Energy in Sweden describes energy and electricity production and import in Sweden. Electricity sector in Sweden is the main article of electricity in Sweden; the Swedish climate bill of February 2017 aims to make Sweden carbon neutral by 2045. The Swedish target is to decline emission of climate gases 63% from 1990 to 2030 and international transportation excluding foreign flights 70%. By 2014 just over half of the country's total final energy consumption in electricity and cooling and transport combined was provided by renewables, the highest share amongst the 28 EU member countries. About a third of Sweden's electricity is generated by nuclear power. In generating a year's worth of this energy, Swedes generate about 4 tonnes of CO2 emissions each. Since 2010, sustainability measures have reduced total emissions as the population has increased. Swedish government climate and environment investment budget will be ca 1.3 billion euros in 4 years 2017 - 2020 in non fossil travel, renewable energy and international In 2011, the World Energy Council gave Sweden and Switzerland top marks for their energy sustainability.
In 2017 the share of energy from renewable sources in Sweden was 55 % in energy use, 69 % in heating and cooling, 66 % in electricity and 27 % in transports. The emissions decline 7.7% in 2008–2009 was at least influenced by the European economic recession of 2008–2009 and not only by the sustainable changes in energy consumption. From 2008 to 2009 the change in the US was a 7.0 % decline. A report was published in 2011 by the World Energy Council in association with Oliver Wyman, entitled Policies for the Future: 2011 Assessment of Country Energy and Climate Policies, which ranks country performance according to an energy sustainability index; the best performers were Switzerland and France. Buildings and the residential sector account for 40 percent of Sweden's energy consumption. Buildings have a long life-span, thus energy efficiency is important for houses being built. Better energy efficiency for existing buildings is the biggest challenge. Within the context of the European Union's 2009 Renewables Directive, Sweden was working towards reaching a 49% share of renewable energy in gross final consumption of energy - electricity, heating/cooling, transportation - by 2020.
Eurostat reported that Sweden had exceeded the Directive's 2020 target in 2014 reaching 52.6% of total final energy consumption provided by renewables, up from 38.7% in 2004. This makes Sweden the leading country within the EU-28 group in terms of renewable energy use by share, followed by Finland and Latvia at 38.7%, Austria at 33.1% and Denmark on 29.2%. The two other signatories of the directive and Norway, remain ahead of Sweden at 77.1% and 69.2% respectively. The 2014 52.6% overall share of final energy consumption in Sweden breaks down as renewable energy providing the following shares to each sector: 68.1% of the heating and cooling sector, 63.3% of the electricity sector and 19.2% of the transport sector. The share of renewable electricity use is high in Sweden. Hydro and solar power together accounted for 49.8% of the electricity produced in the country in 2014. When measured against national electricity consumption, the share rises to 55.5%. Since 2003, Sweden has supported renewable energy in the electricity sector with a "green electricity certificate" obligation for retail power suppliers.
The current plan of the certificate system is to support 25 TWh of new renewable electricity generation by 2020. In June 2016, the Swedish center-left minority coalition government reached a cross-party energy deal with three opposition parties, with the agreement targeting 100% renewable electricity production by 2040. In 2013 renewable energy investment was more than US$1 billion in Sweden. Sweden is to gain significant geopolitical benefits after the global transition to renewable energy is completed, it is ranked no. 14 out of 156 countries in the index of geopolitical gains and losses after energy transition. Wind power accounted for 10% of the electricity generated in Sweden in 2015, up from 5% in 2012 and 2.4% in 2010. Sweden has wind power potential of 46 TWh/a at sea. Consumption was 140 TWh of power in 2010. In 2013 Sweden was second top country for wind power capacity per inhabitant in the world: 488 W per person, only surpassed by Denmark. In correlation one must note that Swedish use of energy per inhabitant is much higher than average in Europe.
Sweden has a wave power station outside Lysekil run by Uppsala University. The wave energy research group at Uppsala University study and develop all different aspects of wave energy, ranging from power systems and generators, to hydrodynamical modelling, environmental impact of wave energy parks. Hydroelectric power in Sweden accounts for more than half of energy production. More than 1900 power stations operate all over the country. Forty-five produce 100 MW and over, 17 produce 200 MW and over, 5 produce 400 MW and over; the largest station, located on the upper Lule River, has a maximum production capacity of 977 MW. The Lule River is the most productive river, with 18% of the Swedish installed effect. All of the medium to large plants are located in northern Sweden. While installations have been minimal, solar power has been growing in Sweden with the country's cumulative PV capacity nearly doubling in 2014 to 79 MW. Capacity rose further to 205 MW at the end of 2016, 411 MW at the end of 2018.
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Hempstead Watermill is a disused watermill 1.7 miles south east of the town of Holt in the English county of Norfolk. The mill stands on the lane between Holt and the village of Hempstead; the mill was built in 1830 by Richard John Gurney and was called Holt Watermill. The watermill and its adjoining mill house are constructed from local brick and flint and the buildings have red Norfolk pantiled roofs; the river Glaven was dammed and a large mill pond stands directly behind the mill. Hempstead Watermill was powered by the use of a water wheel until 1905 when the wheel was removed and replaced with a more efficient turbine; the turbine was controlled by a sluice, installed at the time. At the time of these changes the mill had five sources of water, they were the upper pond, swept away in floods in 1912, Old Decoy now called Selbrigg Pond, New Decoy and Horsepit Pond. This last pond was the farm horse pond for near-by Red House Farm, the pond was supplemented with water, runoff from the farm and its buildings.
A sluice had been added to the pond in order to increase the water in the mill pond. The mill only had enough water to run for a limit of five hours. In years a traction engine ran the mill via a pulley wheel on the outside of the building; the watermill operated two pairs of stones, although most of the time, only one pair would be working due to lack of water. A circular timber saw blade set in a steel bench was powered from the Turbine and was still in operation up until 1977, it was used to cut timber for the Gurney Estate. The shed; the watermill included a number of cartsheds, stables, pig sties and cowsheds. In 1911 a bakery was added to the set of buildings; the bread oven had been supplied by T. Co of Bristol; the oven was fired using coke, as was the twenty gallon capacity boiler that supplied hot water and regulated the oven. The oven had a capacity to produce 208 1-lb loaves and was fired up twice before deliveries went out to the surrounding population. Water for the bread making was carried by bucket from a spring on the opposite side of the road
Annemarie Roeper was a pioneer in gifted education who founded the Roeper School. Annemarie was born on August 1918 in Vienna, Austria-Hungary, to parents Max and Gertrud Bondy. Gertrud Bondy was a medical doctor as well as a psychologist in training with Sigmund Freud. Gertrud and her husband Max founded a series of schools focusing on, “psychoanalytic understanding of human development and a desire to educate children to build and thrive in a pluralistic, democratic society” including a school in the town of Marineau. Annemarie observed the strong independent educational ideals early in life in the school that her parents were creating. Though the family consisted of mainstream Lutherans, the Bondys were of Jewish heritage. After the Nazi party came to power and her father Max fled their school in the spring of 1937 with the help of George Roeper and continued on to the United States in 1939. Annemarie began a new adventure. Annemarie Roeper never finished any higher education past high school.
While a medical student at the University of Vienna in 1937, she was the youngest person to be accepted to study child psychoanalysis with Sigmund and Anna Freud. The March 1938 the German invasion of Austria prevented her from being able to begin her studies. Roeper was able to flee on the last train across the Austrian border before the Germans invaded while Sigmund and Anna Freud fled soon after. Eastern Michigan University awarded an honorary doctorate to Roeper and her husband, George Roeper, in 1978. Roeper and her husband, established The Roeper School in 1941 with only nine students. Today the school serves over 630 students, from preschool to 12th grade, still focusing on an intense recognition for every student's needs, a profound appreciation for emotional and intellectual commitments. Roeper is recognized as a pioneer for gifted education, her insistence that the soul of the gifted child is as important as their cognitive abilities has influenced how many gifted educators and counselors interact with these children.
In 1941 Roeper and her husband were invited to Detroit to direct a nursery school and established a grade school. Their schooling techniques caught on and the school grew rapidly; the Roeper School began expanding so much that in 1946 they purchased a campus in Bloomfield Hills, in 1981 they purchased a campus in Birmingham, Michigan. In 1946, they purchased a campus in Bloomfield Hills, in 1981 the school expanded to include a second campus in Birmingham, Michigan. In 1956, the same year that Roeper and her husband George established the first board of advisors for the Roeper School, they congregated a panel of national experts and developed a curriculum for gifted children. In September 1956 the Roeper School became only the second school in America to focus on gifted education. Annemarie Roeper's ideas about young childhood cognition caught the likes of Joan Ganz Cooney, together they worked and consulted on the development of Sesame Street. Roeper was a workshop consultant while working on the show.
Roeper taught courses at Oakland University on gifted education and retired from the Roeper School in 1980, although she remained on the board of trustees until 2002. In 1989, Roeper received the President's Award from the National Association for Gifted Children for a lifetime of distinguished service to the field. Roeper published over 100 articles and book chapters, three scholarly books, four children's books, her most recent – and last – publication, ‘Beyond Old Age’, she developed the Annemarie Roeper Method of Qualitative Assessment to provide a deeper understanding of a child's personality and abilities. She has been listed in Who's Who, Women of the World, Who's Who of American Women. Roeper was active with the Merrill Palmer Institute in the 1950s, a group of pediatricians and educators in Detroit that met to discuss children's emotional development. Roeper was the president of the Metropolitan Preschool Association in the late 1950s and early 1960s, served on the Michigan State Advisory Council for Early Childhood Education from 1965 to 1968 and was on the Oakland University Advisory Council from 1966 to 1968.
Roeper died from pneumonia and other health problems on May 2012, in Oakland, California. She was 93 years old. Roeper is survived by her brother, Heinz Bondy and his wife, Carolyn, of Germantown, Md.. Peter Roeper and his wife Martha Harnly, of Oakland, Calif. and Karen Roeper and her husband Peter Rosselli, of Muir Beach, Calif.. She wrote at least three books: Educating Children for Life: The Modern Learning Community Annemarie Roeper." Selected Writings and Speeches - The "I" of the Beholder: A Guided Journey to the Essence of a Child Kane, Michele. "An Evolving Field: A Conversation with Annemarie Roeper: A View from the Self." Roeper Review 26:1, 5-11. Roeper, Annemarie. Selected Speeches. Minneapolis: Free Spirit Publishing, 1995. A conversation with Annemarie Roeper. A YouTube interview. Obituary on Roeper School website
Michael Otedola College of Primary Education Lagos State College of Primary Education known as MOCPED, is the first specialized college of primary education in Nigeria. It runs a degree program in affiliation with Ekiti State University and University of Ibadan Pursuant to the new National Policy on Education, which among other things stipulates the Nigeria Certification in Education as the basic qualification for teaching in Nigeria by the year 2000, coupled with the need to provide functional and qualitative education predicated upon well trained and sound professional man power to the citizenry of the state, the Lagos State Government in December, 1994, established the Lagos State College of Primary Education for pre- service and in service training and certification of graduates for the Primary School system; the College was renamed Michael Otedola College of Primary Education in April 2007. MOCPED, situated in Noforija near Epe, in the Epe Local Government Area of the State, is the first Tertiary Institution in Nigeria that anticipated the need for training the manpower of the Universal Basic Education System.
The college formally took off on December 1st 1994 at the Government Guest House, Epe with the appointment of the Provost and three other Principal Officers, by the Provisional Governing Council. Therefore, the College moved to its permanent site at Epe; the enabling edict, conditions of service for Junior and Senior Staff and the College Master Plan subsequently came into being. After extensive consultant with the National Commission for Colleges of Education, the College commenced its academic programmes in May, 1995 with 82 pioneering students in three PRE-NCE programme and less than 100 academic and non-academic staff as well as two buildings. Regular academic activities for the NCE programmes commenced in November 1995 with 182 students, at the permanent site of the College in Noforija, Epe; the College runs National Certificate in Education Programme and is in affiliation with University of Ibadan's Degree programme in Education. The Michael Otedola College of Primary Education is established to: ⦁ Provide courses of institution leading to National Certificate of Education diploma and other distinctions in Primary Education and such related studies as may be prescribed.
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A Crow Looked at Me is the eighth studio album by Mount Eerie, the solo project of American musician Phil Elverum. The album is a concept album about the death of Elverum's wife, the cartoonist and musician Geneviève Castrée; the album was released on March 24, 2017 on Elverum's label P. W. Elverum & Sun. In 2015, Phil Elverum's wife, the Canadian artist Geneviève Castrée, was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer four months after the birth of their first child. Castrée died at their home on 9 July 2016. Taking inspiration from the Gary Snyder poem "Go Now", Elverum realised that he did not have to find any meaning in Castrée's death but could write songs that described the experience, he found inspiration in the work of Julie Doiron, Sun Kil Moon and Karl Ove Knausgård. Elverum wrote the songs over a six-week period starting in September 2016. Utilising some notes that he had written during Castrée's illness and treatment, Elverum wrote the lyrics down longhand on her paper and recorded the songs in the room where she died using an acoustic guitar, one microphone and a laptop computer as well as some of Castrée's own instruments.
Since he had become the primary carer for his daughter, Elverum recorded the songs at night while his daughter was asleep or during times when she was visiting friends. He stated that the songs "poured out in the fall, watching the days grey over and watching the neighbors across the alley tear down and rebuild their house" and that he made the record and released it "just to multiply my voice saying that I love her. I want it known."The lyrics are delivered in a speak singing style and deal with Castrée's illness and death and Elverum's ensuing grief. The words take the form of a diary with Elverum intending for each song to reflect a time in his grieving, with references to specific events throughout the album with specific dates mentioned throughout, In regards to this Elverum was quoted saying that "each song is anchored to a specific moment"; each song refers to Castrée, sometimes directly by name, Elverum uses pronouns such as "our" when referring to Castrée despite her absence, one critic noted that this is because Elverum "struggles to adjust to the undesired change".
The final song "Crow" is however addressed prominently to their daughter. The lyrics have been described to "combine emotional intimacy and tonal frankness to a degree heard in contemporary music" and as "unspooling pieces of prose" The songwriting has been described as "brilliant examples of breaking the fourth wall" and that the term itself does not align with the style of the material claiming it's "too precise", noting the blurred lines "between singing and raw emotional data dump."Opening track "Real Death" begins with the words "death is real" and this theme continues throughout the record, as well as the theme of the album not being an artistic statement, with Phillip Green of Cisternyard Media speculating the reason behinds Elverum's aversion is that to do so "would be taking advantage of Genevieve’s passing". The song refers to Elverum opening mail packages addressed to Castrée that were delivered after her death, with one critic describing the moment to "limns the space between the living and the dead" Elverum discusses scattering Castrée's ashes on "Seaweed", writer Molly Beauchemin wrote that the song "stands apart for its crushing invocation of nature as a place of solace and refuge– a place to see purpose in the midst of loss" "Ravens" describes Elverum giving away Castrée's clothes, Sam Sodomsky of pitchfork called the song a "seven-minute exploration of the horrors of this world".
The track "Forest Fire" describes Elverum's feelings of death and absurdity in relation to the world around him. "Swims" details Elverum's experiences with grief counseling and the sudden death of his counselor in light of Castrée's death. It features minimal guitars, simple piano chords and what has been described as "Elverum's most naked vocal performance"; the lyrics to "My Chasm" describe Elverum's difficulty in talking about his loss in public, described as "a tribute to their everlasting love". "Emptiness pt. 2" deals with the idea of "conceptual emptiness". Thomas Britt of PopMatters wrote that "This self-reflexive commentary reframes the most powerful pictures of wind-hewn, blackened solitude in the past Microphones/Mount Eerie songbook as products of comparative comfort. Elverum discusses the fading familiar memories of Castrée on the song "Toothbrush/Trash", described as a "horrible realization that time will not relent"; the track "Soria Moria" takes its name from a painting of the same name by Theodor Kittelsen, incorporates elements of black metal and details Elverum's relationship with Castrée before her death.
The final song "Crow" is addressed to his daughter as Elverum ponders all the ways in which Castrée lives on, such as a crow, following them on a hike in the Pacific Northwest. The song has been described as a "an epilogue of sorts" which "offers a new and hopeful perspective" and as "One of the more poetic tracks on the album" Many of the lyrics feature references to nature with one reviewer noting that "tragedy hasn't stopped from noticing the world. Musically, the album is reminiscent of his 2008 work Lost Wisdom with the songs featuring sparse instrumentation with acoustic guitar and simple percussion which Elverum referred to as "barely music". Elverum wanted to release the album so he used minimal production. Elverum considered not releasing the album at all, or changing his band name but discounted these ideas, he had planned for a small scale release of the record on his own website, but as the album took shape he felt that it was good and wa
Vasile Lucaciu was a Romanian Greek-Catholic priest and an advocate of equal rights with the Hungarians in Transylvania. He was a co-author of the Transylvanian Memorandum; as a consequence, Vasile Lucaciu was tried for "homeland betrayal" in Kolozsvár/Cluj in May 1894 and sentenced to five years in prison. However he was released after one year. In 1905 he was elected deputy for the Belényes/Beiuş constituency in the Hungarian Parliament. In March 1917, Vasile Lucaciu was a member of a group of exiled Romanian Habsburg subjects who were sent as a delegation to the United States to campaign for Romania's cause. Alexandru Ciura, "Biografia părintelui Vasile Lucaciu". Florin Mirghesiu - "Iaşi - Washington via Siberia, Japonia şi Hawaii", in Magazin Istoric, no. 12, December 2004. Gelu Neamţu, "Vasile Lucaciu şi voluntarii români în armata Statelor Unite în primul război mondial", In: AUDC ist. 2001