Aisin Gioro was the imperial clan of Manchu emperors of the Qing dynasty. The House of Aisin Gioro ruled China from 1644 until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911-12, which established a republican government in its place; the word aisin means gold in the Manchu language, "gioro" is the name of the Aisin Gioro's ancestral home in present-day Yilan, Heilongjiang Province. In Manchu custom, families are identified first by their hala, i.e. their family or clan name, by mukūn, the more detailed classification referring to individual families. In the case of Aisin Gioro, Aisin is the mukūn, Gioro is the hala. Other members of the Gioro clan include Šušu Gioro and Sirin Gioro; the Jin dynasty of the Jurchens, ancestors of the Manchus, was known as aisin gurun, the Qing dynasty was named amaga aisin gurun, or Later Jin dynasty. Since the fall of the Qing Empire, a number of members of the family have changed their surnames to Jin since it has the same meaning as "Aisin". For example, Puyi's younger brother changed his name from Aisin Gioro Puren to Jin Youzhi and his children in turn adopt Jin as their family name.
Before the founding of the Qing dynasty, the naming of children in the Aisin Gioro clan was arbitrary and followed no particular rules. The Manchu people did not use generation names before they moved into China proper. After taking control of China, the family incorporated Han Chinese naming conventions. During the reign of the Kangxi Emperor, all of the emperor's sons were to be named with a generation prefix preceding the given name. There were three characters used, Cheng and Chang, before settling on Yin over a decade into the Kangxi era; the generation prefix of the Yongzheng Emperor's sons switched from Fu to Hong. Following the Yongzheng Emperor, the Qianlong Emperor decreed that all subsequent male offspring would have a generation prefix placed in their name according to a "generation poem", for which he composed the first four characters, Yong Mian Yi Zai. Moreover, direct descendants of the emperor will share a similar radical or meaning in the final character. A common radical was shared in the second character of the first name of princes who were in line to the throne, princes who were not in line to the throne did not share the radical in their name.
In one case, the Yongzheng Emperor changed the generation code of his brothers as a way of keeping his own name unique. Such practices ceased to exist after the Daoguang era; the latest additions to the list were the last 12 characters, taken from a "generation poem" composed by Puyi in 1938. The Aisin Gioro clan, as a Manchu clan, claimed descent from the Jurchen people, who founded the Jin dynasty nearly five centuries earlier under the Wanyan clan. However, the Aisin Gioro and Wanyan clans are unrelated, it was explicitly said "we are not the scions of the previous Jin emperors." By the Manchu leader Huangtaiji to the Ming. The Aisin Gioro claimed that Bukūri Yongšon, was conceived from a virgin birth. According to the legend, three heavenly maidens, namely Enggulen and Fekulen, were bathing at a lake called Bulhūri Omo near the Changbai Mountains. A magpie dropped a piece of red fruit near Fekulen, she became pregnant with Bukūri Yongšon The Aisin Gioro claimed descent from Mentemu of the Odoli clan, who served as chieftains of the Jianzhou Jurchens.
The Jianzhou Jurchen originate from the Huligai who were classified by the Liao dynasty as a separate ethnicity from the Jurchen people who founded the Jin dynasty and were classified as separate from Jurchens during the Yuan dynasty. Their home was in the lower reaches of Mudanjiang; the Huligai moved west and became a major component of the Jianzhou Jurchens led by Mentemu during the Ming dynasty, the Jianzhou Jurchens became Manchus. The Jurchens during the Ming dynasty lived in Jilin, it was in the Ming dynasty the term Jurchen was expanded and referred to a wide variety of different peoples in Heilongjiang. The Aisin Gioro are not the same Jurchens as the ones; the Taowen and Wodolian Jurchen tribes lived in the area of Heilongjiang in Yilan during the Yuan dynasty when it was part of Liaoyang province and governed as a circuit. These tribes became the Jianzhou Jurchens in the Ming dynasty and the Taowen and Wodolian were real Jurchens. In the Jin dynasy, the Jin Jurchens did not regard themselves as the same ethnicity as the Hurka people who became the Huligai.
Uriangqa was used as a name in the 1300s by Jurchen migrants in Korea from Ilantumen because the Uriangqa influenced the people at Ilantumen. Bokujiang, Woduolian, Taowan separately made up 10,000 households and were the divisions used by the Yuan dynasty to govern the people along the Wusuli river and Songhua area. In the Jin dynasty the Shangjing route 上京路 governed the Huligai. A Huligai route was created as well by the Jin. Under Nurhaci and his son Hong Taiji, the Aisin Gioro clan of the Jianzhou tribe won hegemony among the rival Jurchen tribes of the northeast through warfare and alliances extended its control into Inner Mongolia. Nurhachi created large, permanent civil-military units called "banners" to replace the small hunting groups used in his early campaigns. A banner was composed of smaller companies; each banner was identified by
Western Qing tombs
The Western Qing tombs are located some 140 km southwest of Beijing in Yi County, Hebei Province. They constitute a necropolis that incorporates four royal mausoleums where seventy-eight royal members are buried; these include four emperors of the Qing dynasty and their empresses, imperial concubines and princesses, as well as other royal servants. Construction of the Western Qing tombs was initiated by the Yongzheng Emperor who broke with tradition and refused to be buried in the Eastern Qing tombs; some have speculated, though not proven, that as Yongzheng had illegally usurped the throne by eliminating his brothers, his motive to relocate his tomb to the Western Qing tombs was that he did not wish to be buried alongside his father the Kangxi Emperor. On his son, the Qianlong Emperor, decided that he should be buried in the Eastern Qing tombs and dictated that thereafter burials should alternate between the eastern and western sites, although this was not followed consistently; the first tomb, the Tai Ling, was completed in two years after the end of the Yongzheng reign.
The last imperial interment was in 1913. The four tombs in Western Qing Tombs are: Tailing for the Yongzheng Emperor Changling for the Jiaqing Emperor Muling for the Daoguang Emperor Chongling for the Guangxu Emperor The last emperor, Puyi, is buried in a public cemetery behind the Guangxu Emperor's tomb. While not part of the Western Qing Tombs, including Puyi would bring the number of emperors at the Western Tombs to five, the same number as those buried at the Eastern Tombs. Although the Western Qing tombs are a popular attraction they are not as well known as the Ming Dynasty Tombs. Eastern Qing tombs Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties
The Manchu alphabet is the alphabet used to write the now nearly-extinct Manchu language. It is written vertically from top with columns proceeding from left to right. According to the Veritable Records, in 1599 the Jurchen leader Nurhaci decided to convert the Mongolian alphabet to make it suitable for the Manchu people, he decried the fact that while illiterate Han Chinese and Mongolians could understand their respective languages when read aloud, not the case for the Manchus, whose documents were recorded by Mongolian scribes. Overriding the objections of two advisors named Erdeni and G'ag'ai, he is credited with adapting the Mongolian script to Manchu; the resulting script was known as tongki fuka akū hergen. In 1632, Dahai added diacritical marks to clear up a lot of the ambiguity present in the original Mongolian script; this revision created the Standard script, known as tongki fuka sindaha hergen. As a result, the Manchu alphabet contains little ambiguity. Discovered manuscripts from the 1620s make clear, that the addition of dots and circles to Manchu script began before their supposed introduction by Dahai.
Dahai added ten graphemes, to allow Manchu to be used to write Chinese and Tibetan loanwords. These words contained sounds that did not have corresponding letters in Manchu. Sounds that were transliterated included the aspirated sounds k', k, x. By the middle of the nineteenth century, there were three styles of writing Manchu in use: standard script, semi-cursive script, cursive script. Semicursive script had less spacing between the letters, cursive script had rounded tails; the Manchu alphabet was used to write Chinese. Manchu: a textbook for reading documents, by Gertraude Roth Li, contains a list comparing a romanization of Chinese syllables written in Manchu compared to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn and Wade–Giles. Using the Manchu script to transliterate Chinese words is a source of loanwords for the Xibe language. Several Chinese-Manchu dictionaries contain Chinese characters transliterated with Manchu script and the Manchu version of the Thousand Character Classic is the Manchu transcription of all the Chinese characters.
Existing as a transliteration was the Manchu version of the Hong Loumeng. In the "Imperial Liao-Jin-Yuan Three Histories National Language Explanation" commissioned by the Qianlong Emperor, the Manchu alphabet is used to write Evenki words. In the Pentaglot Dictionary commissioned by the Qianlong Emperor, the Manchu alphabet is used to transcribe Tibetan and Chagatai words. Despite the alphabetic nature of its script, Manchu was traditionally taught as a syllabary. Like the Mongols, Manchu children were taught to memorize all the syllables in the Manchu language separately as they learned to write, dividing the syllables into twelve different classes, based on the final phonemes of the syllables, all of which ended in vowels; when learning the language, Manchus were taught at once to say la, lo, etc. instead of saying I, a---la. As a result, the syllables contained in their syllabary do not contain all possible combinations that can be formed with their letters, they made, for instance, no such use of the consonants I, m, n, r, as westerners do when they called them liquid.
Today, the opinion on whether it is alphabet or syllabic in nature is still split between different experts. In China, it is considered syllabic and Manchu is still taught in this manner, while in the West it is treated like an alphabet; the alphabetic approach is used by foreigners who want to learn the language, as studying the Manchu script as a syllabary takes a longer time. The Manchu alphabet has two kinds of punctuation: two dots, analogous to a period. However, with the exception of lists of nouns being reliably punctuated by single dots, punctuation in Manchu is inconsistent, therefore not of much use as an aid to readability; the equivalent of the question mark in Manchu script consists of some special particles, written at the end of the question. The Jurchens of a millennium ago became the ancestors of the Manchus when Nurhaci united the Jianzhou Jurchens and his son subsequently renamed the consolidated tribes as the "Manchu". Throughout this period, the Jurchen language evolved into.
Its script has no relation to the Manchu alphabet, however. The Jurchen script was instead derived from the Khitan script, itself derived from Chinese characters; the Manchu alphabet is included in the Unicode block for Mongolian. Mongolian script Transliterations of Manchu Abkai — Unicode Manchu/Sibe/Daur Fonts and Keyboards Manchu alphabet Manchu script generator ManchuFont — an OpenType font for Manchu writing Jurchen Script
The Khorchin is a subgroup of the Mongols that speak the Khorchin dialect of Mongolian and predominantly live in northeastern Inner Mongolia of China. The Ming dynasty gave Borjigin princes command of the Taining Guard, one of the Three Guards established in 1389. In 1446-48 most of the guards fled in the wake of Esen Tayisi's invasions. However, the Fuyu Guard, another of the Three Guards, remained along the Onon rivers. Said to have been the descendants of Khasar, a brother of Genghis Khan, they became the direct ancestors of the Khorchin Mongols. Adai Khan of the Khorchin challenged the power of the Four Oirats and the Ming court in the succession struggle of Northern Yuan dynasty. However, he was killed by them in Ejene in 1438 and his tribe was forced to flee southward; the Khorchin appeared again in Mongolian chronicles with the rise of Unebolad wang in the late 15th century. The Khorchins allied with Dayan Khan and defeated the Uriyangkhai at the battle of Dalan Terqin in 1510. In 1624, Nurhaci received the submission of Khorchins who roamed east of Khingan mountains and west of the Sungari.
They were the first Mongol tribe. The Khorchins were responsible for production of fermented mare's milk for Manchu emperors; the emperors of the Manchu Qing dynasty rewarded the Khorchin nobles for this early loyalty. Notable Empresses of the Qing dynasty, such as Empress Xiaozhuangwen and Empress Xiaohuizhang, were the Khorchin-Borjigins; the Khorchins were further divided into each with three Banners. Due to the anti-Mongol rebellion among ethnic Han Jindandao followers in 1891, many thousands of Kharchin Mongols fled to the Khorchin. After 1900 both Chinese education and Chinese colonization spread among them; when the Japanese Empire occupied parts of Inner Mongolia and all of Manchuria in 1931, the Khorchins became the most energetic proponents of secular learning and reform among the Mongols. After World War II rural class struggle and the civil war of 1946–48 were bloody and divisive. Since they have been a powerful faction within Inner Mongolia's Chinese Communist Party apparatus. Korchin is a playable nation in the grand strategy game Europa Universalis IV.
Great Mongolia 800- Narangoa, Li. Historical Atlas of Northeast Asia, 1590-2010: Korea, Mongolia, Eastern Siberia. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231160704. Khorchin
Imperial Chinese harem system
The ranks of imperial consorts have varied over the course of Chinese history but remained important throughout owing to its importance in management of the inner court and in imperial succession, which ranked heirs according to the prominence of their mothers in addition to their strict birth order. Regardless of the age, however, it is common in English translation to simplify these hierarchy into the three ranks of Empress and concubines. There exists a class of consorts called during early historical times in China; these were people. It could be people from other countries. Worth noting is the fact that during the Shang Dynasty, there were times where two Empresses reigned at the same period; the Rites of Zhou contains great details of an imperial consort ranking system. However, as the Rites of Zhou is considered by modern scholars to be a fictitious constitution for a utopian society, the system listed in that work of literature cannot be taken word for word. Rather, it offers a rough glimpse into the inner harem during the time.
The Rites of Zhou states that for Emperors, they are entitled to the following: 1 Empress 3 9 27 81 A grand total of 121 women. It was suggested. According to the Rites of Zhou, Feudal Lords are entitled to 9 consorts in total, cannot marry again after having 9 consorts, which makes for 1 wife and 8 consorts. For other officers, they are entitled to 1 consort. For normal citizens, only 1 wife is allowed. From the reign of King Huiwen: 1 Queen, which became Empress from the reign of Shi Huang During the reign of Gaozu: 1 Empress Later: 1 Empress From the reign of Emperor Yuan: 1 Empress, created by Emperor Wu, created by Emperor Wu, created by Emperor Wu, created by Emperor Wu, The principal wife of the Crown Prince was called. There exists a sub-ranking system for concubines, they were called and. For grandchildren of the Emperor, their principal wives were called. Concubines for these people have no titles, were simple called. 1 Empress No limits were set for these consorts. This created situations when more than 20,000 women were living in the palace during the reigns of Emperor Huan and Emperor Ling.
During the reign of Cao Cao: 1 Queen During the reign of Emperor Wen: 1 Empress During the reign of Emperor Ming: 1 Empress The system was based on the systems used in Cao Wei and the Han Dynasty, as follows: 1 Empress 3 9 1 Empress 3 9 From 456, during the reign of Emperor Xiaowu: 1 Empress 3 9 From the reign of Emperor Ming: 1 Empress 3 9 5 In 479, at the ascension of Emperor Gao, the Minister for Ceremonies petitioned the Emperor to establish the following system: 1 Empress 3 9 In 481, for the Crown Prince: In 483, when Emperor Wu ascended to the throne, the Minister for Ceremonies petitioned the Emperor to expand the system. This involved elevating the position of to a category all unto itself, with the following ranks: The new category was just underneath the Empress. In 489
Empress Orchid is a novel by Anchee Min, first published in Great Britain in 2004. It is written in first person and is a sympathetic account of the life of Empress Dowager Cixi - from her humble beginnings to her rise as the Empress Dowager. Names within the story are different in spelling but retain the same pronunciation - allowing the reader to identify each relevant character to his or her real life counterpart. Empress Orchid was a 2006 nominee for the Richard and Judy Best Read of the Year Award; the novel follows the life of a young Manchu girl named Orchid Yehonala. The story begins with the death of her father, once a governor of Wuhu, his death left her two siblings and her mother in poverty. His family travel to his birthplace Peking with his coffin for burial. Once in Peking, they move in with a distant uncle and his mentally retarded and opium addicted son Ping. Orchid gets a chance to better her life when Emperor Hsien Feng issues a decree stating that he is looking for "future mates".
Orchid is eligible because she is Manchu and that her father was the rank of "Blue Bannerman". She is chosen as the Imperial consort of the fourth rank, her official title is Lady of the Greatest Virtue. There are a total of 7 Imperial consorts, over 3000 concubines within the Forbidden City. Nuharoo is pronounced ranking her first out of the 7 Imperial consorts. Once in the Forbidden City, Orchid befriends a eunuch called An-te-hai, assigned as her servant along with numerous other eunuchs and maids. A friendship begins to form between the two, she appoints him as her first attendant; as the months pass, Orchid becomes more desperate. The official duty of an Imperial consort is to sleep with the Emperor and produce male heirs, but Orchid has yet to be summoned. Without completing that duty, an Imperial consort risks being unacknowledged for the remainder of her life. Knowing this, Orchid decides to bribe Chief Eunuch Shim in order to gain Emperor Hsien Feng's attention, her tactic works and she soon becomes the Emperor's favourite consort.
During her time as the favourite, Orchid learns more about the current history of China, the inner workings of the Forbidden City. On within the story, Orchid becomes pregnant, she gives birth to the Emperor's first male heir Tung Chih amidst nationwide celebration. However, after the birth of his son Emperor Hsien Feng begins to lose interest in Orchid. Part of this is due to Nuharoo's plot to disrupt Orchid's life; the emperor becomes ill as political situations in China worsen. Foreign powers are beginning to invade China, demanding that the emperor grants them the right to establish trade and port; the weak emperor is unable to defend his empire from the combined strength of the intruding forces and the royal family flees the capital when the enemies approach Peking. Emperor Hsien Feng dies whilst in exile. Nonetheless, Orchid's life is still in danger from Su Shun. On in the novel Orchid persuades Hsien Feng to name Tung Chih as the new Emperor, with herself and Nuharoo as co-regents. Su Shun is named as the head of the Board of Regents.
As Su Shun had expected to gain more power from the death of Hsien Feng without Orchid's interference, tensions between the two increase. Orchid is now granted the title "Empress of Holy Kindness Tzu Hsi". Nuharoo becomes the "Empress of Great Benevolence Tzu An". Orchid knows that her new position does not guarantee her safety as she is still restricted by the actions of Su Shun. With the assistance of An-te-hai and Prince Kung Orchid manages to arrest and punish Su Shun and his associates, on the grounds that they had tried to organise a coup d'état; the novel ends with the official burial of Emperor Hsien Feng and the hint of a new relationship between Orchid and General Yung Lu. Empress Orchid, Bloomsbury Publishing Incorporated, 2004, ISBN 9780747566984 Empress Orchid. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 11 April 2005. ISBN 978-0-547-34720-2. Retrieved 8 June 2013. Bloomsbury Boston Globe Review New York Times Review The Richard and Judy top 10 books of 2006