click links in text for more info

Empire State Plaza

The Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller Empire State Plaza is a complex of several state government buildings in downtown Albany, New York; the complex was built between 1976 at an estimated total cost of $2 billion. It houses several departments of the New York State administration and is integrated with the New York State Capitol, completed in 1899, which houses the state legislature. Among the offices at the plaza are the Department of Health and the Biggs Laboratory of the Wadsworth Center; the Empire State Art Collection, a major public collection of 1960s and 1970s monumental abstract artworks, is on permanent display throughout the site. The New York State Office of General Services maintains the plaza; the Nelson A. Rockefeller Empire State Plaza Performing Arts Center Corporation is a New York state public-benefit corporation, created in 1979 to manage the performing arts facility in the plaza; the plaza was the idea of Governor Nelson Rockefeller, inspired to create the new government complex after Princess Juliana of the Netherlands visited Albany for a celebration of the area's Dutch history.

Riding with the princess through a section of the city known colloquially as "the Gut", Rockefeller was embarrassed. He said, "there's no question that the city did not look as I think the Princess thought it was going to". Rockefeller conceived the basic design of the complex with architect Wallace Harrison in flight aboard the governor's private plane. Rockefeller doodled his ideas in pen on the back of a postcard, Harrison revised them, they used the vast scope and style of Brasilia and Chandigarh as models. The massive scale was designed to be appreciated from across the Hudson River, as the dominant feature of the Albany skyline. Paying for the construction of the plaza was a major problem, since a bond issue for an Albany project would certainly have been disapproved by the statewide electorate. Despite the displacement of thousands of loyal political voters, Albany Mayor Erastus Corning worked with Rockefeller to engineer a funding scheme that used Albany County bonds instead of state bonds.

During repayment, the state guaranteed the principal and interest payments in the form of rent for a plaza, county property. Ownership was to be transferred to the state in exchange for regular payments in lieu of taxes. Control of the bond issues gave Corning and party boss Daniel P. O'Connell influence when dealing with the Republican governor; the bonds were paid in 2001 and the state assumed ownership, though it required years to do the paperwork to change title. The state obtained possession of the 98.5-acre site on March 1962 through eminent domain. Demolition of the 1,200 structures began in the fall of 1962 and continued through the end of 1964; the official groundbreaking was on June 21, 1965. The initial cost estimate was $250 million; the project was plagued by delays. Unrealistic schedules set by the state forced contractors for various parts to interfere with each other during work; the difficult working conditions caused some of the contractors to sue the state later. The first building to be completed was the Legislative Office Building in 1972, the last was the Egg in 1978.

Though the plaza was dedicated on November 21, 1973, it began full operation in 1976 at a total cost exceeding $1.7 billion. As of 2014, more than 11,000 state employees work at the complex; when the State of New York seized the area in March 1962, it was home to about 7,000 residents according to the 1960 US Census. Like urban cores in most other American cities in the Northeast and Midwest, downtown Albany had seen sharp declines in white population, downtown retail activity, hotel occupancy rates since World War II. At the same time, the African American population had doubled in the downtown census tracts between 1950 and 1960. At the time of the State's 1962 seizure, the largest ethnic group in the entire area was African American, at about 14% of the total population. First and second generation Italian Americans made up about 10% of the area's population; the 98-acre area was made up of several distinct neighborhoods. To the south, clustered around Madison and Grand streets was the heart of Albany's Italian American community.

Although only about half of Little Italy was seized by the State, the demolition and subsequent noise and dirt associated with the construction of the Empire State Plaza led many residents to move if their homes were not appropriated. To the north lay Albany's rooming house district, centered on Jay and Hudson streets between Eagle and S. Swan. About 10% of the buildings torn down for the Empire State Plaza were rooming houses. In them lived over 1,000 single men elderly and poor, they made up at least 15 % of the take area's population. The eastern part of the take area, where the South Mall Arterial is now, was Albany's "Gut", an area of cheap hotels and dive bars; the take area boasted elegant homes on State Street at the northern end and Elm Street below Madison. The area in and around the seized area had long been home to their churches. Five churches operated in the area in the years just before its seizure by the state. Holy Cross, a German national Catholic church founded in 1850, was at the corner of Hamilton and Philip streets.

Due to declining numbers, it relocated in 1959 to Brevator on the city's western fringe. Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, a French national Catholic church, was at 109 Hamilton, between Grand and Fulton streets. Like Holy Cross, the church had seen a drop in parishioners to the point that in 1961 it celebrated only four baptisms and one marriage. Assum

Indiana Mammoth Internal Improvement Act

The Indiana Mammoth Internal Improvement Act was a law passed by the Indiana General Assembly and signed by Whig Governor Noah Noble in 1836 that expanded the state's program of internal improvements. It added $10 million to spending and funded several projects, including turnpikes and railroads; the following year the state economy was adversely affected by the Panic of 1837 and the overall project ended in a near total disaster for the state, which narrowly avoided total bankruptcy from the debt. By 1841, the government could no longer make the interest payment, all the projects, except the largest canal, were handed over to the state's London creditors in exchange for a 50% reduction in debt. Again in 1846, the last project was handed over for another 50% reduction in the debt. Of the eight projects in the measure, none were completed by the state and only two were finished by the creditors who took them over; the act is considered one of the greatest debacles in the history of the state and the public blame was placed on the Whig party, in control of the General Assembly and the governorship during the passage of the act and the subsequent bankruptcy, though only nine members of both houses voted against the bill.

After the scope of the financial disaster became apparent to the state, the Whig party began to collapse in the state, leading to a period of Democratic control of the General Assembly that lasted until the middle of the American Civil War. Despite the dire immediate effects on the state's finances, the project fed a 400% increase in state land values, provided numerous other direct and indirect benefits to Indiana; the Wabash and Erie Canal, funded by the act, became the longest canal in North America and remained in operation until rendered obsolete by the railroads in the 1880s. When the state of Indiana was formed in 1816, it was still a virtual wilderness, settlement was limited to the southern periphery where easy access to the Ohio River provided a convenient means to export produce; the only significant road in the region was the Buffalo Trace, an old, dirt bison trail that crossed the southern part of the state. After statehood several plans had been made to improve the transportation situation, like the creation of small local roads, the larger Michigan Road, a failed attempted by the Indiana Canal Company to build a canal around the Falls of the Ohio.

The national economy entered a recession following the Panic of 1819, the state's only two banks collapsed in the immediate years that followed, ending the state's early improvement programs without having achieved much success and leaving the state with a modest debt. The 1820s were spent paying down the debt. A request was sent to Congress asking for the federal government to assist the young state in improving the transportation situation. Canals were at that time being constructed in several of the eastern states and New York and Pennsylvania hoped to link to the Mississippi River System by building canals through Indiana. With their support, on May 26, 1824 Congress granted Indiana a stretch of land 320 feet wide on any route a commission would map out, but the state had to promise to begin construction of a canal on the land within twelve years. Many in the Indiana General Assembly considered the grant insufficient, requested the grant be expanded to a one-mile wide strip, but Congress did not act.

Most of the population at the time lived along the Ohio River, the canal would be little benefit to them, but they would bear the burden of paying for it, so their representatives opposed the idea altogether. They barred the creation of a canal. On March 2, 1827 Congress made a new offer to the state, granting a half mile wide strip and to assist in the funding of construction; this time the General Assembly accepted the offer, passing legislation on January 5, 1828 to create a canal commission to lay out the path of the canal, but no state funding was approved. The commission laid out a short six-mile canal that would become the starting point of the Wabash and Erie Canal. Funding became an issue in the legislature where the lowest cost estimate was $991,000. Again the southern part of the state objected, instead favoring a canal in the Whitewater Valley the most populated part of the state. Governor James B. Ray objected to canals as a total waste of money, insisted on the creation of railroads instead.

Because the state refused to help fund the project, it had to rely on the federal funds and the income the commission collected from selling lands adjacent to the proposed canal route. Enough funds were collected and construction began on the route in 1831. In 1829 the National Road entered Indiana. Funded by the federal government, the project laid a large highway across the central part of the state. By 1834 the opposition the canal had disappeared and the project was being constructed at little cost to the state and was proving to be profitable, so the General Assembly granted funds to the project to connect it to Lafayette. To fund the project, in response to the closure of the Second Bank of the United States, the state established the Bank of Indiana. Bonds were issued through the bank who sold them to creditors in London to fund the early stages of the project, but it soon became apparent that it would take far more funds than could be obtained by the bank bonds alone. In 1836, legislation was created by the Indiana General Assembly to expand the scope of the internal improvements.

At first, members only intended to continue funding the Wabash and Erie, but many representatives opposed the spending because it would have little benefit for

Wyoming, New York

Wyoming is a village in Wyoming County, New York. As of the 2000 census, the village has a total population of 513; the Village of Wyoming lies within the Town of Middlebury by the eastern town line. Wyoming is located on New York State Route 19; the Village of Newell's Settlement was founded in 1809 by Silas Newell. It was renamed to Wyoming in 1829, to be incorporated in 1875. However, on Revolutionary War muster roll taken for March, April and June 1779, of Lieutenant Colonel William Smith's company, a regiment of foot it states the regiment was mustered in Wyoming. Signed and dated by Nehemiah Wade, D. C. M. on June 30, 1779. It was one of the earliest locations. While the field was never a large producer, it still provides gas for the village streetlights and some homes to this day; the downtown historic district is known as the "Gaslight Village." Middlebury Academy was built in 1817 and was chartered by the NY Regents in 1819, is believed to be the first institution of higher education west of the Genesee in New York.

It still stands in downtown Wyoming, maintained as a museum by the Middlebury Historical Society. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as of 1980. On the National Register of Historic Places are the Bryant Fleming House and Wyoming Village Historic District. Another historic place is Hillside Inn, a classic Greek revival mansion built by Dr. Pliny Hayes as a Water Cure establishment in 1851, it overlooks the Village of Wyoming, until 2012, was a bed and breakfast inn. The Hillside Inn was auctioned on August 2012 at 3:00 p.m. by Bontrager Auctioneers. It has been a spa and has hosted many famous people including Susan B. Anthony, John Muir, Presidents Theodore and Franklin D. Roosevelt. Wyoming is located at 42°49′31″N 78°5′7″W. Oatka Creek flows northward past the east side of the village. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.7 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 513 people, 176 households, 133 families residing in the village.

The population density was 763.2 people per square mile. There were 179 housing units at an average density of 266.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 96.88% White, 0.39% African American, 0.58% Native American, 0.97% from other races, 1.17% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.39% of the population. There were 176 households out of which 44.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.2% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.4% were non-families. 17.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.90 and the average family size was 3.33. In the village, the population was spread out with 32.6% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, 10.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.3 males.

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.2 males. The median income for a household in the village was $38,750, the median income for a family was $46,875. Males had a median income of $34,643 versus $25,357 for females; the per capita income for the village was $14,925. About 6.4% of families and 6.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.6% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over. Official website

Clément Boulanger

For the Canadian clergyman, see Clément Boulanger. Clément Boulanger, born at Paris in 1805, studied under Ingres, died in 1842 at Magnesia ad Maeandrum in Asia Minor, his pictures are chiefly historical, but he painted landscapes and portraits. The following are some of the principal: Bordeaux. Museum. Portrait of Cardinal Donnet, Archbishop of Bordeaux. 1839. The Vintage of Médoc. Lille. Museum. Procession of the Corpus Domini. Nantes. Museum. Procession of the'Ardents.' 1842. Toulouse. Museum. Procession of the'Gargouille' at Rouen. 1837. Versailles. Gallery. Entry of the French Army into Moutiers, he was the first husband of the painter Marie-Élisabeth Blavot. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Michael. "Boulanger, Clément". In Graves, Robert Edmund. Bryan's Dictionary of Engravers. I. London: George Bell & Sons

Cycling at the 2000 Summer Olympics – Men's sprint

The men's 200m Sprint at the 2000 Summer Olympics was an event that consisted of cyclists making three laps around the track. Only the time for the last 200 metres of the 750 metres covered was counted as official time; the races were held on Monday, 18 September, Tuesday, 19 September, Wednesday, 20 September 2000 at the Dunc Gray Velodrome. World and Olympic records prior to the Games. Q denotes qualification by place in heat. Q denotes qualification by overall place. REL denotes relegated - due to being passed. DNF denotes did not finish. DQ denotes disqualification. NR denotes national record. OR denotes Olympic record. WR denotes world record. PB denotes personal best. SB denotes season best. Held Monday, 18 September. Times and average speeds are listed; the faster 18 riders advanced to the first round. Held Monday, 18 September The 1/16 round consisted of nine heats of two riders each. Winners advanced to the next round, losers competed in the repechage. Held Monday, 18 September The nine defeated cyclists from the first round took part in the 1/16 repechage.

They raced in three heats of three riders each. The winner of each heat rejoined the nine victors of the first round in advancing to the 1/8 round Held Monday, 18 September; the 1/8 round consisted of six matches, each pitting two of the twelve remaining cyclists against each other. The winners advanced to the quarterfinals, with the losers getting another chance in the 1/8 repechage. Held Monday, 18 September; the six cyclists defeated in the 1/8 round competed in the 1/8 repechage. Two heats of three riders were held. Winners advanced to the quarterfinals; the four other riders competed in the 9th through 12th place classification. Held 19 September The 9-12 classification was a single race with all four riders that had lost in the 1/8 repechage taking place; the winner of the race received 9th place, with the others taking the three following places in order. Held Tuesday, 19 September; the eight riders that had advanced to the quarterfinals competed. Each match consisted of two races, with a potential third race being used as a tie-breaker if each cyclist won one of the first two races.

All four quarterfinals matches. Winners advanced to the semifinals, losers competed in a 5th to 8th place classification. Held Wednesday, 20 September The 5-8 classification was a single race with all four riders that had lost in the quarterfinals taking place; the winner of the race received 5th place, with the others taking the three following places in order. Held Wednesday, 20 September; the four riders that had advanced to the semifinals competed. Each match consisted of two races, with a potential third race being used as a tie-breaker if each cyclist won one of the first two races. Winners advanced to the finals, losers competed in the bronze medal match. Held Wednesday, 20 September; the bronze medal match was contested in a set of three races, with the winner of two races declared the winner. The gold medal match was contested in a set of three races, with the winner of two races declared the winner. Official Olympic Report

Electoral district of Murray

Murray, The Murray until 1910, is an electoral district in the Australian state of New South Wales. Murray is a regional electorate lying in the southwestern corner of the state, it encompasses several local government areas, namely Wentworth Shire, Balranald Shire, Carrathool Shire, the City of Griffith, Leeton Shire, Hay Shire, Murrumbidgee Shire, Murray River Council, Edward River Council and Berrigan Shire. Murray was a single-member electorate from 1859 to 1880, returning two members from 1880 to 1894, returning to a single member electorate from 1894 to 1920; the district created in 1859 included the districts surrounding the towns of Deniliquin and Moulamein. It was re-created in 1904 as a result of the 1903 New South Wales referendum, which required the number of members of the Legislative Assembly to be reduced from 125 to 90; the member for The Murray from 1894 to 1904 was James Hayes, appointed to the Legislative Council and did not contest the election. The district re-created in 1904 consisted of the abolished seat of Wentworth and parts of The Lachlan and the abolished seat of Hay.

The member for Wentworth was Robert Scobie. The member for The Lachlan was James Carroll; the member for Hay was Frank Byrne. From 1920 to 1927 it returned three members, having merged with Albury and Wagga Wagga, voting by proportional representation, it returned to being a single-member electorate from 1927. Murray was abolished in 1999. Murray was recreated for the 2015 state election, combining the southern part of the abolished district of Murray-Darling and the western part of the abolished district of Murrumbidgee