Andrews Sisters, The Mills Brothers, Ella Fitzgerald and Mel Tormé. Burke died at the age of 66 from cancer on May 31, 1980 in California, he was survived by his wife Dorothy Gillis Burke and his four children, Gaylord and twins Jerry and Tom Burke. He had Rhoda Burke Andrews, mother of "Punch" Andrews, Bob Seger's long time manager, his interment was at Culver City. Sonny Burke plays Mambos Sonny Burke and his Orchestra I & II The Sonny Burke-Don Elliott Six With Brass Fever Brass Fever Time Is Running Out With Dizzy Gillespie Free Ride composed and arranged by Lalo SchifrinWith John Handy Carnival With Blue Mitchell African Violet With Ben Sidran Don't Let Go Guide to the Sonny Burke Papers Rubenstein Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Duke University Jazz Archive at Duke University
Grandon Rhodes was an American actor. In addition to numerous film appearances, he was a regular in two long-running television shows, playing the doctor in Bonanza and the judge in Perry Mason, he appeared in a recurring role as Beverly Hills banker Chester Vanderlip throughout most of the run of The George Burns and Gracie Allen Show. Rhodes was born on August 1904 in Jersey City, New Jersey. Early in his career, Rhodes acted in stock theater with troupes in Montreal, Oklahoma City and Hartford, among other places, his film debut came in Follow the Boys. He died on June 1987 in Encino, California, he was married twice, first to Eveta Bryant and secondly to the actress Ruth Lee. Grandon Rhodes on IMDb Grandon Rhodes at the Internet Broadway Database