Empress consort Jingū known as Empress regnant Jingū, was a Japanese empress who ruled beginning in the year 201. Her father is Okinaganosukunenomiko and her mother is Kazurakinotakanukahime, the descendant of Amenohiboko the legendary prince of Korea; the consort to Emperor Chūai, she served as Regent from the time of her husband's death in 201 until her son Emperor Ōjin acceded to the throne in 269. Up until the Meiji period, Jingū was considered to have been the 15th Japanese imperial ruler, according to the traditional order of succession. No firm dates can be assigned to this historical figure's reign. Jingū is regarded by historians as a "legendary" figure because there is insufficient material available for further verification and study. Jingū's name before her accession to the Chrysanthemum throne is said to have been Okinagatarashi-hime. Although the final resting place of this legendary regent/sovereign remains unknown, Jingū's designated misasagi or tomb can be visited today at Misasagi-chō in Nara.
This kofun-type Imperial tomb is characterized by a keyhole-shaped island located within a wide, water-filled moat. Kitabatake Chikafusa and Arai Hakuseki asserted that she was Himiko, the third century shaman-queen of Yamataikoku, because Himiko was a historical figure, had to be included as a member of the imperial family by the authors of the Nihon Shoki. Among modern scholars, Naitō Torajirō posits that she is Yamatohime-no-mikoto, while Higo Kazuo suggests that she is Yamato-totohimomoso-hime. In 1881, Empress Jingū became the first woman to be featured on a Japanese banknote. Chiossione used a female employee of the Government Printing Bureau as model; this picture was used for 1908/14 postage stamps the first postage stamps of Japan to show a woman. A revised design by Yoshida Toyo was used for 1924/37 Jingu design stamps; the usage of a jingu design ended with a new stamp series in 1939. The Imperial Household has designated an official mausoleum at Saki no Tatanami no ike no e no Misasagi, Nara, in what was Yamato Province.
Excluding the legendary Jingū, there were eight reigning empresses and their successors were most selected from amongst the males of the paternal Imperial bloodline, why some conservative scholars argue that the women's reigns were temporary and that male-only succession tradition must be maintained in the 21st century. Empress Genmei, followed on the throne by her daughter, Empress Genshō, remains the sole exception to this conventional argument. According to the Nihon Shoki, she led an army in an invasion of a promised land and returned to Japan victorious after three years. However, no remaining evidence of her rule has been found in Korea, suggesting that the account is either fictional or an inaccurate/misleading account of events that occurred over 400 years before the composition of the Nihon Shoki, her son Ōjin was born following her return. The legend alleges. After those three years, the boy was born. Either a period of less than nine months contained three "years", e.g. three harvests, or the paternity of her late husband was just mythical and symbolic, rather than real.
Some believe. But the legend of Jingū's invasion of the Korean peninsula appears in the ancient Japanese chronicles Kojiki written in 680 and Nihon Shoki written in 720. In addition, the Nihon Shoki states that Father of Empress Jingū is Emperor Kaika's grandchild and her mother is of the Katsuragi clan; some assert that characters were modified and the Japanese presence added on the Gwanggaeto Stele. Today and some Chinese scholars discredit the intentionally damaged stele theory based on the study of the stele itself and the pre–Sakō and pre-lime-marred rubbings. Japanese military activities, defeated by Gwanggaeto, occupy half of the stele; the interpretation of the stele is still debated because, whether intentionally or not, the stele was damaged and the missing pieces make it impossible to translate. According to the book "From Paekchae Korea to the Origin of Yamato Japan" the Japanese misinterpreted the Gwanggaeto Stele; the Stele was a tribute to a Korean king, but because of a lack of correct punctuation, the writing can be translated in 4 different ways.
The Chinese Book of Song of the Liu Song dynasty, written by the Chinese historian Shen Yue, notes the Japanese presence in the Korean Peninsula. However, the Liu Song dynasty, as a southern Chinese dynasty of ancient times, had little contact with northeast Asia and most historians in Korea and elsewhere believe that this dynasty most treated Baekje and Yamato Japan as one and the same, it is unlikely that this error was committed with regards to the Sui dynasty and Goguryeo because they were major powers at the time. The Chinese Book of Sui says that Japan provided military support to Silla. According to the Samguk Sagi, written in 1145, King Asin of Baekje sent his son, prince
The Constitution of the Empire of Japan, known informally as the Meiji Constitution, was the constitution of the Empire of Japan which had the proclamation on February 11, 1889, had enacted since November 29, 1890 until May 2, 1947. Enacted after the Meiji Restoration in 1868, it provided for a form of mixed constitutional and absolute monarchy, based jointly on the Prussian and British models. In theory, the Emperor of Japan was the supreme leader, the Cabinet, whose Prime Minister would be elected by a Privy Council, were his followers. Under the Meiji Constitution, the Prime Minister and his Cabinet were not chosen from the elected members of the group. Through the regular procedure for amendment of the Meiji Constitution, it was revised to become the "Postwar Constitution" on November 3, 1946, in force since May 3, 1947; the Meiji Restoration in 1868 provided Japan a form of constitutional monarchy based on the Prusso-German model, in which the Emperor of Japan was an active ruler and wielded considerable political power over foreign policy and diplomacy, shared with an elected Imperial Diet.
The Diet dictated domestic policy matters. After the Meiji Restoration, which restored direct political power to the emperor for the first time in over a millennium, Japan underwent a period of sweeping political and social reform and westernization aimed at strengthening Japan to the level of the nations of the Western world; the immediate consequence of the Constitution was the opening of the first Parliamentary government in Asia. The Meiji Constitution established clear limits on the power of the executive branch and the Emperor, it created an independent judiciary. Civil rights and civil liberties were guaranteed, though in many cases they were subject to limitation by law. However, it was ambiguous in wording, in many places self-contradictory; the leaders of the government and the political parties were left with the task of interpretation as to whether the Meiji Constitution could be used to justify authoritarian or liberal-democratic rule. It was the struggle between these tendencies.
The Meiji Constitution was used as a model for the 1931 Ethiopian Constitution by the Ethiopian intellectual Tekle Hawariat Tekle Mariyam. This was one of the reasons why the progressive Ethiopian intelligentsia associated with Tekle Hawariat were known as "Japanizers". By the surrender in the World War II on 2 September 1945, the Empire of Japan was deprived of sovereignty by the Allies, the Meiji Constitution was suspended. During the Occupation of Japan, the Meiji Constitution was replaced by a new document, the postwar Constitution of Japan; this document—officially an amendment to the Meiji Constitution—replaced imperial rule with a form of Western-style liberal democracy. Prior to the adoption of the Meiji Constitution, Japan had in practice no written constitution. A Chinese-inspired legal system and constitution known as ritsuryō was enacted in the 6th century. In theory the last ritsuryō code, the Yōrō Code enacted in 752, was still in force at the time of the Meiji Restoration. However, in practice the ritsuryō system of government had become an empty formality as early as in the middle of the Heian period in the 10th and 11th centuries, a development, completed by the establishment of the Kamakura Shogunate in 1185.
The high positions in the ritsuryō system remained as sinecures, the emperor was de-powered and set aside as a symbolic figure who "reigned, but did not rule". The idea of a written constitution had been a subject of heated debate within and without the government since the beginnings of the Meiji government; the conservative Meiji oligarchy viewed anything resembling democracy or republicanism with suspicion and trepidation, favored a gradualist approach. The Freedom and People's Rights Movement demanded the immediate establishment of an elected national assembly, the promulgation of a constitution. On October 21, 1881, Itō Hirobumi was appointed to chair a government bureau to research various forms of constitutional government, in 1882, Itō led an overseas mission to observe and study various systems first-hand; the United States Constitution was rejected as "too liberal". The French and Spanish models were rejected as tending toward despotism; the Reichstag and legal structures of the German Empire that of Prussia, proved to be of the most interest to the Constitutional Study Mission.
Influence was drawn from the British Westminster system, although it was considered as being unwieldy and granting too much power to Parliament. He rejected some notions as unfit for Japan, as they stemmed from European constitutional practice and Christianity, he therefore added references to the kokutai or "national polity" as the justification of the emperor's authority through his divine descent and the unbroken line of emperors, the unique relationship between subject and sovereign. The Council of State was replaced in 1885 with a cabinet headed by Itō as Prime Minister; the positions of Chancellor, Minister of the Left, Minister of the Right, which had existed since the seventh century, were abolished. In their place, the Privy Council was established in 1888 to evalua
Princess Tōchi was a Japanese Imperial princess during the Asuka period of Japanese history and the empress consort to Emperor Kōbun. Her name Tōchi is derived from the Tōchi district, a neighbourhood located a few miles north of Asuka. Princess Tōchi was daughter of Princess Nukata, she married Prince Ōtomo. They lived in the capital of Ōtsu in the Ōmi Province, he succeeded after Emperor Tenji, died. She subsequently was Empress-consort until Emperor Kōbun was killed by her father in the Jinshin War. After the war, she returned to Asuka and lived with her mother and her son in the Asuka Kiyomihara palace. In 675 she visited the Ise Grand Shrine with Princess Abe. In 678, she was appointed a Saiō by divination and was supposed to leave her residence to stay in Saikū in the 7th day of the 4th month, when she died in the residence. Upon her death, Prince Takechi composed three verses of lamentation in her honour, she was buried at a place mentioned as Akō in the Nihonshoki. Tōchi was the only daughter of Prince Ōama Emperor Tenmu, one of his wives, Princess Nukata, daughter of Prince Kagami and known as a renowned court poet.
Prince Ōama was a younger brother of Prince Naka-no-Ōe, who killed his political enemies, Soga no Iruka and Soga no Emishi, with one of his servants, Nakatomi no Kamatari, set up the Taika Reform in 645. Prince Ōama divorced Nukata to let her be a wife of Naka-no-Ōe, who wished to marry her; as Prince Naka-no-Ōe gained political power, Ōama could not refuse. Tōchi grew up at a house, it was not a typical manner for Imperial children of this era to spend their childhood with their mothers. They were supposed to be raised by nursing ladies at different places from where their mothers were, it is said that she was getting along well with Prince Takechi, one of her near-in-age half-brothers with different mothers, some historians say that she was in love with him. In 665, Tōchi was arranged to marry her father's nephew, Prince Ōtomo, a young man, several years older than she, his father, Prince Naka-no-Ōe, removed the capital of Japan from Asuka to Ōtsukyo in the Ōmi Province on 17 April 667 and acceded to the Imperial throne in 668, wishing him to be the next Emperor.
However, he was not qualified for succession. On the other hand, Tōchi's father continued his political career under Emperor Tenji. Prince Ōama's political skills attracted many supporters. Tōchi gave birth to a son, named Prince Kadono, in 669. Soon after Prince Ōtomo was appointed to Daijō-daijin in 671, Emperor Tenji was ill in bed; when he was dying, he asked him to become the next Emperor. As Prince Ōama feared to risk his life threatened by Ōtomo's supporters if he accepts it, he refused his brother's proposal, he got his head shaved, became a Buddhist monk and moved to a temple in Yoshino to show that he did no longer have an intention to stick to any political position. Emperor Tenji died without appointing anyone to his successor. After Emperor's death, Tōchi's husband acceded to the throne and became the next Emperor, although there's no record of his enthronement ceremony, she followed him as the Empress. Maybe, the most successful time in her life. During this time, Tōchi's father, Prince Ōama, lived in retirement as a monk in Yoshino.
Still, he secretly collected weapons so that he could take his revenge on Emperor Kōbun and his administration when he was ready. The administration took action to send the troops to Yoshino to assassinate him; as Tōchi was worried that her father might be killed, she secretly informed it of him by writing a letter in small piece of paper and pushing it into the belly of a grilled crucian sent to him as gift. In the sixth month of 672, Prince Ōama left Yoshino with his supporters and proceeded eastwards to collect soldiers, he summoned two of Prince Takechi and Prince Ōtsu, to join him. He took up his position at Wazamigahara, raised his army against the government in the first day, the seventh month. Prince Takechi, Tōchi's ex-boyfriend, played a leading role in attacking the government's troops, she was confused of the situation where her beloved man were fighting each other. The war lasted about a month, his army burnt the palace down. Emperor Kōbun was driven away from the palace and escaped with few retainers to Mount Nagara near the palace to look for the place of committing suicide as it was considered as a shame that the noble man was killed by somebody, in lower position in the battlefield.
Emperor ceremonially hanged himself in the mountain before being killed by the enemy. Tōchi and her family were captured and sent to Asuka, where her father acceded to the throne and built a new palace. Although Tōchi was the consort of the enemy of the new Japan's leader, she wasn't punished at all. Instead and her family were protected within the palace her father built. Many historians and novelists say that she met her beloved ex-boyfriend Prince Takechi again and the both had a happy romantic time during this time. At the same time, she felt guilty for her late husband. People blamed her for her unfaithfulness to him, her father, being a new leader, was afraid that his family member's misconduct might have given a negative impact to his new administration and his country. He told the two to break up, they didn't want to do it. Seeing and loving of the two had to be kept secr
Empress Jitō was the 41st monarch of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Jitō's reign spanned the years from 686 through 697. In the history of Japan, Jitō was the third of eight women to take on the role of empress regnant; the two female monarchs before Jitō were Kōgyoku/Saimei. The five women sovereigns reigning after Jitō were Genmei, Genshō, Kōken/Shōtoku, Meishō, Go-Sakuramachi. Empress Jitō was the daughter of Emperor Tenji, her mother was Ochi-no-Iratsume, the daughter of Minister Ō-omi Soga no Yamada-no Ishikawa Maro. She was the wife of Tenji's full brother Emperor Tenmu. Empress Jitō's given name was Unonosasara, or alternately Uno. Jitō took responsibility for court administration after the death of her husband, Emperor Tenmu, her uncle, she acceded to the throne in 687 in order to ensure the eventual succession of her son, Kusakabe-shinnō. Throughout this period, Empress Jitō ruled from the Fujiwara Palace in Yamato. In 689, Jitō prohibited Sugoroku, in 690 at enthronement she performed special ritual gave pardon and in 692 she travelled to Ise against the counsel of minister Miwa-no-Asono-Takechimaro.
Prince Kusakabe was named as crown prince to succeed Jitō. Kusakabe's son, Karu-no-o, was named as Jitō's successor, he would become known as Emperor Monmu. Empress Jitō reigned for eleven years. Although there were seven other reigning empresses, their successors were most selected from amongst the males of the paternal Imperial bloodline, why some conservative scholars argue that the women's reigns were temporary and that male-only succession tradition must be maintained in the 21st century. Empress Genmei, followed on the throne by her daughter, Empress Genshō, remains the sole exception to this conventional argument. In 697, Jitō abdicated in Mommu's favor. After this, her imperial successors who retired took the same title after abdication. Jitō continued to hold power as a cloistered ruler, which became a persistent trend in Japanese politics; the actual site of Jitō's grave is known. This empress is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine at Nara; the Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Jitō's mausoleum.
It is formally named Ochi-no-Okanoe no misasagi. Kugyō is a collective term for the few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time; these were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Jitō's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included: Daijō-daijin, Takechi-shinnō Sadaijin Udaijin Naidaijin Jitō's reign is not linked by scholars to any era or nengō; the Taika era innovation of naming time periods – nengō – languished until Mommu reasserted an imperial right by proclaiming the commencement of Taihō in 701. See Japanese era name – "Non-nengo periods" See Jitō period; however and Ishida's translation of Gukanshō offers an explanation which muddies a sense of easy clarity: "The eras that fell in this reign were: the remaining seven years of Shuchō. In the third year of the Taka era, Empress Jitō yielded the throne to the Crown Prince."
The Man'yōshū includes poems said to have been composed by Jitō: After the death of the Emperor Tenmu:Composed when the Empress climbed the Thunder Hill: One of the poems attributed to Empress Jitō was selected by Fujiwara no Teika for inclusion in the popular anthology Hyakunin Isshu: Emperor of Japan Imperial cult Japanese empresses List of Emperors of Japan Aston, William George.. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A. D. 697. London: Kegan Paul, Trubner. OCLC 448337491 Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0. "Hyakunin-Isshu: Single Songs of a Hundred Poets" in Transactions of the Asia Society of Japan. Tokyo: Asia Society of Japan.... Click link for digitized, full-text copy __________.. Kokka taikan. Tokyo: Teikoku Toshokan, Meiji 30–34. [reprinted Shinten kokka taikan, 10 vols. + 10 index vols. Kadokawa Shoten, Tokyo, 1983–1992. ISBN 978-4-04-020142-9 Nippon Gakujutsu Shinkōkai..
Man'yōshū. Tokyo: Iwanami shoten. [reprinted by Columbia University Press, New York, 1965. ISBN 0-231-08620-2. Rprinted by Dover Publications, New York, 2005. ISBN 978-0-486-43959-4 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon.. The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul.. Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5.
Emperor Kammu was the 50th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Kammu reigned from 781 to 806. Kammu's personal name was Yamabe, he was the eldest son of Prince Shirakabe, was born prior to Shirakabe's ascension to the throne. According to the Shoku Nihongi, Yamabe's mother, Yamato no Niigasa, was a 10th generation descendant of Muryeong of Baekje. After his father became emperor, Kammu's half-brother, Prince Osabe was appointed to the rank of crown prince, his mother was a daughter of Emperor Shōmu. After Inoe and Prince Osabe were confined and died in 775, Osabe's sister – Kammu's half-sister Princess Sakahito – became Kammu's wife; when he ascended to the throne in 781, Kammu appointed his young brother, Prince Sawara, whose mother was Takano no Niigasa, as crown prince. Hikami no Kawatsugu, a son of Emperor Tenmu's grandson Prince Shioyaki and Shōmu's daughter Fuwa, attempted to carry out a coup d'état in 782, but it failed and Kawatsugu and his mother were sent into exile.
In 785 Sawara was died in exile. Kammu had 16 empresses and consorts, 32 imperial sons and daughters. Among them, three sons would ascend to the imperial throne: Emperor Heizei, Emperor Saga and Emperor Junna; some of his descendants took the Taira hereditary clan title, in generations became prominent warriors. Examples include Taira no Masakado, Taira no Kiyomori, the Hōjō clan; the waka poet Ariwara. Kammu is traditionally venerated at his tomb. Kammu was an active emperor who attempted to consolidate government functions. Kammu appointed Sakanoue no Tamuramaro to lead a military expedition against the Emishi. 737: Kammu was born. 773: Received the title of crown prince. April 30, 781: In the 11th year of Kōnin's reign, he abdicated. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Kammu is said to have ascended to the throne. During his reign, the capital of Japan was moved from Nara to Nagaoka-kyō in 784. Shortly thereafter, the capital would be moved again in 794. July 28, 782: The sadaijin Fujiwara no Uona was involved in an incident that resulted in his removal from office and exile to Kyushi.
Claiming illness, Uona was permitted to return to the capital. In the same general time frame, Fujiwara no Tamaro was named Udaijin. During these days in which the offices of sadaijin and udaijin were vacant, the major counselors and the emperor assumed responsibilities and powers which would have been otherwise delegated. 783: The udaijin Tamaro died at the age of 62 years. 783: Fujiwara no Korekimi became the new udaijin to replace the late Fujiwara no Tamaro. 793: Under the leadership of Dengyō, construction began on the Enryaku Temple. 794: The capital was relocated again, this time to Heian-kyō, where the palace was named Heian no Miya. November 17, 794: The emperor traveled by carriage from Nara to the new capital of Heian-kyō in a grand procession; this marks the beginning of the Heian period. 806: Kammu died at the age of 70. Kammu's reign lasted for 25 years; the years of Kammu's reign are more identified by more than one era name. Ten'ō Enryaku Earlier Imperial sponsorship of Buddhism, beginning with Prince Shōtoku, had led to a general politicization of the clergy, along with an increase in intrigue and corruption.
In 784 Kammu shifted his capital from Nara to Nagaoka-kyō in a move, said to be designed to edge the powerful Nara Buddhist establishments out of state politics—while the capital moved, the major Buddhist temples, their officials, stayed put. Indeed, there was a steady stream of edicts issued from 771 right through the period of Kūkai's studies which, for instance, sought to limit the number of Buddhist priests, the building of temples; however the move was to prove disastrous and was followed by a series of natural disasters including the flooding of half the city. In 785 the principal architect of the new capital, royal favourite, Fujiwara no Tanetsugu, was assassinated. Meanwhile, Kammu's armies were pushing back the boundaries of his empire; this led to an uprising, in 789 a substantial defeat for Kammu's troops. In 789 there was a severe drought and famine—the streets of the capital were clogged with the sick, people avoiding being drafted into the military, or into forced labour. Many disguised themselves as Buddhist priests for the same reason.
In 794 Kammu shifted the capital again, this time to Heian-kyō, modern day Kyoto. The new capital was started early the previous year, but the change was abrupt and led to more confusion amongst the populace. Politically Kammu shored up his rule by changing the syllabus of the university. Confucian ideology still provided the raison d'être for the Imperial government. In 784 Kammu authorised the teaching of a new course based on the Spring and Autumn Annals based on two newly imported commentaries: Kung-yang and Ku-liang; these commentaries used political rhetoric to promote a state in which
Empress Genmei known as Empress Genmyō, was the 43rd monarch of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Genmei's reign spanned the years 707 through 715 CE. In the history of Japan, Genmei was the fourth of eight women to take on the role of empress regnant; the three female monarchs before Genmei were Suiko, Kōgyoku/Saimei, Jitō. The four women sovereigns reigning after Genmei were Genshō, Kōken/Shōtoku, Meishō, Go-Sakuramachi. Before her ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, her personal name was Abe-hime. Empress Genmei was the fourth daughter of Emperor Tenji, her mother, Mei-no-Iratsume, was a daughter of Udaijin Soga-no-Kura-no-Yamada-no-Ishikawa-no-Maro. Genmei became the consort of Crown Prince Kusakabe no Miko, the son of Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō. After the death of their son Emperor Monmu in 707, she acceded to the throne. At least one account suggests that she accepted the role of empress because Emperor Mommu felt his young son, her grandson, was still too young to withstand the pressures which attend becoming emperor.
July 18, 707: In the 11th year of Mommu-tennō's reign, the emperor died. Shortly thereafter, Empress Genmei is said to have acceded to the throne. 707: Deposits of copper were reported to have been found in Chichibu in Musashi Province in the region which includes modern day Tokyo. The Japanese word for copper is dō. May 5, 708: A sample of the newly discovered Musashi copper from was presented in Genmei's Court where it was formally acknowledged as "Japanese" copper. 708: Fuijwara no Fuhito was named Minister of the Right. Isonokami no Maro was Minister of the Left. 709: There was an uprising against governmental authority in Mutsu Province and in Echigo Province. Troops were promptly dispatched to subdue the revolt. 709: Ambassadors arrived from Silla, bringing an offer of tribute. He visited Fujiwara no Fuhito to prepare the way for further visits. 710: Empress Genmei established her official residence in Nara. In the last years of the Mommu's reign, the extensive preparations for this projected move had begun.
Shortly after the nengō was changed to Wadō, an Imperial Rescript was issued concerning the establishment of a new capital at the Heijō-kyō at Nara in Yamato Province. It had been customary since ancient times for the capital to be moved with the beginning of each new reign. However, Emperor Mommu decided not to move the capital, preferring instead to stay at the Fujiwara Palace, established by Empress Jitō. Empress Genmei's palace was named Nara-no-miya. 711: The Kojiki was published in three volumes. This work presented a history of Japan from a mythological period of god-rulers up through the 28th day of the 1st month of the fifth year of Empress Suiko's reign. Emperor Tenmu failed to bring the work to completion before his death in 686. Empress Genmei, along with other court officials, deserve credit for continuing to patronize and encourage the mammoth project. 712: The Mutsu Province was separated from Dewa Province. 713: Tanba Province was separated from Tango Province. 713: The compilation of Fudoki was begun with the imprimatur of an Imperial decree.
This work was intended to describe all provinces, mountains, rivers and plains. It is intended to become a catalog of the plants, trees and mammals of Japan, it intended to contain information about all of the remarkable events which, from ancient times to the present, have happened in the country. 713: The road which traverses Mino Province and Shinano Province was widened to accommodate travelers. After Empress Genmei transferred the seat of her government to Nara, this mountain location remained the capital throughout the succeeding seven reigns. In a sense, the years of the Nara period developed into one of the more significant consequences of her comparatively short reign. Genmei had planned to remain on the throne until her grandson might reach maturity. However, in 715, Genmei did abdicate in favor of Mommu's older sister who became known as Empress Genshō. Genshō was succeeded by her younger brother, who became known as Emperor Shōmu. 715: Genmei resigns as empress in favor of her daughter, who will be known as Empress Genshō.
The Empress reigned for eight years. Although there were seven other reigning empresses, their successors were most selected from amongst the males of the paternal Imperial bloodline, why some conservative scholars argue that the women's reigns were temporary and t
Amaterasu, Amaterasu-ōmikami, or Ōhirume-no-muchi-no-kami is a deity of the Japanese myth cycle and a major deity of the Shinto religion. She is seen as the goddess of the universe; the name Amaterasu is derived from Amateru and means "shining in heaven". The meaning of her whole name, Amaterasu-ōmikami, is "the great august kami who shines in the heaven". According to the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki in Japanese mythology, the Emperors of Japan are considered to be direct descendants of Amaterasu. Records of the worship of Amaterasu are found from the c. 712 CE Kojiki and c. 720 CE Nihon Shoki, the oldest records of Japanese history. In Japanese mythology, the goddess of the sun, is the sister of Susanoo, the god of storms and the sea, of Tsukuyomi, the god of the moon, it was written that Amaterasu had painted the landscape with her siblings while she created ancient Japan. Amaterasu was said to have been created by the divine couple Izanagi and Izanami, who were themselves created by, or grew from, the originator of the Universe, Amenominakanushi.
All three deities were born from Izanagi when he was purifying himself upon entering Yomi, the underworld, after breaking the promise not to see dead Izanami and he was chased by her and Yakusan-no-ikaduchigami, surrounding rotten Izanami. Amaterasu was born when Izanagi washed out his left eye, Tsukuyomi was born from the washing of the right eye, Susanoo from the washing of the nose. Amaterasu became the ruler of the sun and the heavens along with her brother, Tsukuyomi as the ruler of the night, Susanoo as the ruler of the seas. Amaterasu shared the sky with Tsukuyomi, her husband and brother until, out of disgust, he killed the goddess of food, Uke Mochi, when she pulled "food from her rectum and mouth"; this killing upset Amaterasu causing her to split away from him. The texts tell of a long-standing rivalry between Amaterasu and her other brother, Susanoo. Susanoo is said to have insulted claiming she had no power over the higher realm; when Izanagi ordered him to leave Heaven, he went to bid his sister goodbye.
Amaterasu was suspicious, but when Susanoo proposed a challenge to prove his sincerity, she accepted. Each of them took an object belonging from it, birthed deities. Amaterasu birthed three women from Susanoo's sword. Claiming the gods were hers because they were born of her necklace, the goddesses were his, she decided that she had won the challenge, as his item produced women. After Susanoo's defeat he went on a rampage destroying much of the heavenly and earthly realm, Amaterasu's rice fields, hurled a flayed pony at her loom, killing one of her attendants in a fit of rage. Amaterasu, in fury and grief, hid inside the Ama-no-Iwato, plunging the earth into darkness and chaos, she was persuaded to leave the cave. Omoikane threw a party outside of the Ama-no-Iwato to lure Amaterasu out but it was not until the Goddess Ame-no-Uzume danced promiscuously outside of the cave that Amaterasu came out. Susanoo was punished by being banished from heaven. Both amended their conflict when Susanoo gave her the Kusanagi-no-Tsurugi sword as a reconciliation gift.
According to legend, responsible from keeping balance and harmony within the earthly realm, bequeathed to her descendant Ninigi: the mirror, Yata no Kagami. Collectively, the sacred mirror and sword became the three Imperial Regalia of Japan; the Ise Shrine located in Ise, Mie Prefecture, houses the inner shrine, dedicated to Amaterasu. Her sacred mirror, Yata no Kagami, is said to be kept at this shrine as one of the imperial regalia objects. A ceremony known as Shikinen Sengu is held every twenty years at this shrine to honor the many deities enshrined, formed by 125 shrines altogether. At that time, new shrine buildings are built at a location adjacent to the site first. After the transfer of the object of worship, new clothing and treasure and offering food to the goddess the old buildings are taken apart; the building materials taken apart are given to buildings to renovate. This practice is a part of the Shinto faith and has been practiced since the year 690, but is not only for Amaterasu but for many other deities enshrined in Ise Shrine.
The Amanoiwato Shrine in Takachiho, Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan is dedicated to Amaterasu and sits above the gorge containing Ama-no-Iwato. The worship of Amaterasu to the exclusion of other kami has been described as "the cult of the sun"; this phrase may refer to the early pre-archipelagoan worship of the sun. Himiko Shinto in popular culture Sól Surya Vairocana Zalmoxis Ōkami Amaterasu, fictional character from video game Ōkami