The Chrysanthemum Throne is the throne of the Emperor of Japan. The term can refer to specific seating, such as the Takamikura throne in the Shishin-den at Kyoto Imperial Palace. Various other thrones or seats that are used by the Emperor during official functions, such as those used in the Tokyo Imperial Palace or the throne used in the Speech from the Throne ceremony in the National Diet, however, not known as the "Chrysanthemum Throne". In a metonymic sense, the "Chrysanthemum Throne" refers rhetorically to the head of state and the institution of the Japanese monarchy itself. Japan is the oldest continuing hereditary monarchy in the world. In much the same sense as the British Crown, the Chrysanthemum Throne is an abstract metonymic concept that represents the monarch and the legal authority for the existence of the government. Unlike its British counterpart, the concepts of Japanese monarchy evolved differently before 1947 when there was, for example, no perceived separation of the property of the nation-state from the person and personal holdings of the Emperor.
According to legend, the Japanese monarchy is said to have been founded in 660 BC by Emperor Jimmu. The extant historical records only reach back to Emperor Ōjin, considered to have reigned into the early 4th century. In the 1920s, then-Crown Prince Hirohito served as regent during several years of his father's reign, when Emperor Taishō was physically unable to fulfill his duties. However, the Prince Regent lacked the symbolic powers of the throne which he could only attain after his father's death; the current Constitution of Japan considers the Emperor as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." The modern Emperor is a constitutional monarch. The metonymic meanings of "Chrysanthemum Throne" encompass the modern monarchy and the chronological list of legendary and historical monarchs of Japan; the actual throne Takamikura is located in the Kyoto Imperial Palace. It is the oldest surviving throne used by the monarchy, it sits on 5 metres above the floor. It is separated from the rest of the room by a curtain.
The sliding door that hides the Emperor from view is called the kenjō no shōji, has an image of 32 celestial saints painted upon it, which became one of the primary models for all of Heian period painting. The throne is used for the enthronement ceremony, along with the twin throne michodai; this flexible English term is a rhetorical trope. Depending on context, the Chrysanthemum Throne can be construed as a metonymy, a rhetorical device for an allusion relying on proximity or correspondence, as for example referring to actions of the Emperor or as "actions of the Chrysanthemum Throne." The Chrysanthemum throne is understood as a synecdoche, related to metonymy and metaphor in suggesting a play on words by identifying a related conceptualization, e.g. referring to a part with the name of the whole, such as "Chrysanthemum Throne" for the mystic process of transferring Imperial authority—as in:December 18, 876: In the 18th year of Emperor Seiwa's reign, he ceded the Chrysanthemum Throne to his son, which meant that the young child received the succession.
Shortly thereafter, Emperor Yōzei is said to have formally acceded to the throne.referring to the whole with the name of a part, such as "Chrysanthemum Throne" for the serial symbols and ceremonies of enthronement—as in:January 20, 877 Yōzei was formally installed on the Chrysanthemum Throne. During the State Visit in 2007 of the Emperor and Empress of Japan to the United Kingdom, the Times reported that "last night’s dinner was as informal as it could get when the House of Windsor entertains the Chrysanthemum Throne." Order of the Chrysanthemum List of Emperors of Japan Imperial Regalia of Japan National seals of Japan Imperial House of Japan National emblem Dragon Throne of the Emperors of China Throne of England and the Kings of England Phoenix Throne of the Kings of Korea Lion Throne of the Dalai Lama of Tibet Peacock Throne of the Mughal Empire Sun Throne of the Persian Empire and Iran Silver Throne - the Throne of Sweden The Lion Throne of Myanmar Aston, William George.. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.
D. 697. London: Kegan Paul, Trubner. Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03460-0 Martin, Peter.. The Chrysanthemum Throne: A History of the Emperors of Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2029-9 McLaren, Walter Wallace.. A Political History of Japan During the Meiji Era, 1867-1912. London: G. Allen & Unwin. OCLC 2371314 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard.. The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Post and Robert S. Robins; when Illness Strikes the Leader. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-06314-1 Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Odai Ichiran.
Konoe Motozane, son of Fujiwara no Tadamichi, was a Kugyō during the late Heian period. His sons include Motomichi and wives include a daughter of Fujiwara no Tadataka they divorce and he married Taira no Moriko, second daughter of Taira no Kiyomori. At age of 16 he assumed the position of kampaku, regent, to Emperor Nijō, becoming a head of Fujiwara family, he died at the age of 24 and his wife, Taira no Moriko become a widow at the age of 12. A year after he took the position of sesshō, or regent, to Emperor Rokujō, his ancestry came to be known as Konoe family, one of the Five sessho families. Taira no Moriko daughter of Fujiwara no Tadataka Konoe Motomichi daughter of Fujiwara no Akisuke Awataguchi Tadayoshi Konoe Michiko married Emperor Takakura daughter of Minamoto Moritsune??? Unknown
Ise Grand Shrine
The Ise Grand Shrine, located in the city of Ise, Mie Prefecture of Japan, is a Shinto shrine dedicated to the sun goddess Amaterasu. Known as Jingū, Ise Jingū is a shrine complex composed of a large number of Shinto shrines centered on two main shrines, Naikū and Gekū; the Inner Shrine, Naikū, is located in the town of Uji-tachi, south of central Ise, is dedicated to the worship of Amaterasu, where she is believed to dwell. The shrine buildings instead joined wood; the Outer Shrine, Gekū, is located about six kilometers from Naikū and dedicated to Toyouke-Ōmikami, the god of agriculture, rice harvest and industry. Besides Naikū and Gekū, there are an additional 123 Shinto shrines in Ise City and the surrounding areas, 91 of them connected to Naikū and 32 to Gekū. Purportedly the home of the Sacred Mirror, the shrine is one of Shinto's holiest and most important sites. Access to both sites is limited, with the common public not allowed beyond sight of the thatched roofs of the central structures, hidden behind four tall wooden fences.
However, tourists are free to roam the forest, including its ornamental walkways after Meiji period. During the Edo period, it is estimated that one out of ten Japanese conducted an Okage Mairi pilgrimage to the shrine. Accordingly, pilgrimage to the shrine flourished in both religious frequency; because the shrine is considered sanctuary, no security checkpoints were conducted, as it was considered sacrilege by the faithful. The two main shrines of Ise are joined by a pilgrimage road that passes through the old entertainment district of Furuichi; the chief priest or priestess of Ise Shrine must come from the Imperial House of Japan and is responsible for watching over the Shrine. The current high priestess of the shrine is Sayako Kuroda. Around the 6th Century CE, the Yamato Court declared their lineage to Amaterasu, which created a connection between the court and Ise Shrine; this declaration of lineage would be a passed belief of the future emperors to come. According to the Nihon Shoki, around 2000 years ago the divine Yamatohime-no-mikoto, daughter of the Emperor Suinin, set out from Mt. Miwa in modern Nara Prefecture in search of a permanent location to worship the goddess Amaterasu, wandering for 20 years through the regions of Ohmi and Mino.
Her search brought her to Ise, in modern Mie Prefecture, where she is said to have established Naikū after hearing the voice of Amaterasu saying " is a secluded and pleasant land. In this land I wish to dwell." Before Yamatohime-no-mikoto's journey, Amaterasu had been worshiped at the imperial residence in Yamato briefly at Kasanui in the eastern Nara basin. When Princess Yamatohime-no-mikoto arrived at the village of Uji-tachi, she set up fifty bells to designate the area as enshrined for the goddess Amaterasu, why the river is called the Isuzu, or "fifty bells". Besides the traditional establishment date of 4 BCE, other dates of the 3rd and 5th centuries have been put forward for the establishment of Naikū and Gekū respectively; the first shrine building at Naikū was erected by Emperor Tenmu, with the first ceremonial rebuilding being carried out by his wife, Empress Jitō, in 692. The shrine was foremost among a group of shrines which became objects of imperial patronage in the early Heian period.
In 965, Emperor Murakami ordered imperial messengers to be sent to report important events to the guardian kami of Japan. These heihaku were presented to 16 shrines including the Ise Shrine. From the late 7th century until the 14th century, the role of chief priestess of Ise Shrine was carried out by a female member of the Imperial House of Japan known as a saiō. According to the Man'yōshū, the first saiō to serve at the shrine was Princess Ōku, daughter of Emperor Tenmu, during the Asuka period. Mention of Ise Shrine's saiō is made in the Aoi and Yugao chapters of The Tale of Genji as well as in the 69th chapter of The Tales of Ise; the saiō system ended during the turmoil of the Nanboku-chō period. During the Empire of Japan and the establishment of State Shinto, the position of chief priest of the Ise Shrine was fulfilled by the reigning emperor and the Meiji, Taisho and Shōwa Emperors all played the role of chief priest during their reigns. Since the disestablishment of State Shinto during the Occupation of Japan, the offices of chief priest and most sacred priestess have been held by former members of the imperial family or their descendants.
The current chief priest of the shrine is adoptive son of Takatsukasa Kazuko. He succeeded Kitashirakawa Michihisa, a great-grandson of Emperor Meiji, in 2007. Takatsukasa Kazuko was succeeded by Ikeda Atsuko. In 2012, Ikeda was joined by her niece Sayako Kuroda, sole daughter of reigning Emperor Akihito, to serve as a high priestess under her. On 19 June 2017, Sayako replaced her aunt as supreme priestess; the architectural style of the Ise shrine is known as shinmei-zukuri, characterized by extreme simplicity and antiquity: its basic principles date back to the Kofun period. The shrine buildings use a special variant of this style called Yuitsu-shinmei-zukuri, which may not be used in the construction of any other shrine. Yuitsu-shinmei-zukuri style mimics the architectural features of early rice granaries; the old shrines are dismantled and new ones built on an adjacent site to exacting specifications every 20 years at exorbitant expense, so that the buildings will be forever new and forever ancient and original.
The present buildings, dating from 2013, are the 62nd iteration to date and
Heian-kyō was one of several former names for the city now known as Kyoto. It was the official capital of Japan for over one thousand years, from 794 to 1868 with an interruption in 1180. Emperor Kanmu established it as the capital in 794, moving the Imperial Court there from nearby Nagaoka-kyō at the recommendation of his advisor Wake no Kiyomaro and marking the beginning of the Heian period of Japanese history; the city was modelled after the Tang dynasty Chinese capital of Chang'an. It remained the chief political center until 1185, when the samurai Minamoto clan defeated the Taira clan in the Genpei War, moving administration of national affairs to Kamakura and establishing the Kamakura shogunate. Though political power would be wielded by the samurai class over the course of three different shogunates, Heian remained the site of the Imperial Court and seat of Imperial power, thus remained the official capital. In fact after the seat of Imperial power was moved to Tokyo in 1868, since there is no law which makes Tokyo the capital, there is a view that Kyoto or remains the capital today.
In 1994, Kyoto City held various events commemorating the 1200th anniversary. Heian-kyō was built in what is now the central part of Kyoto city covering an area spanning the Kadono and Otagi Districts of Yamashiro Province; the city boundaries formed a rectangle measuring 4.5 km from east to west and 5.2 km from north to south. The city layout followed Heijō-kyō with the Imperial palace, placed in the centre of the northern city limits and the Suzaku Avenue, the main thoroughfare extending from the palace down through the centre of the city, dividing it into the Right and Left Capitals The design followed Sui and Tang dynasty Changan with the exception that Heian-kyō had no city walls, it is thought that the site for the city was selected according to the principles of Shijinsōō based on Chinese Feng shui and relating to the Four Symbols of Chinese astrology. The boundaries of Heian-kyō were smaller than those of modern Kyoto, with Ichijō-ōji at the northern limit corresponding to present-day Ichijō-dōri, between Imadegawa-dōri and Marutamachi-dōri, Kyūjō-ōji in the south corresponding to Kujō-dōri to the south of the present-day JR Kyōto Station and Higashi-kyōgoku-ōji in the east corresponding to present-day Teramachi Street.
The location of Nishi-kyōgoku-ōji at the western limit is estimated as a line running north to south from Hanazono Station on the JR San'in Main Line to Nishi-Kyōgoku Station on the Hankyu Kyoto Line. The layout of Heian-kyō was plotted in accordance with the principles of geomancy as a square city. Jō was the basic unit of measurement. 40 sq. jō made a chō. The city was further divided by major streets called ōji and minor streets called koji. Four lines of chō running east to west were together called a jō and four lines of chō running from north to south were called a bō The Cho which shared the same Jo and Bo were each given a number from 1 to 16. In this way addresses could be identified as follows: "Right Capital, Jō Five, Bō Two, Chō Fourteen"; the width of the minor streets was 4 Jō and for the major streets over 8 Jō. All of the streets in present-day Kyoto have become narrower. Suzaku-ōji for example was 28 Jō wide. In addition a river ran alongside Nishi Horikawa-koji. In 784 AD emperor Kammu constructed Nagaoka-kyō, moving the capital from Heijō-kyō.
It is thought that he wished to build a new, Emperor Tenji faction capital far from Yamato Province, the power base for the temples and aristocrats who supported the Emperor Tenmu faction. However, only 9 years in January 793 AD, Emperor Kammu assembled his retainers and announced another relocation of the capital The location for the new capital was to be Kadono located between two rivers in the north of Yamashiro, ten kilometres to the northeast of Nagaoka-kyō, it is said that the Emperor Kammu had looked out on Kadono from the Shōgun Tsuka in Higashiyama Ward of Kyoto City, deciding that it was a suitable location for the capital. Emperor Kammu's words are recorded in the Nihon Kiryaku as follows: "Kadono has beautiful mountains and rivers as well as good transport links by sea and land making it convenient for people to assemble there from all four corners of the country." It is thought that the construction of Heian-kyō began from the palace, with the construction of the remainder of the city following afterwards.
As a display of the emperor's authority the Daigokuden was constructed at the far north of the central thoroughfare, Suzaku-oji, making the building visible from anywhere in the city. Ports such as Yodonotsu and Ōitsu were set up along the river next to the city; these ports acted as a transit base for collecting in goods from all over the country and for forwarding them on to the city. The goods which arrived in Heian-kyō reached the people by way of one of the two large markets This arrangement provided a stable supply of food and goods which encouraged population growth. Measures were taken to guard against the flooding which had plagued the residents of Nagaoka-kyō. Although there was no natural river in th