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Emperor Toba

Emperor Toba was the 74th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Toba's reign spanned the years from 1107 through 1123. Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name was Munehito-shinnō, he was the son of Emperor Horikawa. His mother was Empress Dowager Fujiwara no Ishi Toba had three Empresses, some consort ladies and 14 imperial sons and daughters. Chūgū: Fujiwara no Tamako Taikenmon’in, Fujiwara no Kinzane‘s daughter First Son: Imperial Prince Akihito Emperor Sutoku First Daughter: Imperial Princess Yoshiko/Kishi – Saiin at Kamo Shrine Second Son: Imperial Prince Michihito Third Son: Imperial Prince Kimihito Second Daughter: Imperial Princess Muneko Jōsaimon-in, – Saiin at Kamo Shrine. Fourth Son: Imperial Prince Masahito Emperor Go-Shirakawa Fifth Son: Imperial Prince Motohito? Later Imperial Prince priest Kakushō kōgō: Fujiwara no Yasuko/Taishi Kōyō-in, Fujiwara no Tadazane’s daughterkōgō: Fujiwara no Nariko Bifukumon’in, Fujiwara no Nagazane’s daughter.

Daughter: Imperial Princess Toshiko/Eishi Daughter: Imperial Princess Akiko Hachijo’in Ninth Son: Imperial Prince Narihito Emperor Konoe Daughter: Imperial Imperial Princess Yoshiko/Shushi Takamatsu’in(高松院), chūgū to Emperor Nijō)Court Lady Ki Ieko, Mino-no-Tsubone, Ki no Mitsukiyo’s daughter Sixth Son: Imperial Prince Priest Dōkei Seventh Son: Imperial Prince Priest Kakukai Daughter: Aya Gozen Sanjō-no-Tsubone, Fujiwara no Iemasa’s daughter Daughter: Imperial Princess Kenshi Yoshida saigū Kasuga-no-Tsubone, Tokudaiji Saneyosi‘s daughter Seventh Daughter: Imperial Princess Shōshi/Nobuko Fujitsubo-Nyogo, Tachibana Toshitsuna‘s daughter Shin-yo? – Buddhist nunTosa-no-Tsubone, Minamoto no Mitsuyasu‘s daughterFujiwara no Sanehira‘s Daughter Daughter: Princess Takamatsu Unknown Imperial Prince Priest Saichū Imperial Prince Dōka? When his mother died, his grandfather, former-Emperor Shirakawa, took him under his care and raised him. August 9, 1107: In the 21st year of Emperor Horikawa's reign, the emperor died at the age of 29.

Shortly thereafter, Emperor Toba is said to have acceded to the throne. During the initial years of Toba's reign, the actual power was held by his grandfather, the "retired" Emperor Shirakawa, in a process known as cloistered rule. 1110: The Miidera-ji burned down. This was the second time the temple was destroyed by fire, the first time being in 1081. February 25, 1123: In the 17th year of Emperor Toba's reign, Toba was forced to abdicate by his grandfather, retired-Emperor Shirakawa. Toba gave up the throne in favor of his son Akihito. Toba was only 20 years old. At this time, Toba took the title Daijō-tennō; the succession was received by his son. 1123: Emperor Sutoku is said to have acceded to the throne. 1129: "retired" Emperor Shirakawa died. Toba continued to hold power through the reigns of three emperors, Emperor Sutoku, Emperor Konoe, Emperor Go-Shirakawa. 1134: The former-Emperor Toba made a pilgrimage to the Kumano Shrines. He was udaijin Naka-no-in Munetada; the excursion was enjoyed by all, great quantities of sake were consumed.

Kugyō is a collective term for the few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. During those years in which the court's actual influence outside the palace walls was minimal, the hierarchic organization persisted. In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time; these were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Toba's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included: Sesshō, Fujiwara Tadazane, 1078–1162. Kampaku, Fujiwara Tadazane. Kampaku, Fujiwara Tadamichi, 1097–1164. Daijō-daijin, Fujiwara Tadazane. Sadaijin, Fujiwara Tadamichi. Sadaijin, Hanazono no Arahito. Udaijin, Naka-no-in Munetada. Naidaijin Dainagon The years of Toba's reign are more identified by more than one era name or nengō. Kajō Tennin Ten'ei Eikyū Gen'ei Hōan Emperor of Japan List of Emperors of Japan Imperial cult Emperor Go-Toba Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō: The Future and the Past.

Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; the Tale of the Heike. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press. ISBN 0-86008-128-1 OCLC 164803926 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon.. The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Odai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiat

Lisa Suhair Majaj

Lisa Suhair Majaj is a Palestinian-American poet and scholar. Born in Hawarden, Majaj was raised in Jordan, she earned a B. A. in English literature from American University of Beirut and an M. A. in English Literature, an M. A. in American Culture and a PhD in American Culture from the University of Michigan. In 2001, she moved to Cyprus, her poetry and essays have been published. In 2008, she was awarded the Del Sol Press Annual Poetry Prize for her poetry manuscript Geographies of Light. "In difficult times and writers have always provided lifelines." Going Global: The Transnational Reception of Third World Women Writers Intersections: Gender and Community in Arab Women's Novels These Words Etel Adnan: Critical Essays on the Arab American Writer and Artist Geographies of Light, 2009 Lisa Suhair Majaj, Institute for Middle East Understanding


Koryo-mal, Goryeomal, or Koryŏmal is the dialect of Korean spoken by the Koryo-saram, ethnic Koreans in the former Soviet Union. It is descended from multiple other varieties of Northeastern Korean. Koryo-saram report difficulty understanding speakers of standard Korean. According to German Kim, Koryo-mar is not used in the media and is not taught in schools, thus it can be classified as endangered. In the speech of Koryo-saram, the language is referred to as Koryo-mar, with several alternative pronunciations, including Kore-mar and Kore-mari. In South Korea, the dialect is referred to as Central Asian Korean. In Russia and other former Soviet states, the language is referred to as Koryo-mar or Koryo-mal, of which the former reflects the spoken form while the latter reflects the literary form of Korean. Speakers do not use Koryo-mar as a literary language. Written Korean during the Soviet period tended to follow the North Korean standard language, while both Northern and Southern forms have occurred after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

However, some modern writers, most notably Lavrenti Son, have created plays and short stories in Koryo-mar using Hangul. A movement for the romanization of Koryo-mar took place in the late 1930s, promoted by various government officials and linguists, but it did not have much success. Characteristics of Koryo-mar distinct from that of Standard Korean include the following phonological differences: ㄹ is or in all positions except when geminate, where it is pronounced the same as standard Korean frequent loss of ㄹ before coronal consonants A pitch accent system that distinguishes minimal pairs; the Korean language as taught in universities of the post-Soviet states is Standard Korean, with instructors being native to or trained. In one instance, a South Korean professor tried to teach Koryo-mar at Almaty State University, but he did not achieve much success. Cyrillization of Korean Korean dialects

The Spanish Jade (1922 film)

The Spanish Jade is a 1922 British silent drama film directed by John S. Robertson. Alfred Hitchcock is credited as a title designer; the film is considered to be lost. It was shot at Islington Studios in London by the British subsidiary of Paramount Pictures; the story had been made into a 1915 film of the same title. David Powell as Gil Pérez Marc McDermott as Don Luis Ramónez de Alavia Charles de Rochefort as Esteban Evelyn Brent as Mañuela Lionel d'Aragon as Mañuela's Stepfather Frank Stanmore as Tormillo, Don Luis' servant Roy Byford as Esteban's Spy and Confident Harry Ham as Oswald Manvers Alfred Hitchcock filmography The Spanish Jade List of lost films Low, Rachael; the History of the British Film 1918-1929. George Allen & Unwin, 1971; the Spanish Jade on IMDb Synopsis at AllMovie

Baja California rainbow trout

The Baja California rainbow trout or San Pedro Martir trout or Nelson's trout is a localized subspecies of the rainbow trout, a freshwater fish in the family Salmonidae. Baja California rainbow trout is one of many species of Mexican native trout, it is endemic to headwater tributaries of the Rio Santo Domingo in the Sierra de San Pedro Mártir mountain range of the Peninsular Ranges System, located in Baja California state on the northern Baja California Peninsula. The first records of trout in northwestern Mexico were published by paleontologist E. D. Cope in 1886 where he describes two specimens from Chihuahua as having the appearance of Salmo purpuratus a name sometimes incorrectly used for cutthroat trout. In 1898 and 1905, naturalist E. W. Nelson with the U. S. Biological Survey led explorations into the Mexican mainland and Baja California Peninsula to document flora and fauna. In 1908, preserved specimens of trout that Nelson brought back from the Rio Santo Domingo in the Sierra de San Pedro Mártir mountains of Baja California were described by ichthyologist B.

W. Evermann as a new species Salmo nelsoni, the Baja rainbow trout. In 1989, morphological and genetic studies indicated trout of the Pacific basin were genetically closer to Pacific salmon than to the Salmos–brown trout or Atlantic salmon of the Atlantic basin. Thus, in 1989, taxonomic authorities moved the rainbow and other Pacific basin trout, including the Mexican native trout into the genus Oncorhynchus, thus Salmo mykiss nelsoni became O. m. nelsoni. Endemic fauna of Mexico Fauna of the Baja California Peninsula Freshwater fish of North America

Sarkaria Commission

Sarkaria Commission was set up in 1983 by the central government of India. The Sarkaria Commission's charter was to examine the central-state relationship on various portfolios and suggest changes within the framework of Constitution of India; the Commission was so named as it was headed by Justice Ranjit Singh Sarkaria, a retired judge of the Supreme Court of India. The other members of the committee were Shri B. Sivaraman, Dr S. R. Sen and Rama Subramaniam; the final report contained 247 specific recommendations. In spite of the large size of its reports - the Commission recommended, by and large, status quo in the Centre-State relations in the areas, relating to legislative matters, role of Governors and use of Article 356, it is accepted that to whatever extent the Commission suggested change, the recommendations were not implemented by the government. The report contains 247 recommendations spreading over the following 19 Chapters. Chapter 0, it gave suggestions like the centre should consult state before legislation on concurrent list, river water dispute tribunal award should be binding on parties three months after the award is given by tribunal, centre should make deliberate use of article 258.

Chapter I. Perspective Chapter II. Legislative Relations Chapter III. Administrative Relations Chapter IV. Role of the Governor Chapter V. Reservation of Bills by Governors for President's consideration and Promulgation of Ordinances Chapter VI. Emergency Provisions Chapter VII. Deployment of Union Armed Forces in States for Public Order Duties Chapter VIII. All India Services Chapter IX. Inter-Governmental Council Chapter X. Financial Relations Chapter XI. Economic and Social Planning Chapter XII. Industries Chapter XIII. Mines and Minerals Chapter XIV. Agriculture Chapter XV. Forests Chapter XVI. Food and Civil Supplies Chapter XVII. Inter-State River Water Disputes Chapter XVIII. Trade and Inter-course within the Territory of India Chapter XIX. Mass Media Chapter XX. Miscellaneous Matters Chapter XXI. General Observations Chapter XXII. Appendices Chapter XXIII Conclusion Recommendations on Appointment of Governor: should be an eminent person. In case of such termination or resignation of the Governor, the Government should lay before both the Houses of Parliament a statement explaining the circumstances leading to such removal or resignation, as the case may be.

The Commission felt. The appointment should be made From a panel to be prepared by the State Legislature. For proper working of the parliamentary system, there has to be a personal rapport between the governor and the chief minister, thus the main purpose of consulting the chief minister is to ascertain his objections, if any, to the proposed appointment. The commission found that consultation with the chief minister has not invariably been taking place in recent years; the general practice, as far as the commission has been able to ascertain, seems to be that the Union Government informs the chief minister that a certain person is being appointed as the governor of the state. Sometimes such prior intimation is not given; the commission recommended that the Vice President of India and the Speaker of the Lok Sabha should be consulted by the prime minister in the selection of governor. Such consultation, the commission felt, will enhance the credibility of the selection process; some of the recommendations have been adopted such as governor to be from outside the state.

The SC has many times emphasized the urgent need for implementing Sarkaria commission's recommendations on selection and appointment of governors. Sarkaria commission report