Betsy Eby is an American encaustic painter. She splits her time between Columbus and Wheaton Island, Betsy Eby was born on April 3,1967 in the small coastal city of Seaside, Oregon. She earned her Bachelors Degree in art history at the University of Oregon, with an emphasis in ancient Greek and Asian antiquities. During Betsys internship at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art, her aesthetic was influenced by Asian Landscape painting as well as the work of Pacific Northwest masters that she catalogued, after graduation, she lived briefly in Tokyo and was deeply influenced by Japanese history and culture. She has practiced classical piano since the age of five, Betsy Eby currently lives on an island off the coast of Maine in the summer, and in Columbus, Georgia through the winter. She is married to artist Bo Bartlett, balance and tone in Betsy Eby’s paintings are influenced by her lifelong devotion to music. Her paintings are informed by the world, drawing on forms found on both microscopic and macroscopic scales.
Her calligraphic compositions draw on the movement of living things and visual forms echoed throughout nature and her subject matter, composition and surface luminosity are informed by the wet coastal climate and ecosystem of the Pacific Northwest. Her works utilize abstraction and elemental reduction to portray essence and movement, Betsy Eby works in encaustic, a medium that dates back to the 4th Century BC and was written about in the works of Roman scholar Pliny the Elder. Her paintings are created of pigmented beeswax, in a process of layering and torching. She balances compositional concerns with the properties of the beeswax itself in an organic process of creation
Dammar gum, or damar gum, is obtained from the Dipterocarpaceae family of trees in India and East Asia, principally those of the genera Shorea, Balanocarpus or Hopea. Most is produced by tapping trees, some is collected in fossilised form from the ground, the gum varies in colour from clear to pale yellow, while the fossilised form is grey-brown. Dammar gum is a resin, containing a large number of triterpenes. Many of them are low molecular compounds, but dammar contains a polymeric fraction. Dammar is used in foods, as a clouding or glazing agent, dammar crystals are dissolved in molten paraffin wax to make batik, to prevent the wax from cracking when it is drawn onto silk or rayon. Damar crystals are disolved into beeswax wih pigment added to harden it in order to make encaustic paints, dammar resins were often used in the past to caulk ships, frequently together with pitch or bitumen. The name is a Malay word meaning ‘resin’ or ‘torch made from resin’, there are two further types of dammar, besides the gum, Mata kucing is a crystalline resin, usually in the form of round balls.
Batu is stone or pebble-shaped, opaque dammar collected from the ground, white powder Melting point, approx. 120 °C Density,1.04 to 1.12 kg/m³ Refractive index,1.5 CAS number, 9000-16-2 EINECS, 232-528-4 Harmonised Tariff, 1301-90 The gum is stable, probably combustible and incompatible with strong oxidising agents. Its toxicity is low, but inhalation of dust may cause allergies
Canvas is an extremely durable plain-woven fabric used for making sails, marquees and other items for which sturdiness is required. It is used by artists as a painting surface. It is used in such objects as handbags, electronic device cases. The word canvas is derived from the 13th century Anglo-French canevaz, both may be derivatives of the Vulgar Latin cannapaceus for made of hemp, originating from the Greek κάνναβις. Modern canvas is made of cotton or linen, although. It differs from other cotton fabrics, such as denim. Canvas comes in two types and duck. The threads in duck canvas are more tightly woven, the term duck comes from the Dutch word for cloth, doek. In the United States, canvas is classified in two ways, by weight and by a number system. The numbers run in reverse of the weight so a number 10 canvas is lighter than number 4, canvas has become the most common support medium for oil painting, replacing wooden panels. One of the earliest surviving oils on canvas is a French Madonna with angels from around 1410 in the Gemäldegalerie, panel painting remained more common until the 16th century in Italy and the 17th century in Northern Europe.
Mantegna and Venetian artists were among those leading the change, Venetian sail canvas was readily available, as lead-based paint is poisonous, care has to be taken in using it. Early canvas was made of linen, a sturdy brownish fabric of considerable strength, linen is particularly suitable for the use of oil paint. In the early 20th century, cotton canvas, often referred to as cotton duck, linen is composed of higher quality material, and remains popular with many professional artists, especially those who work with oil paint. Cotton duck, which stretches more fully and has an even, mechanical weave, the advent of acrylic paint has greatly increased the popularity and use of cotton duck canvas. Linen and cotton derive from two different plants, the flax plant and the cotton plant, respectively. Gessoed canvases on stretchers are available and they are available in a variety of weights, light-weight is about 4 oz or 5 oz, medium-weight is about 7 oz or 8 oz, heavy-weight is about 10 oz or 12 oz.
They are prepared with two or three coats of gesso and are ready for use straight away, artists desiring greater control of their painting surface may add a coat or two of their preferred gesso
Pedro Cuni-Bravo is a Spanish artist settled in New York, specializing in murals and encaustic and oil paintings. He teaches in Parsons and Cooper Union, universities in New York City and he was assistant to his father in the decoration of the domes of the Academy of Jurisprudence and the Goya Hall of the Casa de las Siete Chimeneas in Madrid. And his father introduced him to investigate the forgotten art of Greco-Roman encaustic. James Theatre in New York and in the murals of Venetian Palace Hotel-Casino in Las Vegas and this has made the technique of encaustic and architectural topics central in his easel work. This effect of coming from the background of the painting cushions with the matte tones that the artist obtains from the techniques used. Museum of Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando, spain The Official Pedro Cuni-Bravo Website Official website
The Brooklyn Museum is an art museum located in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. At 560,000 square feet, the museum is New York Citys third largest in physical size, the museum initially struggled to maintain its building and collection, only to be revitalized in the late 20th century, thanks to major renovations. Significant areas of the collection include antiquities, specifically their collection of Egyptian antiquities spanning over 3,000 years, African and Japanese art make for notable antiquities collections as well. American art is represented, starting at the Colonial period. Artists represented in the collection include Mark Rothko, Edward Hopper, Norman Rockwell, Winslow Homer, Edgar Degas, Georgia OKeeffe, the museum has a Memorial Sculpture Garden which features salvaged architectural elements from throughout New York City. The roots of the Brooklyn Museum extend back to the 1823 founding by Augustus Graham of the Brooklyn Apprentices’ Library in Brooklyn Heights, in 1890, under its director Franklin Hooper, Institute leaders reorganized as the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences and began planning the Brooklyn Museum.
The initial design for the Brooklyn Museum was four times as large as the actualized version, Daniel Chester French, the noted sculptor of the Lincoln Memorial, was the principal designer of the pediment sculptures and the monolithic 12. 5-foot figures along the cornice. The figures were created by 11 sculptors and carved by the Piccirilli Brothers, by 1920, the New York City Subway reached the museum with a subway station, this greatly improved access to the once-isolated museum from Manhattan and other outer boroughs. The Brooklyn Institutes director Franklin Hooper was the museums first director and he was followed by Philip Newell Youtz, Laurance Page Roberts, Isabel Spaulding Roberts, Charles Nagel, Jr. and Edgar Craig Schenck. Thomas S. Buechner became the director in 1960, making him one of the youngest directors in the country. Buechner oversaw a major transformation in the way the museum displayed art and brought some one thousand works that had languished in the museums archives and put them on display.
Buechner played a role in rescuing the Daniel Chester French sculptures from destruction due to an expansion project at the Manhattan Bridge in the 1960s. The Brooklyn Museum changed its name to Brooklyn Museum of Art in 1997, on March 12,2004, the museum announced that it would revert to its previous name. In April 2004, the museum opened the James Polshek-designed entrance pavilion on the Eastern Parkway façade, in September 2014, Lehman announced that he was planning to retire around June 2015. In May 2015, Creative Time president and artistic director Anne Pasternak was named the Museums next director, member institutions occupy land or buildings owned by the City of New York and derive part of their yearly funding from the City. The Brooklyn Museum supplements its earned income with funding from Federal and State governments, as well as donations by individuals. Major benefactors include Frank Lusk Babbott, the museum is the site of the annual Brooklyn Artists Ball which has included celebrity hosts such as Sarah Jessica Parker and Liv Tyler.
The Brooklyn Museum exhibits collections that seek to embody the rich heritage of world cultures
Benjamin Calau was a German portrait painter, who used an encaustic technique. Calau was born at Friedrichstadt in Holstein in 1724, son of the painter Christoph Calau and he trained under his father, and in 1743 followed him to St Petersburg, returning to Germany in 1746. He moved to Leipzig in 1752, and was appointed court painter there four years and his work consisted chiefly of portraits and of heads painted from his own imagination. In 1769 he published a book on the method, entitled Ausführlicher Bericht and he painted some portraits for Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleims Temple of Friendship, a collection of paintings of the poets friends that he kept in two rooms in his home in Halberstadt. In 1771 he went to Berlin, where the king awarded him the right to make. Lambert published the results of his researches in 1772 as Beschreibung einer mit dem Calauischen Wachse ausgemalten Farbenpyramide and he died in Berlin in 1785. Works painted for Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim
Paul Klee was a Swiss-German artist. His highly individual style was influenced by movements in art that included Expressionism, Cubism and he and his colleague, Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky, both taught at the Bauhaus school of art and architecture. His works reflect his dry humor and his sometimes childlike perspective, his personal moods and beliefs, and his musicality. First of all, the art of living, as my ideal profession and philosophy, Paul Klee was born in Münchenbuchsee, Switzerland, as the second child of German music teacher Hans Wilhelm Klee and Swiss singer Ida Marie Klee, née Frick. His sister Mathilde was born on 28 January 1876 in Walzenhausen and their father came from Tann and studied at the Stuttgart Conservatory singing, piano and violin, meeting there his future wife Ida Frick. Hans Wilhelm Klee was active as a teacher at the Bern State Seminary in Hofwil near Bern until 1931. Klee was able to develop his skills as his parents encouraged and inspired him until his death.
In 1880, his family moved to Bern, where they moved 17 years after numerous changes of residence into a house at the Kirchenfeld district. From 1886 to 1890, Klee visited primary school and received, at the age of 7 and he was so talented on violin that, aged 11, he received an invitation to play as an extraordinary member of the Bern Music Association. He stated, I didnt find the idea of going in for music creatively particularly attractive in view of the decline in the history of musical achievement. As a musician, he played and felt emotionally bound to traditional works of the eighteenth and nineteenth century, at sixteen, Klee’s landscape drawings already show considerable skill. Around 1897, Klee started his diary, which he kept until 1918, during his school years, he avidly drew in his school books, in particular drawing caricatures, and already demonstrating skill with line and volume. He barely passed his exams at the Gymnasium of Bern. With his characteristic dry wit, he wrote, After all, it’s rather difficult to achieve the exact minimum, and it involves risks.
On his own time, in addition to his interests in music and art, Klee was a great reader of literature. With his parents reluctant permission, in 1898 Klee began studying art at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich with Heinrich Knirr and he excelled at drawing but seemed to lack any natural color sense. He recalled, During the third winter I even realized that I probably would never learn to paint, during these times of youthful adventure, Klee spent much time in pubs and had affairs with lower class women and artists models. He had a son in 1900 who died several weeks after birth
The Italian past participle sgraffiato is used, especially of pottery. Sgraffito and sgraffiti come from the Italian word graffiare, ultimately from the Greek γράφειν, related terms include graffito and graffiti. Sgraffito on walls has been used in Europe since classical times, it was popularized in Italy in the 15th and 16th centuries, in combination with ornamental decoration these techniques formed an alternative to the prevailing painting of walls. Of late there has been a growing interest in this old technique. The technical procedure is simple, and the procedures are similar to the painting of frescoes. Most of their work has now weathered away, during the 16th century, the technique was brought to Germany by the master builders of the Renaissance and taken up with enthusiasm. As a simple art, old examples of sgraffito can be found in the wide surroundings of Wetterau. In Germany, the technique is most predominant in Bavaria, the use of sgraffito was common in the creation of housing façades for the purposes of advertising.
The technique was used in Thuringia, the Engadin and Transylvania. In Catalonia, sgraffito was implemented in the early 20th century by the Noucentista neo-classical architects, another use of sgraffito is seen in its simplified painting technique. One coat of paint is left to dry on a canvas or sheet of paper, another coat of a different color is painted on top of the first layer. The artist uses a knife or oil stick to scratch out a design. This can be achieved by using oil pastels for the first layer, sometimes a first coat of paint is not needed, and the wet coat scraped back reveals the canvas. This cannot be achieved by using the oil pastel method and this technique is often used in art classes to teach the sgraffito technique to novice art students. The English artist Heywood Sumner has been identified as this eras pioneer of the technique, for example his work at the 1892 St Marys Church, Surrey. Sumners work is sgraffito per se, scratched plaster, but the term has come to encompass a variety of techniques for producing exterior graphic decoration, St.
Benets Chaplaincy at Queen Mary, University of London
The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south, Luzon and Mindanao, the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 square kilometers, and it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelagos earliest inhabitants and they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay and Islamic nations occurred, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of Datus, Sultans or Lakans.
The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization, in 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Roman Catholicism becoming the dominant religion, during this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, since then, the Philippines has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution. It is a member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank, the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte, eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other such as Islas del Poniente. The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history, during the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines began to appear, since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. The metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date and this distinction previously belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago.
Negritos were among the archipelagos earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated, there are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos
Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder. Commonly used drying oils include linseed oil, poppy seed oil, walnut oil, the choice of oil imparts a range of properties to the oil paint, such as the amount of yellowing or drying time. Certain differences, depending on the oil, are visible in the sheen of the paints. An artist might use different oils in the same painting depending on specific pigments and effects desired. The paints themselves develop a particular consistency depending on the medium, the oil may be boiled with a resin, such as pine resin or frankincense, to create a varnish prized for its body and gloss. Its practice may have migrated westward during the Middle Ages, Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known. In recent years, water miscible oil paint has come to prominence and, to some extent, water-soluble paints contain an emulsifier that allows them to be thinned with water rather than paint thinner, and allows very fast drying times when compared with traditional oils.
Traditional oil painting techniques often begin with the artist sketching the subject onto the canvas with charcoal or thinned paint, Oil paint is usually mixed with linseed oil, artist grade mineral spirits, or other solvents to make the paint thinner, faster or slower-drying. A basic rule of oil paint application is fat over lean and this means that each additional layer of paint should contain more oil than the layer below to allow proper drying. If each additional layer contains less oil, the painting will crack. This rule does not ensure permanence, it is the quality and type of oil leads to a strong. There are many media that can be used with the oil, including cold wax, resins. These aspects of the paint are closely related to the capacity of oil paint. Traditionally, paint was transferred to the surface using paintbrushes. Oil paint remains wet longer than other types of artists materials, enabling the artist to change the color. At times, the painter might even remove a layer of paint.
This can be done with a rag and some turpentine for a time while the paint is wet, Oil paint dries by oxidation, not evaporation, and is usually dry to the touch within a span of two weeks. It is generally dry enough to be varnished in six months to a year, art conservators do not consider an oil painting completely dry until it is 60 to 80 years old
Natural History (Pliny)
The Natural History is an early encyclopedia in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD. It is one of the largest single works to have survived from the Roman Empire to the modern day, the works subject area is thus not limited to what is today understood by natural history, Pliny himself defines his scope as the natural world, or life. The work is divided into 37 books, organised into ten volumes, the Natural History became a model for encyclopedias and scholarly works as a result of its breadth of subject matter, its referencing of original authors, and its index. The work is dedicated to the emperor Titus, son of Plinys close friend and it is the only work by Pliny to have survived and the last that he published. He began it in 77, and had not made a revision at the time of his death during the AD79 eruption of Vesuvius. Plinys Natural History was written alongside other substantial works, Pliny combined his scholarly activities with a busy career as an imperial administrator for the emperor Vespasian.
Pliny claims to be the only Roman ever to have such a work, in his prayer for the blessing of the universal mother, Hail to thee, Nature. And do thou deign to show thy favour unto me, alone of all the citizens of Rome, have, in thy every department, the Natural History is encyclopaedic in scope, but its format is unlike a modern encyclopaedia. However, it does have structure, Pliny uses Aristotles division of nature to recreate the world in literary form. The work is unified but varied, My subject is the world of nature, or in other words, life, he tells Titus. Nature for Pliny was divine, a concept inspired by the Stoic philosophy which underlies much of his thought. But the deity in question was a goddess whose main purpose was to serve the human race, that is life is human life in a natural landscape. After an initial survey of cosmology and geography, Pliny starts his treatment of animals with the human race and this teleological view of nature was common in antiquity and is crucial to the understanding of the Natural History.
The components of nature are not just described in and for themselves, Pliny devotes a number of the books to plants, with a focus on their medicinal value, the books on minerals include descriptions of their uses in architecture, sculpture and jewellery. Plinys premise is distinct from modern ecological theories, reflecting the sentiment of his time. Pliny repeated Aristotles maxim that Africa was always producing something new, natures variety and versatility were claimed to be infinite, When I have observed nature she has always induced me to deem no statement about her incredible. This led Pliny to recount rumours of strange peoples on the edges of the world and these monstrous races – the Cynocephali or Dog-Heads, the Sciapodae, whose single foot could act as a sunshade, the mouthless Astomi, who lived on scents – were not strictly new. They had been mentioned by the Greek historian Herodotus in the 5th century BC, Pliny had gone to investigate the strange cloud – shaped like an umbrella pine, according to his nephew – rising from the mountain
Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez, known as Diego Rivera was a prominent Mexican painter. His large frescoes helped establish the Mexican mural movement in Mexican art, between 1922 and 1953, Rivera painted murals among others in Mexico City, Cuernavaca, San Francisco and New York City. In 1931, a exhibition of his works was held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Rivera had a marriage with fellow Mexican artist Frida Kahlo. Rivera was born in Guanajuato, Mexico, to a well-to-do family, Diego had a twin brother named Carlos, who died two years after they were born. Rivera was said to have Converso ancestry, Rivera wrote in 1935, My Jewishness is the dominant element in my life. Rivera began drawing at the age of three, a year after his brothers death. He had been drawing on the walls. His parents, rather than punishing him, installed chalkboards and canvas on the walls, as an adult, he married Angelina Beloff in 1911, and she gave birth to a son, Diego.
Maria Vorobieff-Stebelska gave birth to a daughter named Marika in 1918 or 1919 when Rivera was married to Angelina and he married his second wife, Guadalupe Marín, in June 1922, with whom he had two daughters and Guadalupe. He was still married when he met art student Frida Kahlo and they married on August 21,1929 when he was 42 and she was 22. Their mutual infidelities and his violent temper led to divorce in 1939, Rivera married Emma Hurtado, his agent since 1946, on July 29,1955, one year after Kahlos death. His mural Dreams of a Sunday in the Alameda depicted Ignacio Ramírez holding a sign which read and this work caused a furor, but Rivera refused to remove the inscription. The painting was not shown for nine years – until Rivera agreed to remove the inscription. He stated, To affirm God does not exist, I do not have to hide behind Don Ignacio Ramírez, I am an atheist, from the age of ten, Rivera studied art at the Academy of San Carlos in Mexico City. He was sponsored to study in Europe by Teodoro A.
Dehesa Méndez. In those years, Paris was witnessing the beginning of Cubism in paintings by such eminent painters as Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, from 1913 to 1917, Rivera enthusiastically embraced this new school of art. Around 1917, inspired by Paul Cézannes paintings, Rivera shifted toward Post-Impressionism with simple forms and his paintings began to attract attention, and he was able to display them at several exhibitions