Endocrinology is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, its specific secretions known as hormones. It is concerned with the integration of developmental events proliferation and differentiation, the psychological or behavioral activities of metabolism and development, tissue function, digestion, excretion, stress, movement and sensory perception caused by hormones. Specializations include comparative endocrinology; the endocrine system consists of several glands, all in different parts of the body, that secrete hormones directly into the blood rather than into a duct system. Therefore, endocrine glands are regarded as ductless glands. Hormones have many different modes of action. Endocrinology is the study of the endocrine system in the human body; this is a system of glands. Hormones are chemicals. Examples include thyroid hormone, growth hormone, insulin; the endocrine system involves a number of feedback mechanisms, so that one hormone will control the action or release of another secondary hormone.

If there is too much of the secondary hormone, it may provide negative feedback to the primary hormone, maintaining homeostasis. In the original 1902 definition by Bayliss and Starling, they specified that, to be classified as a hormone, a chemical must be produced by an organ, be released into the blood, be transported by the blood to a distant organ to exert its specific function; this definition holds for most "classical" hormones, but there are paracrine mechanisms, autocrine signals, intracrine signals. A neuroendocrine signal is a "classical" hormone, released into the blood by a neurosecretory neuron. Griffin and Ojeda identify three different classes of hormones based on their chemical composition: Amines, such as norepinephrine and dopamine, are derived from single amino acids, in this case tyrosine. Thyroid hormones such as 3,5,3’-triiodothyronine and 3,5,3’,5’-tetraiodothyronine make up a subset of this class because they derive from the combination of two iodinated tyrosine amino acid residues.

Peptide hormones and protein hormones consist of three to more than 200 amino acid residues and can have a molecular mass as large as 31,000 grams per mole. All hormones secreted by the pituitary gland are peptide hormones, as are leptin from adipocytes, ghrelin from the stomach, insulin from the pancreas. Steroid hormones are converted from cholesterol. Mammalian steroid hormones can be grouped into five groups by the receptors to which they bind: glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, androgens and progestogens; some forms of vitamin D, such as calcitriol, are steroid-like and bind to homologous receptors, but lack the characteristic fused ring structure of true steroids. Although every organ system secretes and responds to hormones, the clinical specialty of endocrinology focuses on the endocrine organs, meaning the organs whose primary function is hormone secretion; these organs include the pituitary, adrenals, ovaries and pancreas. An endocrinologist is a physician who specializes in treating disorders of the endocrine system, such as diabetes and many others.

The medical specialty of endocrinology involves the diagnostic evaluation of a wide variety of symptoms and variations and the long-term management of disorders of deficiency or excess of one or more hormones. The diagnosis and treatment of endocrine diseases are guided by laboratory tests to a greater extent than for most specialties. Many diseases are investigated through inhibition/suppression testing; this might involve injection with a stimulating agent to test the function of an endocrine organ. Blood is sampled to assess the changes of the relevant hormones or metabolites. An endocrinologist needs extensive knowledge of clinical chemistry and biochemistry to understand the uses and limitations of the investigations. A second important aspect of the practice of endocrinology is distinguishing human variation from disease. Atypical patterns of physical development and abnormal test results must be assessed as indicative of disease or not. Diagnostic imaging of endocrine organs may reveal incidental findings called incidentalomas, which may or may not represent disease.

Endocrinology involves caring for the person as well as the disease. Most endocrine disorders are chronic diseases; some of the most common endocrine diseases include diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome. Care of diabetes and other chronic diseases necessitates understanding the patient at the personal and social level as well as the molecular, the physician–patient relationship can be an important therapeutic process. Apart from treating patients, many endocrinologists are involved in clinical science and medical research and hospital management. Endocrinologists are specialists of internal medicine or pediatrics. Reprodu

Marc Minkowski

Marc Minkowski is a French conductor of classical music known for his interpretations of French Baroque works. His mother, Mary Anne, is American, his father was Alexandre Minkowski, a Polish-French professor of pediatrics and one of the founders of neonatology. Marc Minkowski is a Chevalier du Mérite. Marc Minkowski was born in Paris, his maternal grandmother, Edith Wade, was a violinist. He began his musical career as a bassoonist for René Clemencic's Clemencic Consort and Philippe Pierlot's Ricercar Consort. In 1982 Minkowski formed "Les Musiciens du Louvre", an orchestra dedicated to showcasing French Baroque music which has championed works by Marin Marais, Jean-Joseph Mouret, Marc-Antoine Charpentier, Jean-Baptiste Lully and Jean-Philippe Rameau; the ensemble has revived lesser-known Handel operas, such as Teseo, Riccardo Primo and Ariodante, as well as several operas by Christoph Willibald Gluck including Armide and Iphigénie en Tauride. Les Musiciens du Louvre relocated to Grenoble after 1996, where they are associates at the Maison de la Culture de Grenoble.

Minkowski's career focus has shifted from an initial specialized interest in the Baroque to a wider interest in opera. He conducted Mozart's Idomeneo in 1996 at the Opéra National de Paris and debuted his Die Entführung aus dem Serail at the Salzburg Festival, he has since conducted Mozart's Le Nozze di Figaro at the Festival d'Aix-en-Provence and Mitridate, re di Ponto at the Salzburg Festival, Handel's Giulio Cesare in Amsterdam, Paris and Zürich and his Il Trionfo del Tempo e del Disinganno in Zürich, Donizetti's La Favorite in Zürich, Gluck's Iphigénie en Tauride, among others. He has performed and recorded critically acclaimed works by Jacques Offenbach: Orphée aux Enfers, La belle Hélène and La Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein, along with the Concerto militaire for cello and orchestra in G, with Jérôme Pernoo; as well as Les Musiciens du Louvre, Minkowski is active in the Mahler Chamber Orchestra, the Berlin Philharmonic, Orchestre de Paris, the Los Angeles Philharmonic, the Mozarteum Salzburg and the Staatskapelle Dresden.

In 2008 Minkowski became music director of Sinfonia Varsovia. The majority of his recordings have been issued by Deutsche Grammophon, but can be found on Erato, EMI's Virgin Classics and Naïve Records. In 2014 Naïve released a recording of the original version of Der fliegende Holländer and the first recording of Le Vaisseau fantôme by Dietsch, conducted by Minkowski. Marc Minkowski was awarded the Prize XVIIe in 1988 for his recordings of Lully-Molière: Les Comédies ballets par les Musiciens du Louvre. Minkowski at Deutsche Grammophon Les Musiciens du Louvre Marc Minkowski on IMDb

Temple Bar Gallery and Studios

Temple Bar Gallery + Studios is a contemporary gallery and visual artist studio space located in the centre of Dublin in Temple Bar. Founded in 1983 "by artists for artists", Temple Bar Gallery + Studios’ mission is to: create and engage; the original studios and gallery were located in a former shirt factory, this was overhauled by Irish architects McCullough Mulvin and completed in October 1994. The current building contains thirty artists studios. "Temple Bar Gallery’s physical character is noticeably susceptible to architectonic interventions, as many artists have fruitfully noticed. It is an off-square space, with pillars, openings, a shop-front aspect and other departures from white cube purity..."Since 2007, TBG+S has been part of a residency exchange programme with HIAP. The studios selects an Irish artist for a studio residency in Finland. In 2008 the Finnish photographer Heli Rekula spent her year here. In 2010 Director, Marian Lovett was terminated from the position she had held at TBG+S since 2001.

The gallery claimed. She proceeded to seek legal action via the union IMPACT and in October 2012 the "claim by the former chief executive of a Dublin art gallery that her redundancy was “a sham” has been upheld by the Employment Appeal Tribunal; the tribunal awarded €30,000 to Marian Lovett for unfair dismissal from her position as chief executive of Temple Bar Gallery and Studios."That same year, Claire Power became the next Director and Rayne Booth was hired as Programme Curator, a position she held until 2018. In 2013 a sculpture by Irish artist Garrett Phelan consisting of a metal arch bearing the words Our Union Only in Truth was added to the roof of the building; the commission was funded through an online crowd funding campaign. In 2014 Clíodhna Shaffrey was made Director, the studios debuted their Recent Graduate Residency which continues to this day, it provides recent Irish graduates the opportunity and resources to develop professionally via a stipend, travel award, free studio space.

TBG+S received an Allianz Business to Arts Awards 2014 for Best Small Sponsorship the same year. In 2019 Michael Hill was appointed Programme Curator. Temple Bar Gallery + Studios is a limited company with charitable status; the voluntary Board is formally elected by the artist membership and comprises four artist members and five external professionals with different expertise and business acumen. TBG+S is a not for profit registered charity and receives much of its funding from the Arts Council of Ireland. TBG + S provides "subsidised work spaces for professional visual artists". Artists must apply for Membership or Associate Membership/Project Studios and are reviewed by a Board appointed panel. Mark Swords, "The living and the dead" Amie Siegel, "Imitation of Life" Charlotte Prodger, "Stoneymollan Trail" Rhona Byrne, "Huddle Tests" Curated by Gavin Wade with Celine Condorelli, Andrew Lacon, Eilis McDonald, Flore Nove Josserand, Yelena Popova, Gavin Wade, Christopher Williams, "Display Show" Nathaniel Mellors, "The Sophisticated Neanderthal Interview" Priscila Fernandes, "Against the Enamel" Ed Atkins, "Or tears, of course" Curated by Chris Fite-Wassilak with Barbara Knezevic, Sean Meehan, Prinz Gholam, Jim Ricks, Iain Sinclair, Josh Tonsfeldt, Temple Bar Gallery + Studios are Dead Nevan Lahart, "Won-Nil" Curated by Isobel Harbison with Alan Butler, Gabriele Beveridge, Juliette Bonneviot, Mick Peter, Peles Empire, "Entrance Entrance" Luke Fowler Pilgrimage from Scattered Points Curated by Rayne Booth with Aleksandra Domanović, Joel Holmberg, Parker Ito, Eilis McDonald, Jonathan Rafman, "Offline", Mark O’ Kelly, "Leaders and Followers" John Duncan, "Bonfires" Colin Darke, "The Capital Paintings" Marjetica Potrč "Florestania" Paul Nugent, Vigil Risa Sato, Eoin McHugh, Mark Garry, "Rapid Eye Movement" Matt Stokes Lost in the Rhythm – Lars Arrhenius, "If Signs had Souls" Elina Brotherus, "The New Painting" Garrett Phelan, "Black Brain Radio" Mark Clare, "Know Thyself " Ene-Liis Semper, "Licked Room" & "FF/REW" Power, Claire, et al.

Generation: 30 years of Creativity at Temple Bar Gallery + Studios 1983-2013, Dublin: Temple Bar Properties, 2013. ISBN 9781903895160 Official website