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Endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum is a type of organelle made up of two subunits – rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The endoplasmic reticulum is found in most eukaryotic cells and forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs known as cisternae, tubular structures in the SER; the membranes of the ER are continuous with the outer nuclear membrane. The endoplasmic reticulum is not found in spermatozoa; the two types of ER share many of the same proteins and engage in certain common activities such as the synthesis of certain lipids and cholesterol. Different types of cells contain different ratios of the two types of ER depending on the activities of the cell; the outer face of the rough endoplasmic reticulum is studded with ribosomes that are the sites of protein synthesis. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is prominent in cells such as hepatocytes; the smooth endoplasmic reticulum lacks ribosomes and functions in lipid synthesis but not metabolism, the production of steroid hormones, detoxification.

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is abundant in mammalian liver and gonad cells. The ER was observed with light microscope by Garnier in 1897, who coined the term "ergastoplasm". With electron microscopy, the lacy membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum were first seen in 1969 by Keith R. Porter, Albert Claude, Ernest F. Fullam; the word "reticulum", which means "network", was applied by Porter in 1953 to describe this fabric of membranes. The general structure of the endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membranes called cisternae; these sac-like structures are held together by the cytoskeleton. The phospholipid membrane encloses the cisternal space, continuous with the perinuclear space but separate from the cytosol; the functions of the endoplasmic reticulum can be summarized as the synthesis and export of proteins and membrane lipids, but varies between ER and cell type and cell function. The quantity of both rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum in a cell can interchange from one type to the other, depending on the changing metabolic activities of the cell.

Transformation can include embedding of new proteins in membrane as well as structural changes. Changes in protein content may occur without noticeable structural changes; the surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum is studded with protein-manufacturing ribosomes giving it a "rough" appearance. The binding site of the ribosome on the rough endoplasmic reticulum is the translocon. However, the ribosomes are not a stable part of this organelle's structure as they are being bound and released from the membrane. A ribosome only binds to the RER; this special complex forms when a free ribosome begins translating the mRNA of a protein destined for the secretory pathway. The first 5–30 amino acids polymerized encode a signal peptide, a molecular message, recognized and bound by a signal recognition particle. Translation pauses and the ribosome complex binds to the RER translocon where translation continues with the nascent protein forming into the RER lumen and/or membrane; the protein is processed in the ER lumen by an enzyme.

Ribosomes at this point may be released back into the cytosol. The membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum forms large double-membrane sheets that are located near, continuous with, the outer layer of the nuclear envelope; the double membrane sheets are stacked and connected through several right- or left-handed helical ramps, the "Terasaki ramps", giving rise to a structure resembling a multi-story car park. Although there is no continuous membrane between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus, membrane-bound transport vesicles shuttle proteins between these two compartments. Vesicles are surrounded by coating proteins called COPI and COPII. COPII targets vesicles to the Golgi apparatus and COPI marks them to be brought back to the rough endoplasmic reticulum; the rough endoplasmic reticulum works in concert with the Golgi complex to target new proteins to their proper destinations. The second method of transport out of the endoplasmic reticulum involves areas called membrane contact sites, where the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and other organelles are held together, allowing the transfer of lipids and other small molecules.

The rough endoplasmic reticulum is key in multiple functions: Manufacture of lysosomal enzymes with a mannose-6-phosphate marker added in the cis-Golgi network. Manufacture of secreted proteins, either secreted constitutively with no tag or secreted in a regulatory manner involving clathrin and paired basic amino acids in the signal peptide. Integral membrane proteins that stay embedded in the membrane as vesicles exit and bind to new membranes. Rab proteins are key in targeting the membrane. Initial glycosylation as assembly continues; this is N-linked. N-linked glycosylation: If the protein is properly folded, Oligosaccharyltransferase recognizes the AA sequence NXS or NXT and adds a 14-sugar backbone to the side-chain nitrogen of Asn. In most cells the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is scarce. Instead there are areas where the ER is smooth and rough, this area is called the transitional ER; the transitional ER gets its name becaus

Joseph Booth (missionary)

Joseph Booth was an English missionary working in British Central Africa and South Africa. In his 30s, Booth abandoned his career as a businessman and, for the rest of hos life, he undertook missionary work for several Christian denominations including Baptist, Seventh Day Baptist and Seventh-day Adventist churches, he was appointed a missionary by the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. Throughout his successive ministries, his defining beliefs were a radical egalitarianism, including a scheme of "Africa for the Africans"’ and, from 1898, Seventh-Day Sabbath observance. Little is known of Booth's childhood, but his mother died when he was twelve and his three elder sisters brought him up, his father was a Unitarian, but by the age of fourteen Booth questioned his father's religious beliefs and, as he could not live with those beliefs, he left home. Over the next few years, Booth educated himself through extensive reading and, before he was twenty, he turned to the Baptist Church.

He married his first wife, Mary Jane née Sharpe, in 1872. He adopted radical ideas about politics and society. In 1880, Booth emigrated first to Auckland, New Zealand, to Melbourne, where he became a successful businessman, his business success helped to develop his views on self-reliance and the economic basis of missionary work. From 1886, Booth became more fundamental in his beliefs. In 1891 he was challenged by an atheist to practice what he preached, to sell all his goods and go to preach the word, he sold his business and, in July 1891, he agreed to become a missionary in East Africa. Despite the death of his first wife, Mary Jane, in Melbourne in October 1891, he left Australia with his two young children and started his missionary career, choosing to work in Africa, he aimed to set up the type of self-supporting Baptist mission that William Carey had pioneered in India, combining teaching and commercial activities. Booth first came to Africa in 1892 with his two children and Emily, worked to establish the Zambezi Industrial Mission at Mitsidi, close to Blantyre in the proclaimed British Central Africa Protectorate.

As the mission needed to become self-supporting, Booth decided to locate it close to the existing commercial centre and market of Blantyre. Although the foundation of the Zambezi Industrial Mission is dated from 1892, the land for the mission was purchased in 1893 and its main buildings came into use in 1894. Booth founded the Nyasa Industrial Mission in 1893, the Baptist Industrial Mission in 1895 and several others in years, he organised or supported several other schemes with similar aims including the African Christian Union, the British Christian Union, the British African Congress. At the Zambezi Industrial Mission, he recruited local farmers to plant coffee, within a year a significant acreage of that crop was being grown. Before 1896, Booth made no dramatic calls for political or social change: he was more concerned with establishing and running the missions and raising financial support in Britain. However, his experiences during this period increased his awareness of colonial issues.

This was to influence his advocacy of Africa for the native Africans instead of for Europeans, a view unpopular with colonial authorities and most European missionaries of the time. Although he began a number of institutions some of which, including the Zambezi Industrial Mission, survive today as the missions or local churches in Malawi, other institutions he founded failed. After setting these institutions up, Booth did not remain with them for long, their survival was due to their own efforts; the failure of the others was caused by lack of finance, natural disasters or deficient personnel, factors Booth could not control. However, some institutional failures arose from Booth's weaknesses including his restlessness and his inability to compromise with any lack of commitment by his colleagues or the failures of society. By 1896 Booth's disagreements with his colleagues over finance and African independence led to him ending of his associations with the Zambezi Industrial Mission and the Nyasa Industrial Mission.

In March 1896, Booth married Annie née Watkins, during a short visit to Britain. She accompanied him to Central Africa, where their daughter, Mary Winifred, was born in 1898, he made a trip to Britain and the United States in 1897, taking along his former household servant, John Chilembwe. Chilembwe stayed in Virginia to study as a Baptist pastor and returned to Nyasaland where he founded the Providence Industrial Mission, following the model set by Booth's industrial missions, led the Chilembwe uprising in 1915. By 1898, Booth had become a convinced Sabbatarian, which became one of the guiding principles for the rest of his life, he turned to the Seventh Day Baptists to support his missionary activities. Booth returned to Central Africa in 1899 and established the Plainfield Industrial Mission in Thyolo District for the Seventh Day Baptists; this was named after the Plainfield Seventh Day Baptist Church in New Jersey. In 1900 Booth succeeded in establishing a short-lived institute to produce African leaders for the Seventh Day Baptist Church.

Two years the institute was discontinued, although Booth pointed out that the existing elementary schools could not produce African pastors, the production of African church leaders was essential to promoting African development. Booth continued his pro-African efforts, producing a petition in 1899 to the commissioner Alfred Sharpe, which demanded that the whole protecto

Emma Bonney

Emma Bonney is an English world champion player of English billiards, snooker player. She has won the women's world billiards title a record thirteen times. Bonney was born on 13 July 1976 in Portsmouth. Bonney has won the women's world billiards title a record thirteen times. Bonney won the first of her world billiards championship titles in 2000, having been runner-up in 1998. On 8 April 2010, she won her fifth World Ladies Billiards title at the Hall Green Stadium, beating Chitra Magimairaj of India 269–220 in the final. Bonney won her 13th world billiards championship, sixth consecutive victory, in 2018; the 2019 World Women's Billiards Championship was held in Australia, Bonney did not participate. Bonney has been the runner-up in the World Women's Snooker Championship three times, she lost the final of the 2006 championship to Reanne Evans 3-5. In 2011 she again to Evans, 1-5. In 2015 Bonney lost 2-6 to Ng On Yee 6–2. Bonney won two women's ranking tournaments in the South Coast Classic and the British Open.

She won her third ranking tournament in 2012, the Southern Women's Classic championship, using a cue that she had bought and had only used for five hours of practice before the competition. She was runner-up to Evans in the 2008 European Snooker Championships, her highest ranking in women's snooker was second. Billiards Snooker World Ladies Billiards Champions World Billiards Player Profile – Emma Bonney Women's World Snooker

1940 to 1944 English cricket seasons

All first-class cricket was cancelled in the 1940 to 1944 English cricket seasons because of the Second World War. Ten matches were cancelled at the end of the 1939 English cricket season due to the German invasion of Poland on 1 September and the British government’s declaration of war against Germany on Sunday 3 September. Although eleven first-class matches were arranged during the 1945 season following the final defeat of Germany in early May, it was not until the 1946 season that normal fixtures, including the County Championship and Minor Counties Championship, could resume. In contrast with much of the First World War, it was realised in the 1940s that cricket had its part to play in terms of raising both public morale and funds for charity. Efforts were made to stage matches whenever opportunity arose if a suitable number of top players could be assembled. From the summer of 1941 onwards, teams such as the British Empire Eleven toured the country raising money for war charities. At league cricket level, playing one-day matches, many competitions continued throughout the war: e.g. the Birmingham League, the Bradford League and the Lancashire League.

Successful wartime players included Eric Hollies and Eddie Paynter. In the 1940 Wisden, the cricket author H S Altham, now an Army Major, described his “sobering experience” when he visited Lord’s the previous December, he said:...there were sandbags everywhere, the Long Room was stripped and bare, with its treasures safely stored beneath ground, but... one felt that somehow it would take more than totalitarian war to put an end to cricket. Altham reflected the popular view that the game should be kept going whenever possible. One venue where it would not be possible was The Oval, commandeered in 1939 and turned into a prisoner of war camp, except that no prisoners were interned there; the playing area became a maze of concrete posts and wire fences. Lord’s was due for requisition but it was spared and MCC was able to stage many public schools and representative games throughout the war. A highlight in 1940 was the one-day game in which Sir PF Warner’s XI, including Len Hutton and Denis Compton, beat a West Indies XI which included Learie Constantine and Leslie Compton.

Of the more regular wartime teams, the most famous were the British Empire XI and the London Counties XI which were established in 1940. Both played one-day charity matches in the south-east and at Lord’s; the British Empire XI was founded by Pelham Warner but featured English county players. The politician Desmond Donnelly in the Royal Air Force, began the London Counties XI. In one match between the two, Frank Woolley came out of retirement and played against the new star batsman Denis Compton; the British Empire XI played between 34 and 45 matches per season from 1940 to 1944. Although the teams were successful in raising money for charity, their main purpose was to help sustain morale. Many of the services and civil defence organisations had their own teams, some of them national and featuring first-class players. County clubs encouraged their players to join the services but at the same time pleaded with their members to continue subscriptions “as an investment for the future”. While some counties closed for the duration, others did.

Nottinghamshire played six matches at Trent Bridge in 1940 and Lancashire mooted a scheme for a regionalised county competition to include the minor counties, but it was not taken further. From 1941 to 1945 the University Match was played annually at Lord's as a one-day, hence not first-class, game; because Fenner's had not been commandeered, Cambridge had played nine matches during the 1941 season against Sussex and strong military and hospital teams and won four against a single defeat, whereas Oxford had played no cricket whatsoever due to The Parks being commandeered. Cambridge were expected to and did win the match and were to win all but one of the subsequent one-day University Matches. Cambridge’s most famous player was John Bridger, who played after the war for Hampshire with considerable success. In public school cricket, a future champion in Trevor Bailey demonstrated his latterly-famous defensive skill for Dulwich College by scoring 851 runs in fifteen innings – in only seven of, he dismissed.

Dulwich had the best school bowler in Horace Kiddle, who took fifty wickets for 7.86 runs each but was killed in action in 1944 before World War II ended, whilst future Worcestershire bowler George Chesterton of Malvern took 45 wickets for 12.88 runs each, but could not make the Wisden editors best school eleven. Edward Spooner, a son of famous Marlborough and Lancashire batsman Reggie, averaged 49.50 for Eton and was tipped for a big future, but was never to play first-class cricket at all. The British Empire XI was dominated by West Indian leg-spinner Bertie Clarke – exempt from military service because of his profession as a doctor – whose leg-breaks and googlies took 98 wickets for 11.40 runs apiece and was to better this record in 1942. In contrast, the main players for the London Counties XI were veterans, with Alf Gover their most successful bowler with 83 wickets for 9.50. As the war grew more intense, Lord’s was still able to expand its profits, with 1942 described as “the best wartime season Lord’s has had”.

Jack Robertson came to prominence with an innings of 102 for the Army against the Royal NavyEddie Paynter scored 970 runs at an average of 138.50 for Keighley in the Bradford League, whist B

Switzerland women's national floorball team

Switzerland women's national floorball team is the national team of Switzerland. At the 1997 Floorball Women's World Championship in Godby and Mariehamn, Åland, the team finished fourth. At the 1999 Floorball Women's World Championship in Borlänge, the team finished second in the A-Division. At the 2001 Floorball Women's World Championship in Riga, the team finished fourth in the A-Division. At the 2003 Floorball Women's World Championship in Germany, the team finished second in the A-Division. At the 2005 Floorball Women's World Championship in Singapore, the team finished first in the A-Division. At the 2007 Floorball Women's World Championship in Frederikshavn, the team finished second in the A-Division

Daniel Parker (general)

Daniel Parker made his career in the United States Department of War and the United States Army. He was the son of Lieutenant James Sarah Dickinson, he graduated from Dartmouth College in 1801, read law, was admitted to the bar in Charlestown, Massachusetts. He became chief clerk in the U. S. War Department in 1810. On 22 November 1814, he became adjutant general and inspector general of the U. S. Army. In 1820, he became paymaster general. In 1841 he returned to the War Department as chief clerk, his remains were buried 7 April 1846 in the Historic Congressional Cemetery, Washington, D. C. Daniel m. Ann Collins 1 June 1817, District of Columbia [National Intelligences, Washington DC Marriages to 1825 Spouse 1: Collins, Ann Spouse 2: Parker, D. Marriage Date: 1 Jun 1817 Marriage Location: District of Columbia Anne b. 1795 Anne d. 10 November 1828, District of Columbia Daniel & Anne Parker hsd 5 children, 3 of whom d.y.: i. Unknown d. at birth. Buried: Historic Congressional Cemetery, District of Columbia ii.

Stephen Collins Parker b. 6 March 1818, District of Columbia d. 5 December 1823, District of Columbia. Buried: Historic Congressional Cemetery, District of Columbia. Iii. Sarah Ann Parker b. 29 June 1819, District of Columbia d. She m. Clement Hill. Iv. Ellen Amelia Parker b. 22 August 1821, District of Columbia d. 8 February 1824, District of Columbia. Buried: Historic Congressional Cemetery, District of Columbia. V. Charles Collins Parker b. 3 August 1823, District of Columbia. [Vital Records of Shirley, Massachusetts to the Year 1850, Pg. 74. "Charles Collins, s. Gen Daniel and Anne, Aug. 3, 1823, in Washington d. 29 December 1848, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Dr. Collins m. Ann Coleman. "Parker, Gen. Daniel L." Interments in the Historic Congressional Cemetery. Association for the Preservation of Historic Congressional Cemetery. August 13, 2006. Retrieved 2009-05-07. Heitman, Francis B.. Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, Volume 1. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office.

The Daniel Parker Papers, including incoming and outgoing correspondence with several presidents, are available for research use at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Parker, Daniel. " 1813 Sept. 5, War Office, the Governor of Georgia / Daniel Parker". Southeastern Native American Documents, 1730-1842. Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, The University of Georgia Libraries, Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved 21 February 2018. Daniel Parker at Find a Grave