SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Encyclopédie

Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with supplements, revised editions, translations. It had many writers, known as the Encyclopédistes, it was edited by Denis Diderot and, until 1759, co-edited by Jean le Rond d'Alembert. The Encyclopédie is most famous for representing the thought of the Enlightenment. According to Denis Diderot in the article "Encyclopédie", the Encyclopédie's aim was "to change the way people think" and for people to be able to inform themselves and to know things, he and the other contributors advocated for the secularization of learning away from the Jesuits. Diderot wanted to incorporate all of the world's knowledge into the Encyclopédie and hoped that the text could disseminate all this information to the public and future generations, it was the first encyclopedia to include contributions from many named contributors, it was the first general encyclopedia to describe the mechanical arts.

In the first publication, seventeen folio volumes were accompanied by detailed engravings. Volumes were published without the engravings, in order to better reach a wide audience within Europe; the Encyclopédie was conceived as a French translation of Ephraim Chambers's Cyclopaedia. Ephraim Chambers had first published his Cyclopaedia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences in two volumes in London in 1728, following several dictionaries of arts and sciences that had emerged in Europe since the late 17th century; this work became quite renowned, four editions were published between 1738 and 1742. An Italian translation appeared between 1747 and 1754. In France a member of the banking family Lambert had started translating Chambers into French, but in 1745 the expatriate Englishman John Mills and German Gottfried Sellius were the first to prepare a French edition of Ephraim Chambers's Cyclopaedia for publication, which they entitled Encyclopédie. Early in 1745 a prospectus for the Encyclopédie was published to attract subscribers to the project.

This four page prospectus was illustrated by Jean-Michel Papillon, accompanied by a plan, stating that the work would be published in five volumes from June 1746 until the end of 1748. The text was translated by Mills and Sellius, it was corrected by an unnamed person, who appears to have been Denis Diderot; the prospectus was cited at some length in several journals. The Mémoires pour l'histoire des sciences et des beaux arts journal was lavish in its praise: "voici deux des plus fortes entreprises de Littérature qu'on ait faites depuis long-temps"; the Mercure Journal in June 1745, printed a 25-page article that praised Mill's role as translator. The Journal reported that Mills had discussed the work with several academics, was zealous about the project, had devoted his fortune to support this enterprise, was the sole owner of the publishing privilege. However, the cooperation fell apart on in 1745. André Le Breton, the publisher commissioned to manage the physical production and sales of the volumes, cheated Mills out of the subscription money, claiming for example that Mills's knowledge of French was inadequate.

In a confrontation Le Breton physically assaulted Mills. Mills took Le Breton to court. Mills returned to England soon after the court's ruling. For his new editor, Le Breton settled on the mathematician Jean Paul de Gua de Malves. Among those hired by Malves were the young Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, Jean le Rond d'Alembert, Denis Diderot. Within thirteen months, in August 1747, Gua de Malves was fired for being an ineffective leader. Le Breton hired Diderot and d'Alembert to be the new editors. Diderot would remain as editor for the next twenty-five years, seeing the Encyclopédie through to its completion; as d'Alembert worked on the Encyclopédie, its title expanded. As of 1750, the full title was Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, par une société de gens de lettres, mis en ordre par M. Diderot de l'Académie des Sciences et Belles-Lettres de Prusse, et quant à la partie mathématique, par M. d'Alembert de l'Académie royale des Sciences de Paris, de celle de Prusse et de la Société royale de Londres.

The title page was amended. The work consisted with 71,818 articles and 3,129 illustrations; the first seventeen volumes were published between 1751 and 1765. Engraver Robert Bénard provided at least 1,800 plates for the work; because of its occasional radical contents, the Encyclopédie caused much controversy in conservative circles, on the initiative of the Parlement of Paris, the French government suspended the encyclopedia's privilège in 1759. Despite the suspension, work continued "in secret," because the project had placed supporters, such as Malesherbes and Madame de Pompadour; the authorities deliberately ignored the continued

STEREO experiment

The STEREO experiment investigates the possible oscillation of neutrinos from a nuclear reactor into light so-called sterile neutrinos. It is located at the Institut Laue -- Langevin in France; the experiment started operating and taking data in November 2016. The STEREO detector is placed at a distance of 10 m away from the research reactor at the ILL; the research reactor has a thermal power of 58 MW. STEREO is supposed to measure the neutrino spectrum near the reactor. To be able to detect the neutrinos radiated from the reactor, the detector is filled up with 1800 litres of organic liquid scintillator, doped with gadolinium. Inside the scintillator neutrinos are captured via the process of inverse beta decay ν ¯ e + p → n + e + In this process a positron is produced; when the positron moves through the scintillator a light signal is produced, detected by the 48 photomultiplier tubes placed at the top of the detector cells. The capturing of the neutron, produced during the inverse beta decay produces a second coincidence signal.

The expected distance between the oscillation maximum and minimum of light sterile neutrinos is about 2 m. To see the oscillation the detector is divided into 6 separate detector cells, which each measure the energy spectrum of the detected neutrinos. By comparing the measured spectra a possible oscillation could be discovered; the STEREO experiment detects ∼ 400 neutrinos per day. Neutrinos only interact weakly. Therefore, neutrino detectors such as STEREO need to be sensitive and need a good shielding from additional background signals to be able to detect neutrinos precisely. To achieve this high sensitivity the 6 inner detector cells are surrounded by a liquid scintillator which acts as a "Gamma-Catcher" detecting in- and outgoing gamma radiation; this increases the detection efficiency as well as the energy resolution of the detector. A cherenkov detector filled with water is placed on top of the detector to detect cosmic muons which are produced in the atmosphere and would otherwise act as a large background source.

To shield the detector from radioactive sources coming from surrounding experiments it is surrounded and shielded by many layers of lead and polyethylene but iron, steel and B 4 C. Although neutrino oscillation is a phenomenon, quite well understood today, there are still some experimental observations that question the completeness of our understanding; the most prominent of these observations is the so-called reactor-antineutrino-anomaly. A number of short baseline reactor-neutrino experiments have measured a lower anti-electron-neutrino flux compared to the theoretical predictions. Further experimental anomalies are the unexpected appearance of ν ¯ e in a short-baseline ν ¯ μ -beam as well as the disappearance of ν e at short distances during the calibration phase of the GALLEX and SAGE experiments known as the gallium neutrino anomaly; these anomalies could signify that our understanding of neutrino oscillations is not yet complete and that neutrinos oscillate into another 4th neutrino species.

However measurements of the decay width of the Z-Boson at the Large Electron–Positron Collider exclude the existence of a light 4th "active" neutrino. Hence the oscillation into additional light "sterile" neutrinos is considered as a possible explanation of the observed anomalies. In addition sterile neutrinos appear in many prominent extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics like e.g. in the seesaw type 1 mechanism. Initial results were released in 2018 exploiting a dataset of 66 days of reactor turned on. Most of the parameter space that could account for the RAA was excluded at a 90% confidence level. Updated results in December 2019 are based on ∼ 65500 detected neutrinos. Using the current data the region of exclusion is further extended. Website of the STEREO experiment

Indian Public Health Association

Indian Public Health Association shortly IPHA is a professional health organization working for the cause of Public Health in India since 1956. It is registered under Societies Registration Act XXI of 1860; the mission is to protect and promote the health of the people of India by facilitating the exchange of information and research, advocating for policies and practices that improve public health. The Idea of establishing an association of Public Health was first mooted out at the All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Calcutta, in 1935; the permission of Government was necessary to create such an association. Most of the health staff was working under government or municipalities. Hence permission was denied until the Indian Independence. After 1948, Dr. Ganguly and Dr. S. C. Seal revived the movement; the Association was inaugurated on 29 September 1956 by Smt. Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, the Union Health Minister, Government of India; the Public Health personalities responsible for the success of the association were Dr. B. C.

Roy, Chief Minister of West Bengal, Lt. Col. C. K. Lakshmanan, Director of All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Dr. K. C. K. E. Raja, Director General of Health Services, Government of India, Dr. B. C. Dasgupta, Director of Health Services, West Bengal and Dr. T. Lakshminarayanan of Madras; the association now has a strength of nearly 4,000 members. The body has 22 branches in India. In Chandigarh, IPHA has celebrated World's AIDS day 2014 in Tagore Theatre, where they have invited Snehil Sharma's dance group Adi Shakti Nrityashala and other theater groups for the cultural show; the association holds a National Conference for its members every year since 1956 in different regions of the country. The 43rd Annual Conference was held in 1999 with the theme "Environment and Health: Challenges for the Twenty-first Century." The 51st Annual Conference was held in 2007 at Calcutta. The 52nd Annual Conference was held in 2008 at New Delhi; the 54th Annual Conference was held in 2010 at Visakhapatnam.

Indian Journal of Public Health is their Official Publication. The Association started the Journal from the day of its birth in September 1956. Original articles, results of investigation and research, special articles, short communications, National Health Program reports, Reviews and News of the association are published in the journal. An annual prize in the memory of Late Dr. R. N. Roy, is given to the authors for the best article of the year; the journal is circulated to more than 4,500 members and 250 subscribers throughout the country and abroad. Official site of IPHA. Indian Heart Association