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Emperor Wu of Han

Emperor Wu of Han, born Liu Che, courtesy name Tong, was the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141–87 BC. His reign lasted 54 years — a record not broken until the reign of the Kangxi Emperor more than 1,800 years later, his reign resulted in a vast territorial expansion and the development of a strong and centralized state resulting from his governmental reorganization, including his promotion of Confucian doctrines. In the field of historical social and cultural studies, Emperor Wu is known for his religious innovations and patronage of the poetic and musical arts, including development of the Imperial Music Bureau into a prestigious entity, it was during his reign that cultural contact with western Eurasia was increased and indirectly. As a military campaigner, Emperor Wu led Han China through its greatest expansion. At its height, the Empire's borders spanned from modern Kyrgyzstan in the west, to Korea in the east, to northern Vietnam in the south. Emperor Wu repelled the nomadic Xiongnu from systematically raiding northern China, dispatched his envoy Zhang Qian in 139 BC to seek an alliance with the Yuezhi of Kangju.

This resulted in further missions to Central Asia. Although historical records do not describe him as being aware of Buddhism, emphasizing rather his interest in shamanism, the cultural exchanges that occurred as a consequence of these embassies suggest that he received Buddhist statues from Central Asia, as depicted in the murals found in the Mogao Caves. Emperor Wu is considered one of the greatest emperors in Chinese history, due to his effective governance which made the Han dynasty one of the most powerful nations in the world. Michael Loewe called the reign of Emperor Wu the "high point" of "Modernist" policies, looking back to "adapt ideas from the pre-Han period." His policies and most trusted. However, despite establishing an autocratic and centralised state, Emperor Wu adopted the principles of Confucianism as the state philosophy and code of ethics for his empire and started a school to teach future administrators the Confucian classics; these reforms had an enduring effect throughout the existence of imperial China and an enormous influence on neighbouring civilizations.

The personal name of Emperor Wu was Liu Che. The use of "Han" in referring to emperor Wu is a reference to the Han dynasty of which he was a part, his family name is "Liu". The character "Di" is a title: this is the Chinese word which in imperial history of China means "emperor"; the character "Wu" means "martial" or "warlike", but is related to the concept of a particular divinity in the historical Chinese religious pantheon existing at that time. Combined, "Wu" plus "di" makes the name "Wudi", the emperor's posthumous name used for historical and for religious purposes, such as offering him posthumous honours at his tomb. One of Han Wudi's innovations was the practice of changing reign names after a number of years, as deemed auspicious or to commemorate some event, thus the practice for dating years during the reign of Wudi was represented by the nth year of the and "Reign Year Name" for the specific name of that regnal year. Liu Che was the 10th son of the oldest living son from Emperor Wen of Han.

His mother Wang Zhi was married to a commoner named Jin Wangsun and had a daughter from that marriage. However, her mother Zang Er was told by a soothsayer that both Wang Zhi and her younger sister would one day become honoured, she got the idea to offer her daughters to the crown prince Liu Qi, forcibly divorced Wang Zhi from her husband. After being offered to Liu Qi, Wang Zhi bore him three daughters — Princess Yangxin, Princess Nangong and Princess Longlü. On the day of Liu Qi's accession to the throne as Emperor Jing of Han, Wang Zhi gave birth to Liu Che, was promoted to a consort for giving birth to a royal prince. While she was pregnant, she claimed. Emperor Jing was ecstatic over the divine implication, made the young Liu Che the Prince of Jiaodong in 153 BC. An intelligent boy, Liu Che was considered to be Emperor Jing's favourite son from a young age. Emperor Jing's formal wife, Empress Bo, was childless; as a result, Emperor Jing's oldest son Liu Rong, born of his favourite concubine Lady Li, was made crown prince in 153 BC.

Lady Li, feeling certain that her son would become the emperor, grew arrogant and intolerant, threw tantrums at Emperor Jing out of jealousy over his favouring other concubines. Her lack of tact provided the opportunity for Consort Wang and the young Liu Che to gain the emperor's favour; when Emperor Jing's older sister, Eldest Princess Guantao Liu Piao, offered to marry her daughter to Liu Rong, Lady Li rudely rejected the proposal out of her dislike of Princess Guantao who provided new concubines for Emperor Jing and was thus gaining favour with the Emperor over Lady Li. Frustrated by the rejection, Princess Guantao approached another of Emperor Jing's favoured concubines: Consort Wang, observing these developments from the sidelines. Guantao offered to marry her daughter to Liu Che. Seizing the opportunity, Consort Wang accepted the offer with open arms

Compression release engine brake

A compression release engine brake called a Jacobs brake or Jake brake, is an engine braking mechanism installed on some diesel engines. When activated, it opens exhaust valves in the cylinders after the compression stroke, releasing the compressed gas trapped in the cylinders, slowing the vehicle; the term Jake brake, which properly refers to the Jacobs brand of engine brakes, has become a genericized trademark, is used to refer to engine brakes or compression release engine brakes in general on large vehicles or heavy equipment. The name is derived from the manufacturer and was patented 1962–1965 by Clessie Cummins; when the driver releases the accelerator on a moving vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine, the vehicle's forward momentum continues to turn the engine's crankshaft. Most diesels by design do not have a throttle, so regardless of throttle setting a full charge of air is always drawn into the cylinders. Compressed air generated during the compression stroke acts as an air spring to push the piston back down.

As such with fuel supply cut off and no power strokes taking place 100% of the energy absorbed by the compression stroke within each cylinder is returned to the crankshaft. This results in little engine braking being applied to the vehicle; the typical compression release engine brake consists of an add-on hydraulic system using engine oil which transfers the motion of the fuel injector rocker arm to the engine exhaust valve. When activated, the exhaust valve opens briefly near the engine's top dead center, releases the compressed air in the cylinder so that the energy is not returned to the crankshaft. If used properly, a compression release brake can assist a vehicle to maintain or reduce speed with minimal use of the service brakes; the power of this type can be around the same as the engine power. Contrast a gasoline engine under deceleration, where a closed throttle prevents free flow of air into the cylinders, resulting in little pressure to release at the top of the compression stroke.

The closed throttle provides engine braking by forcing the engine to generate a vacuum between the throttle and the cylinders. Diesel compression release brake controls consist of an on/off switch and a multi-position switch that controls the number of cylinders on which the brake is active. Throttle and clutch switches are integral with the system. Activation occurs when both the throttle are released with the transmission in gear, it is the driver's job to ascertain the correct transmission gear to use, depending on, for example, the steepness of the grade and the truck's load. The use of compression release engine brakes may cause a vehicle to make a loud chattering or "machine gun/jackhammer-like" exhaust noise vehicles having high flow mufflers, or no mufflers at all, causing many communities in the United States and Australia to prohibit compression braking within municipal limits. Drivers are notified by roadside signs with legends such as "Brake Retarders Prohibited," "Engine Braking Restricted," "Jake Brakes Prohibited," "No Jake Brakes," "Compression Braking Prohibited," "Limit Compression Braking," "Avoid Using Engine Brakes," or "Unmuffled Compression Braking Prohibited," and enforcement is through traffic fines.

Such prohibitions have led to the development of new types of mufflers and turbochargers to better silence compression braking noise. Jacobs claims that the use of the term "Jake Brakes" on signs prohibiting engine retarding brakes violates their trademark and discriminates against Jacobs brand products. In the U. S. state of Ohio, state law allows a board of county commissioners or township trustees to prohibit the use of compression release engine brakes within unincorporated areas. These local regulations apply to all state- and locally-maintained roads except Interstate highways; the state's standard "No Engine Brake" sign is designed to avoid discriminating against the Jacobs brand name. Engine braking Compression release Exhaust brake Retarder Jacobs Vehicle Systems

The New Totalitarians

The New Totalitarians is a 1971 book by British author Roland Huntford. Huntford analyzes the political and social climate of early 1970s Sweden, argues that it resembles a benevolent totalitarian state in the mould of Aldous Huxley's Brave New World; the main thesis was that the Swedish government relied less upon the violence and intimidation of the old totalitarians than upon sly persuasion and soft manipulation in order to achieve its goals. The influence of the state and official ideology were the most visible in the most private of matters, where little or no consciously "political" control had stretched before. At the time Huntford wrote, Sweden was a nation under the yoke of the Social Democratic Party of Sweden, which had ruled the country's government for over 40 years. Huntford argues that this had led to the complete dominance of socialist thought at all levels of the government, including the bureaucracy and the judiciary, which were all controlled by a powerful interconnecting network of Social Democratic labour unions, lobby groups, partisan organizations.

He points to the fact that these networks made it difficult for non-socialists to achieve any position of real power in Sweden, but noted that few Swedes seemed to view this massive politicization of their state with any concern. The New Totalitarians analyzes Swedish society in a broader historical context; the author argued that since the country bypassed the feudal system and has always been a centralized state, Sweden never developed a civic culture that champions individualism like most other countries of Western Europe. He thus argues that the country's political culture and institutions are much the product of a unique socio-political context, thus not applicable to otherwise comparable Western nations. At the same time he analyses; the changes in the sexual behaviour of the Swedes was a matter of official direction. Sex had become the vicarious passion of a society trapped in boredom and "engineered consent"; the book influenced Canadian author Peter Brimelow, is cited in his themed 1986 book on Canada, The Patriot Game