Electricity sector in France
The electricity sector in France is dominated by nuclear power, which accounted for 72.3 % of total production in 2016, while renewables and fossil fuels accounted for 17.8 % and 8.6 %, respectively. France has the largest share of electricity in the world. The country is among the worlds biggest net exporters of electricity, the French nuclear power sector is almost entirely owned by the French government and the degree of the government subsidy is difficult to ascertain because of a lack of transparency. In 2008 consumption of electricity was on average 8,233 kWh/person and this corresponded to 110% of the EU15 average and 91% of the OECD average. According to the IEA, French gross production of electricity amounted to 557 terawatt-hours in 2014, slightly down from 570 and 567 TWh produced in 2008 and 2004, France is the worlds 9th largest producer of electricity. In 2014, the top ten countries produced 16,432 TWh and these countries were China, followed by the United States, Russia, Canada, Brazil and South Korea.
The rest of the world produced 31. 4%, France is the worlds second largest producer of nuclear electricity, behind the United States and ahead of Russia and Korea. In terms of nuclears share on the domestic electricity generation. The French nuclear power is almost entirely owned by the French government, according to Al Gore the degree of the government subsidy is difficult to ascertain because of a lack of transparencies in the finances of the operation. France has the largest share of electricity from power in the world. According to the IEA 77% of its electricity was generated by nuclear power in 2013. Installed nuclear capacity was 63.1 GW and power production 403.7 TWh, the Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique is the national authority in France. Nuclear companies include EdF and Areva, Électricité de France is the main electricity producer. Eurodif is the enrichment plant. Areva NC and Rio Tinto are the top companies of the world. France reprocesses its nuclear waste to retrieve plutonium and uranium for use as additional fuel, fission products are stored in La Hague facility until a deep geological repository for high-level waste can be constructed. A repository for low-level and short-lived intermediate-level nuclear waste is already operational. 5bn instead of the estimate of €3. 3bn.
Installed hydro electricity power capacity was 25 GW in 2014, hydro share in total domestic electricity generation was 12. 2%
Wind power in France
According to the IEA the yearly wind production was 20.2 TWh in 2015, representing almost 23% of the 88.4 TWh from renewable sources in France during that year. Furthermore wind provided for 4. 3% of the electricity demand out of the 18. 7% provided by renewables in 2015. France has the second largest wind potential in Europe, whilst France has been a relative late developer in wind power compared to other European countries it now has the target of more than doubling onshore wind power capacity from 2015 levels by 2023. Offshore wind power is schedule to come on line from 2018 for the first time, realisation of these plans would more than likely see France overtake highly ranked Spain in terms of installed capacity by 2023. The French government initially planned to produce 21% of its electricity consumption with renewable energy in 2010 to comply with European directive 2001/77/CE of 27 September 2001 and this mean tthat France had to produce 106 TWh of renewable energy in 2010 when it only produced 71 TWh in 2006.
Wind power represents 75% of the 35 TWh additional production in 2010, as of year end 2015 all windpower in France is currently onshore, the first 500 MW of offshore windpower is not due to come online in 2018. The leading regions in France in 2015 were Champagne-Ardenne with an capacity of 1,682 MW, Picardie with 1,502 MW, Centre with 872 MW. Onshore wind power is projected to rise to 15,000 MW by 2018, the first tranche of offshore wind power is expected to come on line in 2018 with 500 MW capacity. By 2023 another traditional 3,000 MW of capacity will come online with an additional 500 to 6,000 MW of performance dependent installation planned. Marine energy including floating wind turbines will add an additional 100 MW as well as an additional 200 to 2000 MW of capacity by 2023, overall including marine energy offshore installed capacity will rise to between 3,100 and 11,100 MW by 2023. See also, List of offshore windfarms in the North Sea The following offshore windfarm projects listed have submitting their applications for consent, France is operating a number of offshore test sites for prototype floating wind turbines which would allow turbines to be located in deeper waters.
These include the Nenaphur test site, the Nenuphar twin float, the Floatgen Project, Renewable energy in France Solar power in France Renewable energy by country
It operates the MATIF futures exchange, which trades futures and options on interest rate products and commodities, and MONEP, equity and index futures and options. All products are traded electronically on the NSC system adopted by all of the Euronext members, trading hours are 9 am to 5,30 pm CET, Monday to Friday. The French equities market is divided into three sections, the Premier Marché, formerly called the Official List, includes large French and foreign companies, and most Bond issues. The Second Marché, lists medium-sized companies, while nouveau marché lists fast-growing start up companies seeking capital to finance expansion, linked to Euro. nm, the European equity growth market. A fourth market, Marché Libre, is nonregulated, administered by Euronext Paris for transactions in securities not listed on the three markets. Euronext Paris calculates a family of indices, the CAC40 is the exchanges benchmark, desseminated in real time. Its components are included in the broader SBF120 Index, a benchmark for investment funds, the SBF250 index, a benchmark for the long-term performance of equity portfolios, includes all of the SBF120, it is structured by sector.
Both indices are benchmarks for funds, the Nouveau Marché Index represents stocks in the growth market. The SBF-FCI index is based on a selection of bonds that represent at least 70% of the total capitalization of this market. For derivatives, MONEP trades short-term and long-term stock options and futures, for the fiscal year ending December 2004, Euronext Paris recorded sales of US $522 million, a −12. 9% decrease in sales from 2003. Euronext Paris has a US $2.9 trillion total market capitalization of listed companies, List of French companies CAC40 CAC Next 20 French Society of Financial Analysts Euronext Paris website MONEP website
Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy. For electric utilities, it is the first process in the delivery of electricity to consumers, the other processes as transmission, energy storage and recovery using pumped-storage methods are normally carried out by the electric power industry. Other energy sources include solar photovoltaics and geothermal power, the fundamental principles of electricity generation were discovered during the 1820s and early 1830s by the British scientist Michael Faraday. This method is used today, electricity is generated by the movement of a loop of wire. Central power stations became practical with the development of alternating current power transmission, using power transformers to transmit power at high voltage. Electricity has been generated at central stations since 1882, the use of power-lines and power-poles have been significantly important in the distribution of electricity. There are seven fundamental methods of transforming other forms of energy into electrical energy.
Static electricity, form the physical separation and transport of charge and it was the first form discovered and investigated, and the electrostatic generator is still used even in modern devices such as the Van de Graaff generator and MHD generators. In Electromagnetic induction, a generator, dynamo or alternator transforms kinetic energy into electricity. This is the most used form for generating electricity and is based on Faradays law and it can be experimented by rotating a magnet within closed loops of a conducting material. Almost all commercial electrical generation is done using electromagnetic induction, in mechanical energy forces a generator to rotate. Almost all electrical power on Earth is generated with a turbine, driven by wind, there are many different methods of developing mechanical energy, including heat engines, hydro and tidal power. Most electric generation is driven by heat engines, the combustion of fossil fuels supplies most of the heat to these engines, with a significant fraction from nuclear fission and some from renewable sources.
The modern steam turbine currently generates about 80% of the power in the world using a variety of heat sources. Power sources include, Steam Water is boiled by coal burned in a power plant. Nuclear fission heat created in a nuclear reactor creates steam, less than 15% of electricity is generated this way. Natural gas, turbines are directly by gases produced by combustion. Combined cycle are driven by steam and natural gas
Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electric power. The net effects on the environment are far less problematic than those of power sources. Wind farms consist of individual wind turbines which are connected to the electric power transmission network. Onshore wind is a source of electric power, competitive with or in many places cheaper than coal or gas plants. Offshore wind is steadier and stronger than on land, and offshore farms have less visual impact, small onshore wind farms can feed some energy into the grid or provide electric power to isolated off-grid locations. Wind power gives variable power which is consistent from year to year. It is therefore used in conjunction with other power sources to give a reliable supply. As the proportion of power in a region increases, a need to upgrade the grid. In addition, weather forecasting permits the power network to be readied for the predictable variations in production that occur. As of 2015, Denmark generates 40% of its power from wind.
In 2014 global wind power capacity expanded 16% to 369,553 MW, yearly wind energy production is growing rapidly and has reached around 4% of worldwide electric power usage,11. 4% in the EU. Wind power has been used as long as humans have put sails into the wind, for more than two millennia wind-powered machines have ground grain and pumped water. Wind power was available and not confined to the banks of fast-flowing streams, or later. Wind-powered pumps drained the polders of the Netherlands, and in regions such as the American mid-west or the Australian outback, wind pumps provided water for live stock. The first windmill used for the production of power was built in Scotland in July 1887 by Prof James Blyth of Andersons College. Blyth offered the surplus power to the people of Marykirk for lighting the main street, however. The Brush wind turbine had a rotor 17 metres in diameter and was mounted on an 18 metres tower, although large by todays standards, the machine was only rated at 12 kW.
The connected dynamo was used either to charge a bank of batteries or to operate up to 100 incandescent light bulbs, with the development of electric power, wind power found new applications in lighting buildings remote from centrally-generated power
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant. The term includes nuclear fission, nuclear decay and nuclear fusion, since all electricity supplying technologies use cement, etc. during construction, emissions are yet to be brought to zero. Each result is contrasted with coal and fossil gas at 820 and 490 g CO2 eq/kWh, there is a social debate about nuclear power. Proponents, such as the World Nuclear Association and Environmentalists for Nuclear Energy, contend that nuclear power is a safe, such as Greenpeace International and NIRS, contend that nuclear power poses many threats to people and the environment. These include the Chernobyl disaster which occurred in 1986, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, there have been some nuclear submarine accidents. Energy production from coal, natural gas and hydroelectricity has caused a number of fatalities per unit of energy generated due to air pollution.
In 2015, Ten new reactors were connected to the grid, seven reactors were permanently shut down. 441 reactors had a net capacity of 382,855 megawatts of electricity. 67 new nuclear reactors were under construction, Most of the new activity is in China where there is an urgent need to control pollution from coal plants. In October 2016, Watts Bar 2 became the first new United States reactor to enter commercial operation since 1996. The same year, his doctoral student James Chadwick discovered the neutron, further work by Enrico Fermi in the 1930s focused on using slow neutrons to increase the effectiveness of induced radioactivity. Experiments bombarding uranium with neutrons led Fermi to believe he had created a new, transuranic element and they determined that the relatively tiny neutron split the nucleus of the massive uranium atoms into two roughly equal pieces, contradicting Fermi. Numerous scientists, including Leó Szilárd, who was one of the first, recognized that if fission reactions released additional neutrons, a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction could result.
In the United States, where Fermi and Szilárd had both emigrated, this led to the creation of the first man-made reactor, known as Chicago Pile-1, which achieved criticality on December 2,1942. In 1945, the pocketbook The Atomic Age heralded the untapped atomic power in everyday objects and depicted a future where fossil fuels would go unused. One science writer, David Dietz, wrote that instead of filling the gas tank of a car two or three times a week, people travel for a year on a pellet of atomic energy the size of a vitamin pill. The United Kingdom and the USSR proceeded over the course of the late 1940s, electricity was generated for the first time by a nuclear reactor on December 20,1951, at the EBR-I experimental station near Arco, which initially produced about 100 kW. Work was researched in the US on nuclear marine propulsion
Initial public offering
Through this process, a privately held company transforms into a public company. Initial public offerings are used by companies to raise the expansion of capital, possibly to monetize the investments of early private investors. A company selling shares is never required to repay the capital to its public investors, after the IPO, when shares trade freely in the open market, money passes between public investors. The IPO process is known as going public. Details of the offering are disclosed to potential purchasers in the form of a lengthy document known as a prospectus. Most companies undertake an IPO with the assistance of an investment banking firm acting in the capacity of an underwriter, underwriters provide several services, including help with correctly assessing the value of shares and establishing a public market for shares. Alternative methods such as the dutch auction have been explored, in terms of size and public participation, the two most notable examples of this method is the Google IPO and Snapchats parent company Snap Inc.
China has recently emerged as a major IPO market, with several of the largest IPOs taking place in that country, the earliest form of a company which issued public shares was the case of the publicani during the Roman Republic. Like modern joint-stock companies, the publicani were legal bodies independent of their members whose ownership was divided into shares, there is evidence that these shares were sold to public investors and traded in a type of over-the-counter market in the Forum, near the Temple of Castor and Pollux. The shares fluctuated in value, encouraging the activity of speculators, mere evidence remains of the prices for which partes were sold, the nature of initial public offerings, or a description of stock market behavior. Publicanis lost favor with the fall of the Republic and the rise of the Empire, the first modern IPO occurred in March 1602 when the Dutch East India Company offered shares of the company to the public in order to raise capital. All the shares were tradable, and the shareholders received receipts for the purchase, a share certificate documenting payment and ownership such as we know today was not issued but ownership was instead entered in the companys share register.
In the United States, the first IPO was the offering of Bank of North America around 1783. An IPO, allows a company to tap into a pool of potential investors to provide itself with capital for future growth, repayment of debt. A company selling shares is never required to repay the capital to its public investors. Those investors must endure the unpredictable nature of the market to price. After the IPO, when shares trade freely in the open market, for early private investors who choose to sell shares as part of the IPO process, the IPO represents an opportunity to monetize their investment. This type of offering is not dilutive, since no new shares are being created, once a company is listed, it is able to issue additional common shares in a number of different ways, one of which is the follow-on offering
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include petroleum and natural gas. Other commonly used derivatives include kerosene and propane, Fossil fuels range from volatile materials with low carbon, hydrogen ratios like methane, to liquids like petroleum, to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like anthracite coal. Methane can be found in hydrocarbon fields either alone, associated with oil, non-fossil sources in 2006 included nuclear 8. 5%, hydroelectric 6. 3%, and others amounting to 0. 9%. World energy consumption was growing about 2. 3% per year, the use of fossil fuels raises serious environmental concerns. The burning of fossil fuels produces around 21.3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide per year and it is estimated that natural processes can only absorb about half of that amount, so there is a net increase of 10.65 billion tonnes of atmospheric carbon dioxide per year.
Carbon dioxide is a gas that increases radiative forcing and contributes to global warming. A global movement towards the generation of energy is underway to help reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. Over geological time, this matter, mixed with mud. Despite these heat driven transformations, the energy is still photosynthetic in origin. There is a range of organic, or hydrocarbon, compounds in any given fuel mixture. The specific mixture of hydrocarbons gives a fuel its characteristic properties, such as boiling point, melting point, viscosity, some fuels like natural gas, for instance, contain only very low boiling, gaseous components. Others such as gasoline or diesel contain much higher boiling components, terrestrial plants, on the other hand, tend to form coal and methane. Many of the coal fields date to the Carboniferous period of Earths history, terrestrial plants form type III kerogen, a source of natural gas. Fossil fuels are of importance because they can be burned. The use of coal as a fuel predates recorded history, coal was used to run furnaces for the melting of metal ore.
Semi-solid hydrocarbons from seeps were burned in ancient times, commercial exploitation of petroleum, largely as a replacement for oils from animal sources, for use in oil lamps began in the 19th century. Natural gas, once flared-off as an byproduct of petroleum production, is now considered a very valuable resource
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015 hydropower generated 16. 6% of the total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in 2013, China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh of production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use. The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a source of renewable electricity. The hydro station consumes no water, unlike coal or gas plants, the average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U. S. cents per kilowatt-hour. With a dam and reservoir it is a source of electricity since the amount produced by the station can be changed up or down very quickly to adapt to changing energy demands. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, Hydropower has been used since ancient times to grind flour and perform other tasks.
In the mid-1770s, French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor published Architecture Hydraulique which described vertical-, by the late 19th century, the electrical generator was developed and could now be coupled with hydraulics. The growing demand for the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well, in 1878 the worlds first hydroelectric power scheme was developed at Cragside in Northumberland, England by William George Armstrong. It was used to power an arc lamp in his art gallery. The old Schoelkopf Power Station No.1 near Niagara Falls in the U. S. side began to produce electricity in 1881. The first Edison hydroelectric power station, the Vulcan Street Plant, began operating September 30,1882, in Appleton, Wisconsin, by 1886 there were 45 hydroelectric power stations in the U. S. and Canada. By 1889 there were 200 in the U. S. alone, at the beginning of the 20th century, many small hydroelectric power stations were being constructed by commercial companies in mountains near metropolitan areas.
Grenoble, France held the International Exhibition of Hydropower and Tourism with over one million visitors, by 1920 as 40% of the power produced in the United States was hydroelectric, the Federal Power Act was enacted into law. The Act created the Federal Power Commission to regulate hydroelectric power stations on federal land, as the power stations became larger, their associated dams developed additional purposes to include flood control and navigation. Federal funding became necessary for development and federally owned corporations, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority. Hydroelectric power stations continued to become larger throughout the 20th century, Hydropower was referred to as white coal for its power and plenty. Hoover Dams initial 1,345 MW power station was the worlds largest hydroelectric station in 1936