Emperor Taizong of Tang Prince of Qin, personal name Li Shimin, was the second emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, ruling from 626 to 649. He is traditionally regarded as a co-founder of the dynasty for his role in encouraging Li Yuan, his father, to rebel against the Sui dynasty at Jinyang in 617. Taizong subsequently played a pivotal role in defeating several of the dynasty's most dangerous opponents and solidifying its rule over China. Taizong is considered to be one of the greatest emperors in China's history and henceforth, his reign became regarded as the exemplary model against which all future emperors were measured, his era, the "Reign of Zhenguan" is considered a golden age in ancient Chinese history and was treated as required studying material for future crown princes. Under the Zhenguan era, Tang China flourished militarily. For more than a century after his death, China enjoyed prosperity and peace brought about by the solidification of imperial protection over the Chinese regions.
In territorial extent, it covered most of the territories held by the Han dynasty, including parts of modern Mongolia, Siberia, Vietnam and Central Asian regions as far as Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. This era of consolidation and conquest laid the foundation for Xuanzong's reign, considered to be the height of the Tang dynasty. In 630, Emperor Taizong sent his general Li Jing against the Eastern Turks and capturing their Jiali Khan Ashina Duobi and destroying their power; this made Tang the dominant power in East and Central Asia, Emperor Taizong subsequently took the title of Tengeri Qaghan. He launched a series of campaigns against the oasis states of the Tarim Basin, against the armies of their main ally, the Western Turks. During his reign, Tang armies annexed Karakhoja in 640, Karasahr in 644 and Kucha in 648; the Tang defeated and annexed the Western Gokturk khaganate after Su Dingfang defeated Qaghan Ashina Helu in 657. Unlike many of the nobility of the time, Emperor Taizong was a frank rationalist and scholar of logic and scientific reason scorning superstitions and claims of signs from the heavens.
He modified important rites in order to ease the burden of agricultural labour. The modern Chinese historian Bo Yang opined that Emperor Taizong achieved greatness by enduring criticism which others would find difficult to accept whilst trying hard not to abuse his absolute power, as well as through his employment of capable chancellors such as Fang Xuanling, Du Ruhui and Wei Zheng. Emperor Taizong's wife Empress Zhangsun proved to be a capable assistant. Lǐ Shìmín was born in 598 at Wugong, in modern Xianyang, Shaanxi), his father Li Yuan the Duke of Tang was a general of the Sui Dynasty and a nephew, by marriage, to Sui's founding emperor Emperor Wen. Li Shimin's grandmother Duchess Dugu was a sister of Empress Dugu, both of whom were daughters of Dugu Xin, a major Xianbei general during Sui's predecessor dynasty Northern Zhou. Li Shimin's mother, Li Yuan's wife Duchess Dou, was a daughter of Dou Yi the Duke of Shenwu and his wife, Northern Zhou's Princess Xiangyang. Duchess Dou bore Li Yuan four sons—an older brother to Li Shimin, Li Jiancheng, two younger brothers, Li Yuanba, who would die in 614, Li Yuanji – and at least one daughter.
Li Yuan named Li Shimin "Shimin" as a shortened form of the phrase "save the earth and pacify the people". Li Shimin showed talent early in his life, in 613, the official Gao Shilian, impressed with him, gave him a niece in marriage as his wife. In 615, when Emperor Wen's son and successor Emperor Yang was ambushed by Eastern Turkish forces under Shibi Khan at Yanmen Commandery, a general call was made for men to join the army to help rescue the emperor. Li Shimin answered that call and served under the general Yun Dingxing doing so with distinction. In 616, when Li Yuan was put in charge of the important city of Taiyuan, he brought Li Shimin with him to Taiyuan, while leaving at least three other sons—Li Jiancheng, Li Yuanji, Li Zhiyun —at the ancestral home Hedong. Emperor Yang was soon dissatisfied with Li Yuan and Wang Rengong, the governor of Mayi Commandery, over their inability to stop Eastern Turkish incursions and the growing strengths of agrarian rebels the Eastern Turkish-support Liu Wuzhou the Dingyang Khan, who soon rose against Wang and killed him and soon captured Emperor Yang's secondary palace near Taiyuan.
Li Yuan became fearful that there had been prophecies throughout the empire that the next emperor would be named Li—and that Emperor Yang had killed another official, Li Hun and Li Hun's clan over his fears that Li Hun's nephew, Li Min, would seize the throne. In fear, Li Yuan considered rebellion, at that point, he did not know that Li Shimin had been doing so—secretly discussing such plans with Li Yuan's associates Pei Ji and Liu Wenjing. Once Li Shimin's plans matured, he had Pei inform Li Yuan of them—and had Pei warn Li Yuan that if it were revealed that Li Yuan had had sexual relations with some of Emperor Yang's ladies in waiting at the secondary Jinyang Palace, all of t
Jahn Cernăuți was a German football club from Czernowitz, Bukovina. The club became regional champions in 1924, 1925, 1934 and participated in three seasons of Divizia A; the club ceased to exist before the end of World War II. Jahn Cernăuți was founded in the fall of 1903, when German students in Chernivtsi have formed a football team. In 1908, the name was changed to the Association of Chernivtsi DFK. In the spring of 1909, a team broke away from the football club team from Chernivtsi, the new team was called IFC Czernowitz. On 8 September 1910, Chernivtsi DFK merged with the German gymnastic society under the name of "Czernowitzer Turn- und Sportverein Jahn" Jahn Chernivtsi; the football team participated in the 1920 Regional Championship of Bucovina. In the 1923–1924 season, becoming Regional Champion, who qualified Jahn Chernivtsi to Romanian Championship final tournament. After Brașovia Brașov did not show off, Jahn promoted to the semifinals where they lost 0–1 to Clubul Atletic Oradea; the next season, the club become Regional Champion again and qualified again for Romanian Championship final tournament.
In the first round they eliminated Șoimii Sibiu. In the quarterfinals, Fulgerul Chişinău defeated the team from Chernivtsi, but after the team from Bessarabia was disqualified and the result was annulled. Jahn Chernivtsi replayed the match with Oltul Slatina, which defeated 4–0. In the semifinals, was defeated by UCAS Petrosani; this was the best performance of the team in the history of Romania League. The team played in the Regional Championship of Bukovina; the winner of each edition obtained the right to participate in the final tournament of the Romanian Championship. Every ethnicity had their own team in Chernivtsi: Romanians, Jews and Ukrainians; the team founded in 1903 ceased to exist in 1940, after the Bukovina Germans moved back to Germany with the start of World War II, when the Soviets invaded Bukovina. They founded a new team called TSV Jahn Büsnau, a team from Stuttgart region. Semifinalist in Championship of Romania: 1923–24, 1924–25 3rd Place Divizia B: 1934–35, 1935–36 Victory in Cupa României Final Phase Tournament: 1936–37 against Textila Moldova Iași.
Bukovina Champions: 1924, 1925, 1934 Bukovina Germans Rudolf Wagner: Deutsches Kulturleben in der Bukowina, Eckartschriften Heft 77, 1981, S. 69–75
Robert Beachy is associate professor of history at the Underwood International College at Yonsei University in Seoul, South Korea. He taught at Goucher College in Baltimore, Maryland. Beachy is the brother of Stanford biologist Philip A. Beachy and is a cousin of author Stephen Beachy and of Roger N. Beachy, appointed by President Barack Obama as the first Director of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Beachy specializes in the intellectual and cultural history of Germany and Europe, is known for his work on the history of sexuality in the Weimar Republic, under the Nazis, in Germany after the Second World War, he received his Ph. D. from the University of Chicago in 1998. A. in History from the University of Chicago in 1989. A. in History from Earlham College, 1988. In 2009, Beachy was named a fellow of the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation for his research on homosexuality in Nazi Germany. Beachy's work has received support from the Huntington Library, the National Humanities Center, the Max Planck Institute for History, the Herzog August Bibliothek in Wolfenbüttel, the German Academic Exchange Service and the American Philosophical Society.
In 2015, his work "Gay Berlin: Birthplace of a Modern Identity" was named a Stonewall Honor Book in Non-Fiction by the American Library Association. Long Knives: Homosexuality in Nazi Germany. Gay Berlin: Birthplace of a Modern Identity. "The German Invention of Homosexuality," The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 82, No. 4, pp. 801–38. German Civil Wars: Nation Building and Historical Memory, 1756-1914, co-authored with James Retallack. Pious Pursuits: German Moravians in the Atlantic World, ed. with Michele Gillespie Who Ran the Cities? Elite and Urban Power Structures, 1700-2000, ed. with Ralf Roth The Soul of Commerce: Credit and Politics in Leipzig, 1750-1840 Women Business & Finance in Nineteenth Century Europe: Rethinking Separate Spheres, ed. with Beatrice Craig & Alastair Owens Best non-fiction work in LGBTQ literature, for "Gay Berlin," Randy Shilts Award, 2015. Spirit of Stonewall, for "Gay Berlin," Berlin Gay Pride Parade Association. Best Article in European History, Higby Prize of the American Historical Association.
Non-fiction honor book, for "Gay Berlin," Stonewall Book Awards of the American Library Association. John S. Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellowship National Humanities Center, residential fellowship. Center for the Advanced Study of Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, residential fellowship. American Philosophical Society The Huntington Library The German Academic Exchange Service The Max Planck Institute for the Study of History The Goethe Institute Beachy bio at Goucher College's website Goucher press release List of Guggenheim Fellows