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Encyclopaedia Metallum

Encyclopaedia Metallum: The Metal Archives is a website which lists bands of predominantly heavy metal music. Encyclopaedia Metallum was described by Matt Sullivan of Nashville Scene as "the Internet's central database for all that is'tr00' in the metal world." Terrorizer described the site as "a fully-exhaustive list of pretty much every metal band with full discographies, an active forum and an interlinking members list that shows the ever-incestuous beauty of the metal scene". There are exceptions for bands which fall under disputed genres not accepted by the website. Encyclopaedia Metallum attempts to provide comprehensive information on each band, such as a discography, pictures, line-ups, biography and user-submitted reviews; the site provides a system for submitting bands to the archives. The website is free of advertisements and is run independently; the Encyclopaedia Metallum was launched on July 17, 2002 by a Canadian couple from Montreal using the pseudonyms HellBlazer and Morrigan.

A couple years prior, HellBlazer had the idea of an encyclopedia for heavy metal and attempted to create an HTML page for every metal band by hand. Although he gave up with that initial attempt, a automated site with contributions from its users was in the works; the site went live early in July 2002 and the first band was added on July 7. In just over a year the site had amassed a database of over 10,000 bands; the site continues to grow at a rate of about 500 bands per month. On 1 January 2013, the site announced that bands with digital discographies could now be submitted to the Archives, changing the site's decade-long policy of physical releases only. Digital releases must have a fixed track listing, album art, professional or finished production and be available in a high-quality or lossless format through official distribution sources. On 13 November 2014, the number of bands listed in the database reached 100,000; the site has a tradition of April Fool's Day pranks. This started in 2009 with the addition of Korn into the Metal-Archives and several dozen user reviews praising their first self-titled album, with the news article of the day claiming that the first album was metal enough for the site.

A series of staged arguments between moderators appeared throughout the day on the site's forum. 2010 was the year. In 2012 the site posted an FBI logo on the main page, suggesting that the site was suspended by the FBI as a result from the SOPA and PIPA bill, a much-talked about phenomenon in the media around this time. Despite the ability to bypass this image just by clicking on it, many people took the prank and thought that Metal Archives had been shut down for promoting internet piracy. Nickelback was added to the Metal-Archives in 2013 in a prank, similar to the 2009 Korn prank, as it had user submitted joke reviews praising various Nickelback albums. In 2014, the prank consisted on the addition of several reviews of an EP called Penis Metal released by Chilean black metal band Hades Archer, followed by the addition of the band's logo and pictures which included penis on them; the band's style was changed to Penis Metal. A secondary prank involved the spontaneous deletion of controversial band Meshuggah, leading to another series of arguments between moderators on the site's forum, although not to the extent of the 2009 prank.

Meshuggah were reinstated the following day. For the 2015 prank a hoax news story was posted "announcing" that the site was no longer free to use and the site was introducing paid membership features. A following news post revealed. In 2016, following an argument between moderators and users alike on the question of moderating reviews, an announcement was made that reviews were no longer being accepted and that all existing ones would be deleted; the same day another announcement was made that the staff had changed their minds by bringing back the reviews as well as having every future review accepted automatically. This resulted in a wave of joke reviews. In 2017, the staff members announced that they would now produce articles commentating on the metal scene, proceeded to post tabloid and gossip articles on the site; these were taken down the next day. In 2018, the website announced that it was no longer accepting new band submissions, arguing, "We have over 120,000 bands, more than we thought possible.

That is more than enough to declare our database 100% complete. Safe to say, no other resource comes close to being as thorough and comprehensive." The "last" band to be added on the site was Michael Schenker Fest. That day, the website revealed that this was an April Fool's prank, wrote, "Band submissions are open again. Here's to another 120,000 bands and more!." In 2019, the website announced it was deleting most pages and would only list bands deemed "good" by the staff. Traditional heavy metal genres and era have stringent rulings; this is because in the past, some submissions labeled with those genres have turned out not to be metal, according to the site's guideli

HNLMS Tromp (1937)

HNLMS Tromp was the lead ship of the Tromp-class destroyer leaders built for the Royal Netherlands Navy. Built just prior to World War II, the ship served in the Pacific and Indian Oceans against the Japanese, being based out of Sydney and Trincomalee where she served alongside British, Australian and US warships. After the war, the she returned to the Netherlands and after 1949 Tromp was used as a training and accommodation ship, before being decommissioned in 1955, scrapped in 1969. Designated as a flotilla leader in the Deckers Fleet Plan of 1931, Tromp was ordered in 1935 and laid down at the Nederlandsche Scheepsbouw Maatschappij, in Amsterdam, on 17 January 1936, she was launched on 24 May 1937 and commissioned into the Royal Netherlands Navy on 18 August 1938. She was named after Admirals Maarten Cornelis Tromp. Tromp was 132 m long, had a beam of 12.4 m and a draught of 4.8 m. She displaced 3,450 tons at standard load with 860 tons of bunkerage. Powered by two Parsons geared steam turbines, with four Yarrow boilers that drove two shafts and produced 56,000 shp, she was capable of achieving a maximum speed of 32.5 knots.

Upon construction, the ship's complement was 295, although this increased to 380. Her armament consisted of six 149 mm guns twin-mounted in three turrets, as well as two twin-mounted 40 mm Bofors guns; as built, she had two twin-mounted.50 calibre machine guns, although these were replaced with two single-mounted 20 mm Oerlikons. In addition, for anti-aircraft defence, she was fitted out with an extra six 20 mm Oerlikon machine guns, four US-made 75 mm guns and four more 40 mm Bofors, she carried six 533 mm torpedo tubes in two banks of three, was equipped with a Fokker C. XIW floatplane, her anti-submarine features included ASDIC, a hydrophone, four depth-charge throwers. Her deck armour was 1.5 -- 2.5 in. Upon her commissioning, Tromp was arguably the most powerful ship in the Dutch navy. Following her commissioning, Tromp carried out working up manouevres until early January 1939 when she departed Rotterdam, bound for the Mediterranean. Transiting via Lisbon, in Portugal, on 15 January, she was damaged when she accidentally collided with the German passenger ship Orinoco.

She returned to the Netherlands in April to take part in the fleet review at Scheveningen, before participating in a cruise to Norway, where she stopped over at Oslo. In July 1939, Commander J. W. Termijtelen took over command of the ship from Captain L. A. C. M. Doorman and under Termijtelen's command the ship sailed for the Netherlands East Indies in August 1939, arriving just after the outbreak of World War II in Europe. In mid-September 1939, the ship searched several German merchantmen in Padang, before proceeding to Surabaya for a refit. Throughout 1940, the ship undertook patrol and escort duties as part of the Netherlands East Indies Squadron before escorting ships of the Java–New York Line in a convoy to the Gilbert Islands in early 1941. A new captain, Commander J. B. de Meester, arrived in July. In the final months of 1941, tensions in the region began to heighten amidst concerns about war with Japan and in November 1941 Tromp was involved in searches of Vichy French merchant vessels operating in the area.

In late November and early December 1941, Tromp moved to the western Java Sea to help search for HMAS Sydney, missing after encountering the German raider Kormoran. Following the outbreak of fighting against the Japanese in the Pacific, she was assigned to the Combined Striking Force, ABDA Command, in January 1942 for the defence of the East Indies. Tromp was badly damaged off Bali on 18 February 1942 during the Battle of Badung Strait, when she was hit by eleven 5-inch shells from the Japanese destroyer Asashio, her return fire hit two Japanese destroyers, killing seven on Ōshio. The ship was sent to Australia for repairs in February 1942, sailing firstly to Fremantle and on to Sydney. Repairs were completed by May 1942; these were interrupted by anti-submarine patrols off Newcastle in the middle of the month after the Soviet steamer Wellen was attacked, but these patrols proved uneventful. On 18 May 1942, in company with HMAS Arunta, Tromp escorted convoy "ZK.8" out of Sydney composed of the Dutch ships Bantam, Van Heemskerk and Van Heutsz bound for Port Moresby with 4,735 troops of the Australian 14th Brigade.

Afterwards, Tromp escorted several more north-bound convoys before completing its sea trials in early June. The following month she departed Sydney bound for Fremantle, she remained in Fremantle until October 1942. Upon completion, she undertook a visit to New Zealand before returning to Fremantle at the end of the year in concert with a British troopship, Nestor. In February 1943, while based out of Fremantle, Tromp was assigned to the US Seventh Fleet, tasked with conducting convoy escort around Australia and in the Indian Ocean. Throughout the year, Tromp undertook further convoy escorts until October when Commander F. Stam arrived to take over command. In January 1944, Tromp was assigned to the British Eastern Fleet based in Ceylon. A short time she was transferred to the fleet base at Trincomalee; the ship participated in raids on Sabang in April and Surabaya in May 1944, undertaking escort duty in between. She transferred to Sydney for a refit in September 1944, remaining there until February 1945, when Tromp returned to Trincomalee to undertake further escort duty.

In the final months o

Roberto Rivas (footballer)

Roberto Rivas was a football player from El Salvador who played as a defender. Nicknamed La Burra, Rivas was a one-club man and has only played for Alianza during the 1960s and won two league titles in 1965 and 1966 when he played alongside fellow club legends like José Quintanilla, Mario Monge and Francisco Zamora. Rivas has represented his country in 10 FIFA World Cup qualification matches and played at the 1968 Olympic Games and at the 1970 FIFA World Cup in Mexico. Rivas died in an accident or suicide in 1972. By June 2010, Rivas was one of six 1968 Olympic footballers of El Salvador who had died. Alianza retired the number 2 shirt in honour of Rivas. En la decada de los 70's El Alianza tubo 4 futbolistas grandes 2 defenzas un medio campista y un delantero pero desafortunadamente Fallecieron uno se mato el solo otro fue acribillado el otro accidente de transito y el otro Ahogado