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Empress Suiko

Empress Suiko was the 33rd monarch of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Suiko reigned from 593 until her death in 628. In the history of Japan, Suiko was the first of eight women to take on the role of empress regnant; the seven women sovereigns reigning after Suiko were Kōgyoku/Saimei, Jitō, Genshō, Kōken/Shōtoku, Meishō and Go-Sakuramachi. Before her ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, her personal name was Mikekashiya-hime-no-mikoto called Toyomike Kashikiya hime no Mikoto. Empress Suiko had several names including Toyomike Kashikiya, she was the third daughter of Emperor Kinmei. Her mother was Soga no Kitashihime. Suiko was the younger sister of Emperor Yōmei, they had the same mother. Empress Suiko was a consort to her half-brother, Emperor Bidatsu, but after Bidatsu's first wife died she became his official consort and was given the title Ōkisaki, she bore seven children. After Bidatsu's death, Suiko's brother, Emperor Yōmei, came to power for about two years before dying of illness.

Upon Yōmei's death, another power struggle arose between the Soga clan and the Mononobe clan, with the Sogas supporting Prince Hatsusebe and the Mononobes supporting Prince Anahobe. The Sogas prevailed once again and Prince Hatsusebe acceded to the throne as Emperor Sushun in 587. However, Sushun began to resent the power of Soga no Umako, the head of the Soga clan, Umako out of fear that Sushun might strike first, had him assassinated by Yamatoaya no Ataikoma in 592; when asked to accede to the throne to fill the power vacuum that subsequently developed, Suiko became the first of what would be several examples in Japanese history where a woman was chosen to accede to the throne to avert a power struggle. 593: In the 2nd year of Sushun-tennō's reign, he died. Shortly thereafter, Empress Suiko is said to have ascended to the throne. Suiko's contemporary title would not have been tennō, as most historians believe this title was not introduced until the reigns of Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō.

Rather, it was Sumeramikoto or Amenoshita Shiroshimesu Ōkimi, meaning "the great Queen who rules all under heaven". Alternatively, Suiko might have been referred to as or the "Great Queen of Yamato". Prince Shōtoku was appointed regent the following year. Although political power during Suiko's reign is viewed as having been wielded by Prince Shōtoku and Soga no Umako, Suiko was far from powerless; the mere fact that she survived and her reign endured suggests. In 599, an earthquake destroyed buildings throughout Yamato Province in. Suiko's refusal to grant Soga no Umako's request that he be granted the imperial territory known as Kazuraki no Agata in 624 is cited as evidence of her independence from his influence; some of the many achievements under Empress Suiko's reign include the official recognition of Buddhism by the issuance of the Flourishing Three Treasures Edict in 594. Suiko was one of the first Buddhist monarchs in Japan and had taken the vows of a nun shortly before becoming empress.

The reign of this empress was marked by the opening of relations with the Sui court in 600, the adoption of the Twelve Level Cap and Rank System in 603 and the adoption of the Seventeen-article constitution in 604. The adoption of the Sexagenary cycle calendar in Japan is attributed to Empress Suiko in 604. At a time when imperial succession was determined by clan leaders, rather than the emperor, Suiko left only vague indications of succession to two candidates while on her deathbed. One, Prince Tamura, was a grandson of Emperor Bidatsu and was supported by the main line of Sogas, including Soga no Emishi; the other, Prince Yamashiro, was a son of Prince Shōtoku and had the support of some lesser members of the Soga clan. After a brief struggle within the Soga clan in which one of Prince Yamashiro's main supporters was killed, Prince Tamura was chosen and he acceded to the throne as Emperor Jomei in 629. Empress Suiko ruled for 35 years. Although there were seven other reigning empresses, their successors were most selected from amongst the males of the paternal Imperial bloodline, why some conservative scholars argue that the women's reigns were temporary and that male-only succession tradition must be maintained in the 21st century.

Empress Genmei, followed on the throne by her daughter, Empress Genshō, remains the sole exception to this conventional argument. The actual site of Suiko's grave is known; this empress is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine at Osaka. The Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Suiko's mausoleum. It's formally named Shinaga no Yamada no misasagi. Husband: Prince Nunakakura no Futo Tamashiki no Sumeramikoto Emperor Bidatsu, Emperor Kinmei’s son First Daughter: Princess Uji no Shitsukahi/Uji no Kahitako, married to Crown Prince Shotoku First Son: Prince Takeda Second Daughter: Princess Woharida, married to Prince Oshisako-no-Hikohito-no-Oe Third Daughter: Princess Umori/Karu no Mori Second Son: Prince Wohari Third Son: Prince Owari, Father of Tachibana-no-Oiratsume Fourth Daughter: Princess Tame, married to Emperor Jomei Fifth Daughter: Princess Sakurawi no Yumihari, married to Prince Oshisako-no-Hikohito-no-Oe married to Prince Kume Empress Jingū, semi-legendary, rule preceded Empress Suiko Japan

Jamal Benomar

Jamal Benomar is a former UN diplomat. He worked at the UN for 25 years, including as a special envoy for Yemen and a special adviser to former Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. Benomar was born in April 1957 in Nador, north of Morocco. At 19, as a political activist known for his peaceful opposition to the government, he was arrested and imprisoned for eight years."I just'disappeared'," he told the New Internationalist in 1986. "That night I was tortured from midnight to 5 o'clock in the morning. They used the classical methods: binding the hands and feet of my naked body to an iron bar and whipping the soles of my feet while forcing my head back in a bucket of excrement."After eight months in a secret detention centre in Casablanca, Benomar was charged—with conspiracy to overthrow the government, threatening state security, membership of illegal organisations—and moved to a regular jail. He and other political prisoners went on a hunger strike to demand their right to a fair trial; the trial took place.

It lasted seven weeks, at the end and his fellow 130 defendants were all found guilty and handed heavy sentences. By this time, Amnesty International had been made aware of the cases, each of the 130 prisoners was adopted by a regional group. Benomar's group in Sweden wrote to him for two years before he received one of their letters; when he and other prisoners went on a 45-day hunger strike, Amnesty sent telegrams and issued appeals on their behalf. "It was a great moral support to know that there were people in the other end of the world who were organising all these activities for my release, people who didn't know me but were concerned about human rights," Benomar said. "It gave me quite a lot of courage."During his time in prison, Benomar earned a bachelor's degree and two master's degrees from the Sorbonne in Paris. Following Amnesty's efforts and interventions by his professor in Paris, he was released in 1983, re-arrested soon after and re-released in 1984, but placed under house arrest.

Escaping house arrest in 1984, he fled Morocco on a fisherman's boat and flew from Spain to the UK, where he was granted political asylum, Benomar continued his studies at the Sorbonne and completed his doctorate at the University of London. He went on to become a lecturer and research associate in African and Middle Eastern politics at the University of Paris VII, worked as an Africa specialist for Amnesty International in London. Prior to his UN career, Benomar served as Director of the Human Rights Program for the Carter Center of Emory University where he worked with former US president Jimmy Carter on human rights and conflict resolution issues. In his career at the UN, Benomar worked for the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, the United Nations Development Programme and the Department of Political Affairs, his work has focused on peacebuilding and governance issues in conflict countries. In 2005 he helped to establish the United Nations Peacebuilding Commission and Peacebuilding Support Office, which he directed.

He has advised on conflict resolution issues in over 30 countries, including Yemen and Iraq, where in 2004 he served as the Secretary-General's Envoy to support the National Dialogue Conference. The Under Secretary-General has authored numerous publications dealing with governance, rule of law, constitution writing and peace building, he has been described as "quintessentially political" by the head of the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, David Harland, who has worked with Benomar. "He is not a simple man, willing to put all of his cards on the table," Harland told the Atlantic Council in 2014. On 9 November 2015, Benomar was appointed as the UN Secretary-General's Special Adviser for Conflict Prevention. In that role he led the UN response to the political crisis in Burundi. In Yemen, Benomar served for four years as the UN Secretary-General's Special Envoy. Benomar led the Office of the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for Yemen, where he worked "to facilitate the combined efforts of the international community to promote a democratic transition in the country".

Benomar brokered the country's Transition Agreement in November 2011, facilitated the successful conclusion of the National Dialogue Conference in January 2014, which took 10 months of deliberations, mediated the Peace and National Partnership Agreement in September 2014. Benomar facilitated a new round of negotiations, in March; the talks were close to a conclusion, when on March 2015, the Saudis intervened militarily. Less than a month Benomar resigned. In a statement delivered to the press following his final briefing on Yemen to the Security Council, Benomar condemned "systematic acts of obstruction" and warned against "interference and coercion from outside forces". "I stressed that getting the political process back on track and achieving lasting peace and stability in Yemen could only be reached through Yemeni-led peaceful negotiations, where Yemenis could determine their future," he said. Benomar warned that Yemen’s conflict could become an “Iraq-Libya-Syria” scenario if either side pushes for control of the country, prompting the U.

N. Security Council to threaten further measures. “It would be an illusion to think that the Houthis could mount an offensive and succeed in taking control of the entire country. It would be false to think that President Hadi could assemble sufficient forces to liberate the country from the Houthis. Any side that would want to push the country in either direction would be inviting a protracted conflict in the vein of an Iraq-Libya-Syria combined scenario,” he said https://www.reuters.com/article/us-yemen-security-u

Avalon Independent School District

Avalon Independent School District is a public school district based in the community of Avalon, Texas. The district operates Avalon High School; as of the 2010-2011 school year, the appraised valuation of property in the district was $33,437,000. The maintenance tax rate was $0.117 and the bond tax rate was $0.007 per $100 of appraised valuation. In 2011, the school district was rated "recognized" by the Texas Education Agency. Thirty-five percent of districts in Texas in 2011 received the same rating. No state accountability ratings will be given to districts in 2012. A school district in Texas can receive one of four possible rankings from the Texas Education Agency: Exemplary, Academically Acceptable, Academically Unacceptable. Historical district TEA accountability ratings 2011: Recognized 2010: Recognized 2009: Recognized 2008: Recognized 2007: Recognized 2006: Recognized 2005: Academically Acceptable 2004: Academically Acceptable There is only one school in Avalon ISD, Avalon School, which serves students from Pre-K through twelfth grade.

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