The sea, the world ocean or the ocean is the connected body of salty water that covers over 70 percent of the Earth's surface. It moderates the Earth's climate and has important roles in the water cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, it has been travelled and explored since ancient times, while the scientific study of the sea—oceanography—dates broadly from the voyages of Captain James Cook to explore the Pacific Ocean between 1768 and 1779. The word "sea" is used to denote smaller landlocked sections of the ocean and certain large landlocked, saltwater lakes such as the Caspian Sea and the Dead Sea; the most abundant solid dissolved in sea water is sodium chloride. The water contains salts of magnesium and potassium, amongst many other elements, some in minute concentrations. Salinity varies being lower near the surface and the mouths of large rivers and higher in the depths of the ocean. Winds blowing over the surface of the sea produce waves. Winds create surface currents through friction, setting up slow but stable circulations of water throughout the oceans.
The directions of the circulation are governed by factors including the shapes of the continents and the rotation of the earth. Deep-sea currents, known as the global conveyor belt, carry cold water from near the poles to every ocean. Tides, the twice-daily rise and fall of sea levels, are caused by the rotation of the Earth and the gravitational effects of the orbiting Moon, to a lesser extent of the Sun. Tides may have a high range in bays or estuaries. Submarine earthquakes arising from tectonic plate movements under the oceans can lead to destructive tsunamis, as can volcanoes, huge landslides or the impact of large meteorites. A wide variety of organisms, including bacteria, algae, plants and animals, live in the sea, which offers a wide range of marine habitats and ecosystems, ranging vertically from the sunlit surface waters and the shoreline to the enormous depths and pressures of the cold, dark abyssal zone, in latitude from the cold waters under the Arctic ice to the colourful diversity of coral reefs in tropical regions.
Many of the major groups of organisms evolved in the sea and life may have started there. The sea provides substantial supplies of food for humans fish, but shellfish and seaweed, whether caught by fishermen or farmed underwater. Other human uses of the sea include trade, mineral extraction, power generation and leisure activities such as swimming and scuba diving. Many of these activities create marine pollution; the sea is important in human culture, with major appearances in literature at least since Homer's Odyssey, in marine art, in cinema, in theatre and in classical music. Symbolically, the sea appears as monsters such as Scylla in mythology and represents the unconscious mind in dream interpretation; the sea is the interconnected system of all the Earth's oceanic waters, including the Atlantic, Indian and Arctic Oceans. However, the word "sea" can be used for many specific, much smaller bodies of seawater, such as the North Sea or the Red Sea. There is no sharp distinction between seas and oceans, though seas are smaller, are partly or wholly bordered by land.
However, the Sargasso Sea has no coastline and lies within a circular current, the North Atlantic Gyre. Seas are larger than lakes and contain salt water, but the Sea of Galilee is a freshwater lake; the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea states that all of the ocean is "sea". Earth is the only known planet with seas of liquid water on its surface, although Mars possesses ice caps and similar planets in other solar systems may have oceans, it is still unclear where Earth's water came from, seen from space, our planet appears as a "blue marble" of its various forms: oceans, ice caps, clouds. Earth's 1,335,000,000 cubic kilometers of sea contain about 97.2 percent of its known water and cover more than 70 percent of its surface. Another 2.15% of Earth's water is frozen, found in the sea ice covering the Arctic Ocean, the ice cap covering Antarctica and its adjacent seas, various glaciers and surface deposits around the world. The remainder form underground reservoirs or various stages of the water cycle, containing the freshwater encountered and used by most terrestrial life: vapor in the air, the clouds it forms, the rain falling from them, the lakes and rivers spontaneously formed as its waters flow again and again to the sea.
The sea's dominance of the planet is such that the British author Arthur C. Clarke once noted that "Earth" would have been better named "Ocean"; the scientific study of water and Earth's water cycle is hydrology. The more recent study of the sea in particular is oceanography; this began as the study of the shape of the ocean's currents but has since expanded into a large and multidisciplinary field: it examines the properties of seawater. The subfield dealing with the sea's motion, its forces, the forces acting upon it is known as physical oceanography. Marine biology studies the plants and other organisms inhabiting marine ecosystems. Both are informed by chemical oceanography, which studies the behavior of elements and molecules within the oceans: at the moment, the ocean's role in the carbon cycle and carbon dioxide's role in the increasing acid
Victor Harbor, South Australia
Victor Harbor is a town in the Australian state of South Australia located within the City of Victor Harbor on the south coast of the Fleurieu Peninsula, about 80 kilometres south of the state capital of Adelaide. The town is the largest population centre on the peninsula, with an economy based upon agriculture and various industries, it is a popular tourist destination, with the area's population expanded during the summer holidays by Adelaide locals looking to escape the summer heat. It is a popular destination with South Australian high school graduates for their end of year celebrations, known colloquially as schoolies. Traditionally home of the Ramindjeri clan of the Ngarrindjeri people, the bay on which Victor Harbor sits was discovered by Matthew Flinders in HMS Investigator on 8 April 1802; as part of the first circumnavigation of the continent, Flinders was surveying the unknown southern Australian coast from the west. He encountered Nicolas Baudin in Le Geographe near the Murray Mouth several kilometres to the east of the present day location of Victor Harbor.
Baudin was surveying the coast from the east for Napoleonic France. Although their countries were at war, each captain was given documents by the other nation's government, stating that the ships were on scientific missions, were therefore not to be regarded as ships of war. Together, the ships sheltered, while the captains compared notes. Flinders named the bay Encounter Bay after the meeting. In 1837 Captain Richard Crozier, en route from Sydney to the Swan River Colony in command of the Cruizer-class HMS Victor, anchored just off Granite Island and named the sheltered waters in the lee of the island'Victor Harbor' after his ship. About the same time two whaling stations were established, one at Rosetta Head and the other near the point opposite Granite Island. Whale oil became South Australia’s first export. From 1839 the whaling station was managed for a time by Captain John Hart, a Premier of South Australia; the town of Port Victor was laid out on the shores of Victor Harbor in 1863 when the horse-drawn tramway from Goolwa was extended to the harbour.
The last whale was caught off Port Victor in 1872. The town's name was changed to'Victor Harbor' in 1921, as a result, it is said, of a near shipwreck blamed on confusion with Port Victoria on the Yorke Peninsula. Despite harbour being spelt with a "u" in modern Australian English, the name of the city is spelt Victor Harbor; this spelling, found in several geographical names in South Australia, including Outer Harbor, coincided with the popularity in early Australian English of American spelling, for reasons that remain unclear. Victor Harbour railway station is spelt with the u. At the start of the 20th century, an attempt was made to make Port Victor, as it was called, a main stop of mail-steamers. On 26 December 1936, a one-off motor race meeting was held to the east of the town to commemorate the centenary of South Australia - the "South Australian Centenary Grand Prix"; the circuit was made of public roads, measured 12.6 kilometres in length and featured two long straights, two short straights, several corners, including the banked Nangawooka Hairpin.
Winner of the 240 mile Grand Prix, held as a handicap, was Les Murphy in an MG P-type, from Tim Joshua in another P-type and Bob Lea-Wright in a Terraplane Special. In 2016, the resident population of Victor Harbor was 4,233 but over the summer holiday season the population triples. At the 2016 Australian Census, the urban population for Victor Harbor together with nearby Goolwa was 25,503. Victor Harbor was declared a city in 2000; as a local government area, the City of Victor Harbor includes the surrounding rural area and the contiguous township of Encounter Bay as well as the town of Victor Harbor itself. It shares boundaries with the District Council of the Alexandrina Council; the city is in the federal Division of Mayo. A popular site for visitors is Granite Island, connected to the mainland by a short tram/pedestrian causeway; the tram service is provided by the Victor Harbor Horse Drawn Tram, one of the few horse-drawn tram routes remaining in public transit service. Granite island is home to a large colony of little penguins which are a popular attraction on the island.
These penguins shelter on the island during the night, departing in the morning to hunt for fish before returning at sunset. Sadly this colony of penguins is now gone. At the last count in 2012, only seven were found, it is suspected that an increase in New Zealand fur seals in the area may be to blame, however incidents such as those in 1998 where locals kicked several of them to death have contributed. The SteamRanger Heritage Railway runs train services, most notably The Cockle Train between Victor Harbor and Goolwa, along the Victor Harbor railway line. During the months of June to September, whale spotting is a popular attraction. Southern right whales come to the nearby waters to mate; the South Australian Whale Centre located at Victor Harbor provides hands-on interactive activities and presentations as well as information and whale watching tips. Greenhills Adventure Park offered activities including: waterslides, rock wall climbing, mini golf, go-karting, however this attraction has since closed down.
Victor Harbor is the centre of the surf zone known as the "South Coast" to Adelaide and local surfers. Popular surf beaches in the area include Parsons, Waitpinga and Goolwa; the Granite Island breakwater shields the town from waves. Victor Harbor offers numerous fishing opportuniti
Captain Matthew Flinders was an English navigator and cartographer who led the first circumnavigation of Australia and identified it as a continent. Flinders made three voyages to the southern ocean between 1791 and 1810. In the second voyage, George Bass and Flinders confirmed. In the third voyage, Flinders circumnavigated the mainland of what was to be called Australia, accompanied by Aboriginal man Bungaree. Heading back to England in 1803, Flinders' vessel needed urgent repairs at Isle de France. Although Britain and France were at war, Flinders thought the scientific nature of his work would ensure safe passage, but a suspicious governor kept him under arrest for more than six years. In captivity, he recorded details of his voyages for future publication, put forward his rationale for naming the new continent'Australia', as an umbrella term for New Holland and New South Wales – a suggestion taken up by Governor Macquarie. Flinders' health had suffered and although he reached home in 1810, he did not live to see the success of his praised book and atlas, A Voyage to Terra Australis.
The location of his grave was lost by the mid-19th century but archaeologists excavating a former burial ground near London's Euston railway station for the High Speed 2 project, announced in January 2019 that his remains had been identified. Matthew Flinders was born in Donington, England, the son of Matthew Flinders, a surgeon, his wife Susannah, née Ward, he was educated at Cowley's Charity School, from 1780 and at the Reverend John Shinglar's Grammar School at Horbling in Lincolnshire. In his own words, he was "induced to go to sea against the wishes of my friends from reading Robinson Crusoe", in 1790, at the age of fifteen, he joined the Royal Navy. Serving on HMS Alert, he transferred to HMS Scipio, in July 1790 was made midshipman on HMS Bellerophon under Captain Pasley. By Pasley's recommendation, he joined Captain Bligh's expedition on HMS Providence, transporting breadfruit from Tahiti to Jamaica; this was Bligh's second "Breadfruit Voyage" following on from the ill-fated voyage of the Bounty.
Flinders' first voyage to New South Wales, first trip to Port Jackson, was in 1795 as a midshipman aboard HMS Reliance, carrying the newly appointed governor of New South Wales Captain John Hunter. On this voyage he established himself as a fine navigator and cartographer, became friends with the ship's surgeon George Bass, three years his senior and had been born 11 miles from Donington. Not long after their arrival in Port Jackson and Flinders made two expeditions in two small open boats, named Tom Thumb and Tom Thumb II respectively: the first to Botany Bay and Georges River, the second, in the larger Tom Thumb II, south from Port Jackson to Lake Illawarra, during which expedition they had to seek shelter at Wattamolla. In 1798, Matthew Flinders, now a lieutenant, was given command of the sloop Norfolk with orders "to sail beyond Furneaux's Islands, should a strait be found, pass through it, return by the south end of Van Diemen's Land"; the passage between the Australian mainland and Tasmania enabled savings of several days on the journey from England, was named Bass Strait, after his close friend.
In honour of this discovery, the largest island in Bass Strait would be named Flinders Island. The town of Flinders near the mouth of Western Port commemorates Bass' discovery of that bay and port on 4 January 1798. Flinders never entered Western Port, passed Cape Schanck only on 3 May 1802. Flinders once more sailed Norfolk, this time north on 17 July 1799, he touched down at Pumicestone Passage and Coochiemudlo Island and rowed ashore at Clontarf. During this visit he named Redcliffe after the Red Cliffs. In March 1800, Flinders set sail for England. Flinders' work had come to the attention of many of the scientists of the day, in particular the influential Sir Joseph Banks, to whom Flinders dedicated his Observations on the Coasts of Van Diemen's Land, on Bass's Strait, etc.. Banks used his influence with Earl Spencer to convince the Admiralty of the importance of an expedition to chart the coastline of New Holland; as a result, in January 1801, Flinders was given command of HMS Investigator, a 334-ton sloop, promoted to commander the following month.
Investigator set sail for New Holland on 18 July 1801. Attached to the expedition were the botanist Robert Brown, botanical artist Ferdinand Bauer, landscape artist William Westall, gardener Peter Good, geological assistant John Allen, John Crosley as astronomer. Vallance et al. comment that compared to the Baudin expedition this was a'modest contingent of scientific gentlemen', which reflects'British parsimony' in scientific endeavour. On 17 April 1801, Flinders married his longtime friend Ann Chappelle and had hoped to bring her with him to Port Jackson; however the Admiralty had strict rules against wives accompanying captains. Flinders brought Ann on board ship and planned to ignore the rules, but the Admiralty learned of his plans and he was chastised for his bad judgement and told he must remove her from the ship; this is well documented in correspondence between Flinders and his chief benefactor, Sir Joseph Banks, in May 1801: I have but time to tell you that the news of your marriage, published in the Lincoln paper, has reached me.
The Lords of the Admiralty have heard that Mrs. Flinders is on board the Investigator, that you have some thought of carrying her to sea with you; this I was sorry to hear, if, the case I beg to give you my
Granite Island (South Australia)
Granite Island known by the Ramindjeri people as Nulcoowarra, is a small island next to Victor Harbor, South Australia, about 80 km south of South Australia's capital city, Adelaide. A shore-based bay whaling station operated at Granite Island in the 1830s. Although there are no permanent residents, there are buildings and shelters on the island, including a cafe, it is a popular tourist attraction for people wishing to see little penguins which live there. The island supported resident wallabies in the 1980s which captivated visiting tourists; the island is accessible across a causeway from the mainland, either on foot or by catching an antique horse-drawn tram. As of 2015, the private company Oceanic Victor intends to use the island as a departure point to ferry tourists to a new tourist attraction in adjacent waters. Tourists will be able to enter an aquaculture seacage where they will be able to swim with and hand feed southern bluefin tuna, observe other South Australian marine species. In 1987 a joint State and local government committee was formed "to consider improvements to Granite Island."
The Committee recommended that the island's tourism potential be maximised, while protecting its environment. The Committee specifically recommended the "protection of the fairy penguin population." In 1989, the island's rat and rabbit populations were subjected to culling, with poison used to reduce rat numbers. Rats are known to raid the nests of little penguins; the island's wallaby population was reduced, with animals relocated as far afield as Cummins on Eyre Peninsula. In 1990, the wider Encounter Bay little penguin population was estimated to be between 5000 and 7000 penguins. At this time, the colony's breeding season was considered to span July through January, followed by molting season January through March. In July 1991, the National Parks & Wildlife Service estimated the Encounter Bay area population of little penguins to total 7,000 birds. A general population count conducted in early December 1991 found 571 penguins on Granite Island. Penguins were counted on West Island and Wright Island, the total number of penguins in the Encounter Bay area was in excess of 2600.
In 1992, the island's population was believed to be stable and was estimated to total between 1000 and 1500 little penguins. Nocturnal tours of the penguin colony commenced that year as a joint initiative of the National Parks and Wildlife Service and the Victor Harbor Council. Anne Boulter, a local resident who made regular private counts along a limited section of the island, believed the colony to be stable in 1994; that year, a fox killed 75 penguins on Granite Island in three days and was killed. Her records of the population which commenced in 1989, showed that the penguins were moulting each year and most of the penguins were only breeding once a year. In 1995, another fox crossed the Causeway from the mainland and killed 17 penguins on Granite Island. At that time the population was estimated at 1500 animals, was being surveyed by the Greater Granite Island Development Company, establishing new burrows to support the population; the company commenced the development of a Penguin Interpretive Centre on the island in 1995 and was expected to be completed in 1996.
Concerns were raised by Victor Harbor residents that construction of new infrastructure on Granite Island could disturb or harm the penguin colony, including the transportation of heavy construction equipment to the island after dark. Students of the Victor Harbor High School were among those who expressed concern about the extent and the impact of the proposed tourism development on the penguin colony. In January 1995 a single Fjordland penguin came ashore on Granite Island, it was relocated by Parks and Wildlife staff to West Island so that the animal could moult away from human disturbance. Granite Island's little penguin colony has declined since the 1990s. In 2001, the population count was 1,548 penguins. A count conducted in October 2013 totalled 38 penguins. In 2013 the decline prompted the mayor of Victor Harbor, Graham Philp, to commence a fundraising drive to gather funds for research into the genetics of the population and the causes of the decline. Speculation abounds regarding the cause of the decline, with possible factors including New Zealand fur seal predation and overfishing.
Flinders University intends to establish a centre at which animals can be captively studied and released back to the wild. Dramatic declines have been noted nearby at West Island and at colonies across Backstairs Passage on Kangaroo Island, including monitored populations at Penneshaw and Kingscote; the nearest little penguin colony to Granite Island is on Wright Island which lies between it and The Bluff. As of June 2011, its status is unknown. In January 2016, the Granite Island Penguin Centre closed; the centre had cared for numerous injured penguins and nursed them back to health over the course of its sixteen years of operation. The centre was accessible to tourists who were able to view the captive birds in an artificial enclosure; the centre closed due to the retirement of Dorothy Longden. Nightly tours are expected to continue to run from the information centre on the mainland. In early 2015, a proposal to locate a tourism venture offshore from Granite Island was made by Oceanic Victor to the Government of South Australia.
It received the final necessary approval from the Development Assessment Commission in December 2015. The attraction will involve a floating seacage aquaculture pen, containing up to five tonnes of southern bluefin tuna, which paying customers will be able to
Coorong National Park
The Coorong National Park is a protected area located in South Australia about 156 kilometres southeast of Adelaide and that predominantly covers a lagoon ecosystem known as the Coorong and the Younghusband Peninsula on the Coorong's southern side. Its name is thought to be a corruption of the local Aboriginal people's word kurangh, meaning "long neck"; the name is thought to be from the Aboriginal word Coorang, "sand dune", a reference to the sand dunes that form the Younghusband Peninsula. The western end of the Coorong lagoon is at the Murray Mouth near Hindmarsh Island and the Sir Richard Peninsula, it extends about 130 kilometres southeast; the national park area includes the Coorong itself, Younghusband Peninsula which separates the Coorong from Encounter Bay in the Southern Ocean. The Coorong has been cut off from Lake Alexandrina by the construction of the Goolwa Barrages from Goolwa to Pelican Point during the late 1930s; the national park was formed in 1967 as a sanctuary for many species of birds and fish.
It attracts many migratory species. It provides refuge for these animals during some of Australia's regular droughts; the 467 square kilometres supports coastal dune systems and coastal vegetation. One of the unique aspects of the Coorong is the interaction of water along its length, with sea water and Murray River water meeting rainfall and groundwater; the freshwater supports the fauna of the area while the sea water is the habitat for much of the birdlife. The waters of the Coorong are a popular venue for commercial fishers; the popular'Coorong Mullet' and'school mulloway' are the main species. The region was the setting of the popular 1977 film Storm Boy; the Coorong National Park was proclaimed on 9 November 1967 under the National Parks Act 1966 in respect to land in sections 17 and 60 in the cadastral unit of the Hundred of Glyde and section 6 in the Hundred of Santo. At the commencement of the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 on 27 April 1972, the national park consisted of land in sections 17, 59 and 60 in the cadastral unit of the Hundred of Glyde and sections 6, 43 and 52 in the Hundred of Santo.
The Coorong Game Reserve, purchased by the Government of South Australia in 1968 was abolished on 14 January 1993 and its lands was added to the national park. The game reserve occupied part of the Coorong lagoon to the immediate west of Salt Creek and had an area of 68.4 square kilometres as of May 1982. The wetlands within the part of the national park containing the Coorong Lagoon form a complex of freshwater and hypersaline waterbodies with an unique diversity of habitats for plants and animals; the coastal lagoons are considered critically endangered due to the loss of freshwater flows, local extinction of characteristic submerged plants and subsequent loss of habitat diversity. The Coorong National Park has been recognised by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area, it has supported the chestnut teal, Australian shelduck, sharp-tailed sandpiper, red-necked stint, banded stilt, red-necked avocet, pied oystercatcher and red-capped plover. Australasian bitterns have been recorded.
It has supported significant numbers of orange-bellied parrots, fairy terns and hooded plovers, although their usage of the site has declined from reduced freshwater inflows. In February 2013, a lifeboat from MS Oliva, that foundered in the south Atlantic, washed up on a beach in the Coorong. Images of Oliva with the lifeboat rails empty can be seen at the Tristan da Cunha website of the grounding and recovery. Protected areas of South Australia List of islands within the Murray River in South Australia Andrew Grimwade Coorong National Park official webpage Page on protected planet website Media related to Coorong National Park at Wikimedia Commons
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the enabling laws of each country or the regulations of the international organizations involved; the term "protected area" includes Marine Protected Areas, the boundaries of which will include some area of ocean, Transboundary Protected Areas that overlap multiple countries which remove the borders inside the area for conservation and economic purposes. There are over 161,000 protected areas in the world with more added daily, representing between 10 and 15 percent of the world's land surface area. By contrast, only 1.17% of the world's oceans is included in the world's ~6,800 Marine Protected Areas. Protected areas are essential for biodiversity conservation providing habitat and protection from hunting for threatened and endangered species. Protection helps maintain ecological processes that cannot survive in most intensely managed landscapes and seascapes.
Protected areas are understood to be those in which human occupation or at least the exploitation of resources is limited. The definition, accepted across regional and global frameworks has been provided by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in its categorisation guidelines for protected areas; the definition is as follows: A defined geographical space, recognized and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values. The objective of protected areas is to conserve biodiversity and to provide a way for measuring the progress of such conservation. Protected areas will encompass several other zones that have been deemed important for particular conservation uses, such as Important Bird Areas and Endemic Bird Areas, Centres of Plant Diversity and Community Conserved Areas, Alliance for Zero Extinction Sites and Key Biodiversity Areas among others. A protected area or an entire network of protected areas may lie within a larger geographic zone, recognised as a terrestrial or marine ecoregions, or a crisis ecoregions for example.
As a result, Protected Areas can encompass a broad range of governance types. Indeed, governance of protected areas has emerged a critical factor in their success. Subsequently, the range of natural resources that any one protected area may guard is vast. Many will be allocated for species conservation whether it be flora or fauna or the relationship between them, but protected areas are important for conserving sites of cultural importance and considerable reserves of natural resources such as. Of all global terrestrial carbon stock, 15.2% is contained within protected areas. Protected areas in South America hold 27% of the world's carbon stock, the highest percentage of any country in both absolute terms and as a proportion of the total stock. Rainforests: 18.8% of the world's forest is covered by protected areas and sixteen of the twenty forest types have 10% or more protected area coverage. Of the 670 ecoregions with forest cover, 54% have 10% or more of their forest cover protected under IUCN Categories I – VI.
Mountains: Nationally designated protected areas cover 14.3% of the world's mountain areas, these mountainous protected areas made up 32.5% of the world's total terrestrial protected area coverage in 2009. Mountain protected area coverage has increased globally by 21% since 1990 and out of the 198 countries with mountain areas, 43.9% still have less than 10% of their mountain areas protected. Annual updates on each of these analyses are made in order to make comparisons to the Millennium Development Goals and several other fields of analysis are expected to be introduced in the monitoring of protected areas management effectiveness, such as freshwater and marine or coastal studies which are underway, islands and drylands which are in planning. Through its World Commission on Protected Areas, the IUCN has developed six Protected Area Management Categories that define protected areas according to their management objectives, which are internationally recognised by various national governments and the United Nations.
The categories provide international standards for defining protected areas and encourage conservation planning according to their management aims. IUCN Protected Area Management Categories: Category Ia — Strict Nature Reserve Category Ib — Wilderness Area Category II — National Park Category III — Natural Monument or Feature Category IV — Habitat/Species Management Area Category V — Protected Landscape/Seascape Category VI – Protected Area with sustainable use of natural resources Protected areas are cultural artifacts, their story is entwined with that of human civilization. Protecting places and resources is by no means a modern concept, whether it be indigenous communities guarding sacred sites or the convention of European hunting reserves. Over 2000 years ago, royal decrees in India protected certain areas. In Europe and powerful people protected hunting grounds for a thousand years. Moreover, the idea of protection of special places is universal: for example, it occurs among the communities in the Pacific and in parts of Africa.
The oldest le