Soga no Iruka
Soga no Iruka was the son of Soga no Emishi, a statesman in the Asuka Period of Japan. He was a son of Soga no Emishi, he was assassinated at court in a coup d'état involving Nakatomi no Kamatari and Prince Naka-no-Ōe, who accused him of trying to murder Prince Yamashiro, a charge which Soga no Iruka denied. Soga no Emishi committed suicide soon after his son's death, the main branch of the Soga clan became extinct. Prince Naka-no-Oe ascended the throne as Emperor Tenji, Nakatomi no Kamatari was promoted and given the name Fujiwara no Kamatari. In 2005, the remains of a building which may have been Soga no Iruka's residence were discovered in Nara; this discovery appeared to be consistent with the description found in Nihon Shoki. Portrayed by Jung Jin-gak in the 2012-2013 KBS1 TV series The King's Dream
Empress Genmei known as Empress Genmyō, was the 43rd monarch of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Genmei's reign spanned the years 707 through 715 CE. In the history of Japan, Genmei was the fourth of eight women to take on the role of empress regnant; the three female monarchs before Genmei were Suiko, Kōgyoku/Saimei, Jitō. The four women sovereigns reigning after Genmei were Genshō, Kōken/Shōtoku, Meishō, Go-Sakuramachi. Before her ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, her personal name was Abe-hime. Empress Genmei was the fourth daughter of Emperor Tenji, her mother, Mei-no-Iratsume, was a daughter of Udaijin Soga-no-Kura-no-Yamada-no-Ishikawa-no-Maro. Genmei became the consort of Crown Prince Kusakabe no Miko, the son of Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō. After the death of their son Emperor Monmu in 707, she acceded to the throne. At least one account suggests that she accepted the role of empress because Emperor Mommu felt his young son, her grandson, was still too young to withstand the pressures which attend becoming emperor.
July 18, 707: In the 11th year of Mommu-tennō's reign, the emperor died. Shortly thereafter, Empress Genmei is said to have acceded to the throne. 707: Deposits of copper were reported to have been found in Chichibu in Musashi Province in the region which includes modern day Tokyo. The Japanese word for copper is dō. May 5, 708: A sample of the newly discovered Musashi copper from was presented in Genmei's Court where it was formally acknowledged as "Japanese" copper. 708: Fuijwara no Fuhito was named Minister of the Right. Isonokami no Maro was Minister of the Left. 709: There was an uprising against governmental authority in Mutsu Province and in Echigo Province. Troops were promptly dispatched to subdue the revolt. 709: Ambassadors arrived from Silla, bringing an offer of tribute. He visited Fujiwara no Fuhito to prepare the way for further visits. 710: Empress Genmei established her official residence in Nara. In the last years of the Mommu's reign, the extensive preparations for this projected move had begun.
Shortly after the nengō was changed to Wadō, an Imperial Rescript was issued concerning the establishment of a new capital at the Heijō-kyō at Nara in Yamato Province. It had been customary since ancient times for the capital to be moved with the beginning of each new reign. However, Emperor Mommu decided not to move the capital, preferring instead to stay at the Fujiwara Palace, established by Empress Jitō. Empress Genmei's palace was named Nara-no-miya. 711: The Kojiki was published in three volumes. This work presented a history of Japan from a mythological period of god-rulers up through the 28th day of the 1st month of the fifth year of Empress Suiko's reign. Emperor Tenmu failed to bring the work to completion before his death in 686. Empress Genmei, along with other court officials, deserve credit for continuing to patronize and encourage the mammoth project. 712: The Mutsu Province was separated from Dewa Province. 713: Tanba Province was separated from Tango Province. 713: The compilation of Fudoki was begun with the imprimatur of an Imperial decree.
This work was intended to describe all provinces, mountains, rivers and plains. It is intended to become a catalog of the plants, trees and mammals of Japan, it intended to contain information about all of the remarkable events which, from ancient times to the present, have happened in the country. 713: The road which traverses Mino Province and Shinano Province was widened to accommodate travelers. After Empress Genmei transferred the seat of her government to Nara, this mountain location remained the capital throughout the succeeding seven reigns. In a sense, the years of the Nara period developed into one of the more significant consequences of her comparatively short reign. Genmei had planned to remain on the throne until her grandson might reach maturity. However, in 715, Genmei did abdicate in favor of Mommu's older sister who became known as Empress Genshō. Genshō was succeeded by her younger brother, who became known as Emperor Shōmu. 715: Genmei resigns as empress in favor of her daughter, who will be known as Empress Genshō.
The Empress reigned for eight years. Although there were seven other reigning empresses, their successors were most selected from amongst the males of the paternal Imperial bloodline, why some conservative scholars argue that the women's reigns were temporary and t
Ogura Hyakunin Isshu
Ogura Hyakunin Isshu is a classical Japanese anthology of one hundred Japanese waka by one hundred poets. Hyakunin isshu can be translated to "one hundred people, one poem ", it was compiled by Fujiwara no Teika while he lived in the Ogura district of Japan. One of Teika's diaries, the Meigetsuki, says that his son, Fujiwara no Tameie, asked him to arrange one hundred poems for Tameie's father-in-law, Utsunomiya Yoritsuna, furnishing a residence near Mount Ogura. In order to decorate screens of the residence, Fujiwara no Teika produced the calligraphy poem sheets. Hishikawa Moronobu provided woodblock portraits for each of the poets included in the anthology. In his own lifetime, Teika was better known for other work. For example, in 1200, Teika prepared another anthology of one hundred poems for ex-Emperor Go-Toba; this was called the Shōji Hyakushu. Emperor Tenji Empress Jitō Kakinomoto no Hitomaro Yamabe no Akahito Sarumaru no Taifu Ōtomo no Yakamochi Abe no Nakamaro Kisen Hōshi Ono no Komachi Semimaru Ono no Takamura Henjō Retired Emperor Yōzei Minamoto no Tōru Emperor Kōkō Ariwara no Yukihira Ariwara no Narihira Fujiwara no Toshiyuki Lady Ise Prince Motoyoshi Sosei Fun'ya no Yasuhide Ōe no Chisato Sugawara no Michizane Fujiwara no Sadakata Fujiwara no Tadahira Fujiwara no Kanesuke Minamoto no Muneyuki Ōshikōchi no Mitsune Mibu no Tadamine Sakanoue no Korenori Harumichi no Tsuraki Ki no Tomonori Fujiwara no Okikaze Ki no Tsurayuki Kiyohara no Fukayabu Fun'ya no Asayasu Ukon Minamoto no Hitoshi Taira no Kanemori Mibu no Tadami Kiyohara no Motosuke Fujiwara no Atsutada Fujiwara no Asatada Fujiwara no Koretada Sone no Yoshitada Egyō Minamoto no Shigeyuki Ōnakatomi no Yoshinobu Fujiwara no Yoshitaka Fujiwara no Sanekata Fujiwara no Michinobu Michitsuna no Haha Takashina no Takako known as Takashina no Kishi or Kō no Naishi Fujiwara no Kintō Izumi Shikibu Murasaki Shikibu Daini no Sanmi Akazome Emon Koshikibu no Naishi Ise no Taifu Sei Shōnagon Fujiwara no Michimasa Fujiwara no Sadayori Sagami Gyōson Suō no Naishi Retired Emperor Sanjō Nōin Hōshi Ryōzen Minamoto no Tsunenobu Yūshi Naishinnō-ke no Kii Ōe no Masafusa Minamoto no Toshiyori Fujiwara no Mototoshi Fujiwara no Tadamichi Retired Emperor Sutoku Minamoto no Kanemasa Fujiwara no Akisuke Taiken Mon In no Horikawa Tokudaiji Sanesada Dōin Fujiwara no Shunzei Fujiwara no Kiyosuke Shun'e Saigyō Jakuren Kōkamonin no Bettō Princess Shikishi Inpumon'in no Tayū Kujō Yoshitsune Nijōin no Sanuki Minamoto no Sanetomo Asukai no Masatsune Jien Saionji Kintsune Fujiwara no Teika Fujiwara no Ietaka Retired Emperor Go-Toba Retired Emperor Juntoku Poem number 2One of the poems attributed to Empress Jitō was selected by Fujiwara no Teika.
The text is visually descriptive. From the Shinkokinshū, but the original poem was from the Man'yōshū. Poem number 26 A quite different poem is attributed to Sadaijin Fujiwara no Tadahira in the context of a specific incident. After abdicating, former Emperor Uda visited Mount Ogura in Yamashiro Province, he was so impressed by the beauty of autumn colours of the maples that he ordered Fujiwara no Tadahira to encourage Uda's son and heir, Emperor Daigo, to visit the same area. Prince Tenshin or Prince Teishin was Tadahira's posthumous name, this is the name used in William Porter's translation of the poem which observes that "he maples of Mount Ogura, If they could understand, Would keep their brilliant leaves, until he Ruler of this land Pass with his Royal band." The accompanying 18th century illustration shows a person of consequence riding an ox in a procession with attendants on foot. The group is passing through an area of maples. Fujiwara no Teika chose this poem from the Shūi Wakashū for the Hyakunin Isshu.'*'By modern Romanization, "Miyuki matanamu".
The Ogura Hyakunin Isshu has been translated into many languages and into English many times, beginning with Yone Noguchi's Hyaku Nin Isshu in English in 1907. Other translations include: William N. Porter, A Hundred Verses from Old Japan Clay MacCauley, Hyakunin-isshu Tom Galt, The Little Treasury of One Hundred People, One Poem Each Joshua S. Mostow, Pictures of the Heart: The Hyakunin Isshu in Word and Image Peter McMillan, One Hundred Poets, One Poem Each Emiko Miyashita and Michael Dylan Welch, 100 Poets: Passions of the Imperial Court Many other anthologies compiled along the same criteria—one hundred poems by one hundred poets—include the words hyakunin isshu, notably the World War II-era Aikoku Hyakunin Isshu, or One Hundred Patriotic Poems by One Hundred Poets. Important is Kyōka Hyakunin Isshu, a series of parodies of the original Ogura collection. Teika's anthology is the basis for the card game of karuta, popular since the Edo period. Many forms of playing game
Imperial Household Agency
The Imperial Household Agency is an agency of the government of Japan in charge of state matters concerning the Imperial Family, keeping of the Privy Seal and State Seal of Japan. From around the 8th century AD up to the Second World War, it was named the Imperial Household Ministry; the agency is unique among conventional government agencies and ministries, in that it does not directly report to the Prime Minister at the cabinet level, nor is it affected by legislation that establishes it as an Independent Administrative Institution. The Agency is headed by the Grand Steward and he is assisted by the Vice-Grand Steward; the main elements of the organization are: the Grand Steward's Secretariat the Board of Chamberlains the Crown Prince's Household the Board of Ceremonies the Archives and Mausolea Department the Maintenance and Works Department the Kyoto OfficeThe current Grand Steward is Shin'ichirō Yamamoto. The Agency's headquarters is located within the grounds of the Imperial Palace in Tokyo.
The Agency's duties and responsibilities encompass the daily activities, such as state visits, organising events, preservation of traditional culture, administrative functions, etc. the agency is responsible for the various imperial residences scattered throughout the country. Visitors who wish to tour the Tokyo Imperial Palace, the Kyoto Imperial Palace, the Katsura Detached Palace, other sites, should register for guided tours with the agency first; the Agency has responsibility for the health and travel arrangements of the Imperial family, including maintaining the Imperial line. The Board of the Chamberlains, headed by the Grand Chamberlain, manages the daily life of the Emperor and the Empress, it keeps the Privy Seal and State Seal of Japan. A "Grand Master of the Board of the Crown Prince's Household" helps manage the schedules, dining menus, household maintenance of the Crown Prince and his family; the Imperial Household Agency can trace its origins back to the institutions established by the Taihō Code promulgated in 701–702 AD.
The Ritsuryō system established the namesake Ministry of the Imperial Household, a precursor to the present agency. The old code gave rise to the Ministry of Ceremonial which has its legacy in the Board of Ceremonies under the current agency, the Ministry of Civil Administration which oversaw the Bureau of Music that would now correspond to the Agency's Music Department; the basic structures remained in place until the Meiji Restoration. The early Meiji government installed Imperial Household Ministry on 15 August 1869. However, there is a convoluted history of reorganization around how the government bodies that correspond to constituent subdivisions of the current Agency were formed or empowered during this period; the Department of Shinto Affairs and the Ministry of Shinto Affairs were in existence and placed in charge of, e.g. the Imperial mausolea under the Office of Imperial Mausolea, one of the tasks designated to the Agency today. Meanwhile, the Meiji government created the Board of Ceremonies in 1871, soon renamed Bureau of Ceremonies in 1872.
And by 1872 the Ministry of Shinto Affairs was abolished, with the bulk of duties moved to the Kyōbu shō and the administration of formal ceremonial functions transferred to the aforementioned Board/Bureau of the Ceremonies. The Bureau of the Ceremonies was under the sway of the Great Council of State but was transferred to the control of the Imperial Household Ministry in September 1877; the Bureau underwent yet another name change to Board of Ceremonies in October 1884. Since the name remained unchanged and is, headed by the Master of Ceremonies. An Imperial Order in 1908 confirmed that the Imperial Household Minister, as the chief official was called, was responsible for assisting the Emperor in all matters concerning the Imperial House; the ministry oversaw the official appointments of Imperial Household Artists and commissioned their work. The Imperial Household Office was a downgraded version of the ministry, created pursuant to Imperial Household Office Law Law No. 70 of 1947 during the American Occupation of Japan.
Its staff size was downscaled from 6,200 to less than 1,500, the Office was placed under the Prime Minister of Japan. In 1949, Imperial Household Office became the Imperial Household Agency, placed under the fold of the newly created Prime Minister's Office, as an external agency attached to it. In 2001, the Imperial Household Agency was organizationally re-positioned under the Cabinet Office; the Agency has been criticized for isolating members of the Imperial Family from the Japanese public, for insisting on hidebound customs rather than permitting a more approachable, populist monarchy. These criticisms have become more muted in recent years. Prince Naruhito, in May 2004, criticised the then-Grand Steward of the Imperial Household, Toshio Yuasa, for putting pressure on Princess Masako, Naruhito's wife, to bear a male child. At a press conference, Naruhito said that his wife had "completely exhausted herself" trying to adapt to the imperial family's life, added "there were developments that denied Masako's career as well as her personality."
It has been stat
Romanization of Japanese
The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script to write the Japanese language. This method of writing is sometimes referred to in Japanese as rōmaji (. There are several different romanization systems; the three main ones are Hepburn romanization, Kunrei-shiki romanization, Nihon-shiki romanization. Variants of the Hepburn system are the most used. Japanese is written in a combination of logographic characters borrowed from Chinese and syllabic scripts that ultimately derive from Chinese characters. Rōmaji may be used in any context where Japanese text is targeted at non-Japanese speakers who cannot read kanji or kana, such as for names on street signs and passports, in dictionaries and textbooks for foreign learners of the language, it is used to transliterate Japanese terms in text written in English on topics related to Japan, such as linguistics, literature and culture. Rōmaji is the most common way to input Japanese into word processors and computers, may be used to display Japanese on devices that do not support the display of Japanese characters.
All Japanese who have attended elementary school since World War II have been taught to read and write romanized Japanese. Therefore all Japanese are able to read and write Japanese using rōmaji, although it is rare in Japan to use this method to write Japanese, most Japanese are more comfortable reading kanji and kana; the earliest Japanese romanization system was based on Portuguese orthography. It was developed around 1548 by a Japanese Catholic named Yajiro. Jesuit priests used the system in a series of printed Catholic books so that missionaries could preach and teach their converts without learning to read Japanese orthography; the most useful of these books for the study of early modern Japanese pronunciation and early attempts at romanization was the Nippo jisho, a Japanese–Portuguese dictionary written in 1603. In general, the early Portuguese system was similar to Nihon-shiki in its treatment of vowels; some consonants were transliterated differently: for instance, the /k/ consonant was rendered, depending on context, as either c or q, the /ɸ/ consonant as f.
The Jesuits printed some secular books in romanized Japanese, including the first printed edition of the Japanese classic The Tale of the Heike, romanized as Feiqe no monogatari, a collection of Aesop's Fables. The latter continued to be read after the suppression of Christianity in Japan. Following the expulsion of Christians from Japan in the late 1590s and early 17th century, rōmaji fell out of use and was used sporadically in foreign texts until the mid-19th century, when Japan opened up again. From the mid-19th century onward, several systems were developed, culminating in the Hepburn system, named after James Curtis Hepburn who used it in the third edition of his Japanese–English dictionary, published in 1887; the Hepburn system included representation of some sounds. For example, Lafcadio Hearn's book Kwaidan shows the older kw- pronunciation. In the Meiji era, some Japanese scholars advocated abolishing the Japanese writing system and using rōmaji instead; the Nihon-shiki romanization was an outgrowth of that movement.
Several Japanese texts were published in rōmaji during this period, but it failed to catch on. In the early 20th century, some scholars devised syllabary systems with characters derived from Latin that were less popular since they were not based on any historical use of the Latin script. Today, the use of Nihon-shiki for writing Japanese is advocated by the Oomoto sect and some independent organizations. During the Allied occupation of Japan, the government of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers made it official policy to romanize Japanese. However, that policy failed and a more moderate attempt at Japanese script reform followed. Hepburn romanization follows English phonology with Romance vowels, it is an intuitive method of showing Anglophones the pronunciation of a word in Japanese. It was standardized in the United states as American National Standard System for the Romanization of Japanese, but that status was abolished on October 6, 1994. Hepburn is the most common romanization system in use today in the English-speaking world.
The Revised Hepburn system of romanization uses a macron to indicate some long vowels and an apostrophe to note the separation of confused phonemes. For example, the name じゅんいちろう is written with the kana characters ju-n-i-chi-ro-u, romanized as Jun'ichirō in Revised Hepburn. Without the apostrophe, it would not be possible to distinguish this correct reading from the incorrect ju-ni-chi-ro-u; this system is used in Japan and among foreign students and academics. Nihon-shiki romanization, which predates the Hepburn system, was invented as a method for Japanese to write their own language in Latin characters, rather than to transcribe it for Westerners as Hepburn was, it follows the Japanese syllabary strictly, with no adjustments for changes in pronunciation. It is therefore the only major system of romanization that allows near-lossless mapping to and from kana, it has been st
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance, a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic and lipophilic. Oils have a high carbon and hydrogen content and are flammable and surface active; the general definition of oil includes classes of chemical compounds that may be otherwise unrelated in structure and uses. Oils may be animal, vegetable, or petrochemical in origin, may be volatile or non-volatile, they are used for food, medical purposes and the manufacture of many types of paints and other materials. Specially prepared oils are used in some religious rituals as purifying agents. First attested in English 1176, the word oil comes from Old French oile, from Latin oleum, which in turn comes from the Greek ἔλαιον, "olive oil, oil" and that from ἐλαία, "olive tree", "olive fruit"; the earliest attested forms of the word are the Mycenaean Greek, e-ra-wo and, e-rai-wo, written in the Linear B syllabic script. Organic oils are produced in remarkable diversity by plants and other organisms through natural metabolic processes.
Lipid is the scientific term for the fatty acids and similar chemicals found in the oils produced by living things, while oil refers to an overall mixture of chemicals. Organic oils may contain chemicals other than lipids, including proteins and alkaloids. Lipids can be classified by the way that they are made by an organism, their chemical structure and their limited solubility in water compared to oils, they have a high carbon and hydrogen content and are lacking in oxygen compared to other organic compounds and minerals. Crude oil, or petroleum, its refined components, collectively termed petrochemicals, are crucial resources in the modern economy. Crude oil originates from ancient fossilized organic materials, such as zooplankton and algae, which geochemical processes convert into oil; the name "mineral oil" is a misnomer, in that minerals are not the source of the oil—ancient plants and animals are. Mineral oil is organic. However, it is classified as "mineral oil" instead of as "organic oil" because its organic origin is remote, because it is obtained in the vicinity of rocks, underground traps, sands.
Mineral oil refers to several specific distillates of crude oil. Several edible vegetable and animal oils, fats, are used for various purposes in cooking and food preparation. In particular, many foods are fried in oil much hotter than boiling water. Oils are used for flavoring and for modifying the texture of foods. Cooking oils are derived either from animal fat, as butter and other types, or plant oils from the olive, maize and many other species. Oils are applied to hair to give it a lustrous look, to prevent tangles and roughness and to stabilize the hair to promote growth. See hair conditioner. Oil has been used throughout history as a religious medium, it is considered a spiritually purifying agent and is used for anointing purposes. As a particular example, holy anointing oil has been an important ritual liquid for Judaism and Christianity. Color pigments are suspended in oil, making it suitable as a supporting medium for paints; the oldest known extant oil paintings date from 650 AD. Oils are used for instance in electric transformers.
Heat transfer oils are used both as coolants, for heating and in other applications of heat transfer. Given that they are non-polar, oils do not adhere to other substances; this makes them useful as lubricants for various engineering purposes. Mineral oils are more used as machine lubricants than biological oils are. Whale oil is preferred for lubricating clocks, because it does not evaporate, leaving dust, although its use was banned in the USA in 1980, it is a long-running myth that spermaceti from whales has still been used in NASA projects such as the Hubble Telescope and the Voyager probe because of its low freezing temperature. Spermaceti is not an oil, but a mixture of wax esters, there is no evidence that NASA has used whale oil; some oils burn in liquid or aerosol form, generating light, heat which can be used directly or converted into other forms of energy such as electricity or mechanical work. To obtain many fuel oils, crude oil is pumped from the ground and is shipped via oil tanker or a pipeline to an oil refinery.
There, it is converted from crude oil to diesel fuel, fuel oils, jet fuel, kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas. A 42-US-gallon barrel of crude oil produces 10 US gallons of diesel, 4 US gallons of jet fuel, 19 US gallons of gasoline, 7 US gallons of other products, 3 US gallons split between heavy fuel oil and liquified petroleum gases, 2 US gallons of heating oil; the total production of a barrel of crude into various products results in an increase to 45 US gallons. Not all oils used as fuels are mineral oils, see biodiesel and vegetable oil fuel. In the 18th and 19th cent
Fujiwara no Kamatari
Fujiwara no Kamatari was a Japanese statesman and politician during the Asuka period. Kamatari became the founder of the Fujiwara clan. He, along with the Mononobe clan, was a supporter of Shinto and fought the introduction of Buddhism to Japan; the Soga clan, defenders of Buddhism in the Asuka period, defeated Kamatari and the Mononobe clan and Buddhism became the dominant religion of the imperial court. Kamatari, along with Prince Naka no Ōe Emperor Tenji, launched the Taika Reform of 645, which centralized and strengthened the central government. Just before his death he received the honorific of Taishōkan and the surname Fujiwara from the Emperor Tenji, thus establishing the Fujiwara clan. Kamatari was born to the Nakatomi clan, was the son of Nakatomi no Mikeko, named Nakatomi no Kamatari at birth, he was a friend and supporter of the Prince Naka no Ōe Emperor Tenji. Kamatari was the head of the Jingi no Haku; as a result, in 645, Prince Naka no Ōe and Kamatari made a coup d'état in the court.
They slew Soga no Iruka. Empress Kōgyoku was forced to abdicate in favor of her younger brother. Kamatari was a leader in the development of what became known as the Taika Reforms, a major set of reforms based on Chinese models and aimed at strengthening Imperial power, he acted as one of the principal editors responsible for the development of the Japanese legal code known as Sandai-kyaku-shiki, sometimes referred to as the Rules and Regulations of the Three Generations. During his life Kamatari continued to support Prince Naka no Ōe, who became Emperor Tenji in 661. Tenji granted him a new clan name, Fujiwara, as honors. Kamatari's son was Fujiwara no Fuhito. Kamatari's nephew, Nakatomi no Omimaro became head of Ise Shrine, passed down the Nakatomi name. In the 13th century, the main line of the Fujiwara family split into five houses: Konoe, Kujō, Nijō and Ichijō; these five families in turn provided regents for the Emperors, were thus known as the Five Regent Houses. The Tachibana clan claimed descent from the Fujiwara.
Emperor Montoku of the Taira clan was descended through his mother to the Fujiwara. Until the marriage of the Crown Prince Hirohito to Princess Kuni Nagako in January 1924, the principal consorts of emperors and crown princes had always been recruited from one of the Sekke Fujiwara. Imperial princesses were married to Fujiwara lords - throughout a millennium at least; as as Emperor Shōwa's third daughter, the late former Princess Takanomiya, Prince Mikasa's elder daughter, the former Princess Yasuko, married into Takatsukasa and Konoe families, respectively. Empress Shōken was a descendant of the Fujiwara clan and through Hosokawa Gracia of the Minamoto clan. A daughter of the last Tokugawa Shōgun married a second cousin of Emperor Shōwa. Among Kamatari's descendants are Fumimaro Konoe the 34th/38th/39th Prime Minister of Japan and Konoe's grandson Morihiro Hosokawa the 79th Prime Minister of Japan. Father: Nakatomi no Mikeko Mother: Ōtomo no Chisen-no-iratsume, daughter of Otomo no Kuiko. Known as "Ōtomo-bunin".
Main wife: Kagami no Ōkimi Wife: Kurumamochi no Yoshiko-no-iratsume, daughter of Kurumamochi no Kuniko. 1st son: Jōe, buddhist monk who traveled to China. 2nd son: Fujiwara no Fuhito Children with unknown mother: Daughter: Fujiwara no Hikami-no-iratsume, Bunin of Emperor Tenmu, mother of Princess Tajima. Daughter: Fujiwara no Ioe-no-iratsume, Bunin of Emperor Tenmu, wife of Fujiwara no Fuhito and mother of Prince Niitabe and Fujiwara no Maro. Daughter: Fujiwara no Mimimotoji, Bunin of Emperor Kōbun, mother of Princess Ichishi-hime. Daughter: Fujiwara no Tome/Tone-no-iratsume, wife of Nakatomi no Omimaro, mother of Nakatomi no Azumahito. Portrayed by Noh Seung-jin in the 2012-2013 KBS1 TV series The King's Dream. Tōshi Kaden, a bibliographic record Brinkley and Dairoku Kikuchi.. A History of the Japanese People from the Earliest Times to the End of the Meiji Era. New York: Encyclopædia Britannica. OCLC 413099 Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691