Enfilade and defilade are concepts in military tactics used to describe a military formation's exposure to enemy fire. A formation or position is "in enfilade". A unit or position is "in defilade" if it uses natural or artificial obstacles to shield or conceal itself from enfilade; the strategies named by the English use the French enfiler and défiler, which the English nobility used at that time. Enfilade fire—gunfire directed against an enfiladed formation or position—is commonly known as "flanking fire". Raking fire is the equivalent term in naval warfare. Strafing, firing on targets from a flying platform, is done with enfilade fire, it is a advantageous, much sought for, position for the attacking force. A formation or position is "in enfilade". For instance, a trench is enfiladed. A column of marching troops is enfiladed if fired on from the front or rear such that the projectiles travel the length of the column. A rank or line of advancing troops is enfiladed; the advantages of enfilading missiles have been appreciated since antiquity, whether in pitched battles such as the Battle of Taginae or in fortifications designed to provide the defenders with opportunities to enfilade attacking forces.
Although sophisticated archery tactics grew rare in Western Europe during the Early Middle Ages, enfilade fire was reemphasized by the late medieval English using ranked archers combined with dismounted knights, first employed at the Battle of Dupplin Moor in 1332 and used to devastating effect against the French in the Hundred Years War. The benefit of enfilading an enemy formation is that, by firing along the long axis, it becomes easier to hit targets within that formation. Enfilade fire takes advantage of the fact that it is easier to aim laterally than to estimate the range to avoid shooting too long or short. Additionally, both indirect and direct fire projectiles that might miss an intended target are more to hit another valuable target within the formation if firing along the long axis; when planning field and other fortifications, it became common for mutually supporting positions to be arranged so that it became impossible to attack any one position without exposing oneself to enfilading fire from the others, this being found for example in the mutually supporting bastions of star forts, the caponiers of fortifications.
Fire is delivered so that the long axis of the target coincides or nearly coincides with the long axis of the beaten zone. A unit or position is "in defilade" if it uses artificial obstacles to shield or conceal. For an armored fighting vehicle, defilade is synonymous with a turret-down position. Defilade is used to refer to a position on the reverse slope of a hill or within a depression in level or rolling terrain. Defiladed positions on hilltops are advantageous because "dead space" – a space that cannot be engaged with direct fire – will be created in front of the position. Ideally, this dead space should be covered by the interlocking fields of fire of other nearby positions, and/or by pre-planned indirect fire such as mortars or other forms of artillery. In the case of antitank weapons, short-range man-portable antitank rockets, defiladed positions behind a hill have several important advantages; this is because the dead space created by the intervening crest of the hill prevents an approaching tank from using the range of its direct-fire weapons, neither the attacker nor defender will have a clear shot until the tank is within range of the defending antitank weapon.
In such engagements the tank is at a further disadvantage because the defender will be camouflaged while the attacking tank will be silhouetted against the sky, giving the defender an easier shot. In addition, if the tank fails to detect the defending antitank weapon while the tank is still defiladed, but advances beyond that position to the crest of the hill, it may expose the thinner armor of its lower hull or belly to the defender. Early detection and elimination of antitank threats is an important reason that tanks attack with infantry support. Artificial entrenchments can provide defilade by allowing troops to seek shelter behind a raised berm that increases the effective height of the ground, within an excavation that allows the troops to shelter below the surface of the ground or a combination of the two; the same principles apply to fighting positions for artillery and armored fighting vehicles. A unit sited in defilade threatens an enemy that decides to pass it and move forward, because the enemy would be put in an enfiladed position when moving in a rank.
The friendly unit would be in a position, shielded by terrain from direct enemy fire, while still being able to fire on the enemy in an effective manner. Crossing the T Plunging fire Raking fire Reverse slope defence Russian Fortresses, 1480–1682. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-916-9. Chartrand, René. French Fortresses in North America 1535–1763: Québec, Montréal, Louisbourg and New Orleans. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-714-7
Luís Guillermo Peréz is a Colombian human rights lawyer, serving as the General Secretary for the Americas for the International Federation for Human Rights. He has represented the Americas at the FIDH since 2004 and in May 2013 announced his candidacy to stand for the FIDH's presidency, he sits on its general assembly. Peréz was born in Líbano in the Tolima department of Colombia's Andean Region, he gained his undergraduate degree from the National University of Colombia and has done graduate study at the Institute for Higher Studies in Development, External University of Colombia, political science at Sciences Po Bordeaux and the Institute of Political Studies, Brussels. Peréz joined the José Alvear Restrepo Lawyer's Collective in 1987 and became the general secratry for the Americas region for International Federation for Human Rights in 2004, he has represented FIDH at the European Union in Brussels, the International Criminal Court in The Hague, the United Nations in Geneva and International Council at the World Social Forum.
He was the executive Secretary of the Copenhagen Initiative for Central America and Mexico for eight years, specializing in the areas of aid and development and the impact of free trade agreements on human rights. He served on the Expert Committee of the Centre National de Coopération au Développement between 1997 and 1998 for the selection of project in Latin America. In April 2018 Pérez visited Europe, in United Kingdom he submitted evidence of political murders that occurred in Colombia in 2017 to the International Criminal Court. In academia, Perez has taught General and Comparative Constitutional Law at the Graduate Department of the Escuela Superior de Administración Pública, Constitutional Law at the Academia Diplomática de San Carlos, he has held a professorship at the Law Department of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia. He has served as a permanent commentator for the radio program “Radio Air Libre Bruselas” covering issues related to human rights in Latin America and has appeared on several other media outlets.
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The Protestant Church of Algeria is a federation of Protestant churches from the Reformed and Methodist traditions established in 1972 in Algeria. It is recognised by the government of Algeria as the Association of the Protestant Church of Algeria. While exact numbers are not precise, estimates of members range from 100,000 to 150,000 in about 40 to 50 parishes nationwide in the northern coastal region of the country. Protestantism has been present in Algeria since the early days of French rule in Algeria; the first synod of the Reformed churches was held in 1843 and the French Methodists began mission work in Béjaïa around 1883. By 1914, American Methodist missionaries were well established in Algeria. After the traumatic independence of Algeria, many local Christians fled the country and by 1970, mission run schools and properties have been nationalised. In 1972, the French Reformed communities and the Methodist communities in Algeria federated into a single body known as the Protestant Church of Algeria.
The EPA was recognised by the Algerian authorities in 1974 as representing the Protestant community in the country. In 1990, a new law, Ordinance 90-31, was passed in Algeria requiring religious organizations to update their status; the EPA attempted to do so but failed and was subsequently de-registered by the Algerian government, making it an illegal organization. In 2006, Ordinance 06-03 was passed in Algeria to regulate religious places of worship to register with the government in order to operate; this resulted in churches being closed and regular ministry to Christians being curtailed in Kabylie. The EPA and other Christian communities in Algeria continued to receive harassment by Algerian government throughout the period with churches being closed and Christians arrested and charged for conversion and blasphemy On 18 July 2011, the EPA was granted re-registration by the Algerian government; this has opened the door for formal dialogue between the EPA and the Algerian government on the issues faced by Algerian Christians in the country, including initial discussions on reform and the possible abolition of Ordinance 06-03.
The EPA is affiliated with the following bodies and participates in ecumenical work: World Council of Churches World Evangelical Alliance Middle East Council of Churches Fellowship of Middle East Evangelical Churches All Africa Conference of Churches World Communion of Reformed Churches World Methodist Council Christianity in Algeria Religion in Algeria Eglise protestante d Algerie World Alliance of Reformed Churches Middle East Council of Churches
Sundancer was the proposed third prototype space habitat intended to be launched by Bigelow Aerospace—and the first human-rated expandable module based on TransHab technology acquired from NASA. It was to have been used to test and confirm systems used in the company's commercial space station efforts during the early 2010s, if successful, would have formed the first piece of the proposed commercial space station. While Sundancer had been under construction at the Bigelow plant in North Las Vegas, the company announced in July 2011 that Sundancer had been removed from their station evolution path, that the B330 would become the first production module. Upon its original announcement, Sundancer was intended to be the fourth module orbited by Bigelow Aerospace. In August 2007, however, it was announced that due to rising space launch costs and the level of success of the first two Bigelow modules launched, the third development module, would not be put into space and the Sundancer program would be accelerated.
The life support and other advanced systems intended for space testing on Galaxy, the spacecraft itself, would still be built and used for ground testing. Sundancer was intended for launch aboard the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket, but a launch date has been continually pushed back. In 2007, it was reported that Sundancer would be in orbit by 2010, with such a date confirmed by SpaceX. By March 2008 this launch slot had slipped to 2011, by 2010 had again slipped to 2014, by July 2011 the Sundancer had been cancelled such that the B330 would become the first production module. Sundancer was to spend its first six to nine months on-orbit in a checkout configuration to test systems, followed by manned shakedown missions when transport vehicles become available. If these manned missions prove successful, Bigelow plans to use Sundancer as the starting point of the first commercial space complex; the company intends to launch a combined propulsion bus and central node to dock with Sundancer, followed by two full-size B330 modules which would connect to the central node.
This station would be followed by several more similar stations. As of 2005, it was estimated. Sundancer will be equipped with full life support systems, attitude control, orbital maneuvering systems, will be capable of reboost and deorbit burns. Like the Genesis pathfinders, Sundancer will launch with its outer surface compacted around its central core, with air expanding it to its full size after entering orbit. After expansion, the module will measure 8.7 meters in length and 6.3 meters in diameter, with 180 cubic meters of habitable interior volume. Unlike previous Bigelow craft, it will feature three observation windows, will be equipped with a Soyuz-type docking system on one end of the craft and a NASA-developed International Low Impact Docking System on the other. Sundancer's propulsion system will be used to boost the module into a high orbit for long duration testing and will lower it back into an orbit reachable by manned spacecraft; the module utilizes a redundant propulsion design for its attitude control and de-orbit systems, with each propulsion system featuring a different form of propellant.
Aerojet provided the hypergolic Aft Propulsion System, with Andrews Space building the APS electronic controllers. Dynetics Orion Propulsion, created the Forward Propulsion System, which uses hydrogen and oxygen by-products from the Sundancer life support system. Bigelow Aerospace is considering an option to include lights on the exterior of the spacecraft visible from Earth, which would be a furtherance of the projection system flying aboard Genesis II. Robert Bigelow noted in an interview that "if you have some blue and green and amber-colored lighting going on, you would have something that has a lot of blink to it." Due to the added size and mass of Sundancer over previous modules, the craft will require a medium-lift launch vehicle to take it into orbit. SpaceX has been contracted to provide a Falcon 9 vehicle for a launch in 2014. Bigelow has entered discussion with Lockheed Martin regarding the possible use of the Atlas V as a launch vehicle for manned space capsules, which would be required to deliver crew and materiel to the new habitat.
As of 2010, no commercial spacecraft exists to deliver humans into orbit leaving Sundancer as "a destination waiting for a means to get there". SpaceX is in the process of human-rating the Falcon 9 vehicle and its Dragon crew capsule for carrying contracted and NASA passengers into earth orbit, Boeing is working with Bigelow Aerospace to develop the CST-100 crew capsule for NASA's Commercial Crew Development program. Bigelowaerospace.com
Back Roads is a 2018 American drama film directed by Alex Pettyfer, in his directorial debut. The screenplay by Tawni O'Dell and Adrian Lyne was adapted from the best selling novel of the same name by Tawni O'Dell. Starring Alex Pettyfer, Jennifer Morrison, Nicola Peltz, Robert Patrick and Juliette Lewis, the film centers on a young man stuck in the Pennsylvania backwoods caring for his three younger sisters after his mother is arrested for murdering his father, it premiered at the 2018 Tribeca Film Festival and was released in selected theaters in the United States on December 7, 2018, by Samuel Goldwyn Films, will be released on video on demand and digital. After his mother is imprisoned for killing his abusive father, Harley Altmyer is left to care for his three younger sisters in rural Pennsylvania. Harley forgoes his college education, working dead-end jobs to pay the bills and raise his siblings, including his rebellious and sexually-maniacally-abusive 16-year-old sister, Amber. Scarred by his past, Harley becomes infatuated with Callie Mercer, the older married woman who lives nearby.
Things take a dangerous turn when they embark on an affair and shocking family secrets soon begin to emerge. As Harley's life spirals out of control, unspoken truths leading to a devastating conclusion come to the surface and threaten to consume him. Alex Pettyfer as Harley Altmyer Jennifer Morrison as Callie Mercer Nicola Peltz as Amber Altmyer Chiara Aurelia as Misty Altmyer Hala Finley as Jody Altmyer June Carry as Betty Parks Robert Patrick as Chief Mansour Juliette Lewis as Bonnie Altmyer Robert Longstreet as Uncle Mike Jeff Pope as Rick Gavin Warren In Back Roads, British actor Alex Pettyfer, makes his directorial debut, realizing a dream to direct and make the 1999 New York Times bestselling novel by author Tawni O’Dell into a film, he plays the lead character of Harley, in a cast that includes Jennifer Morrison, Nicola Peltz, Chiara Aurelia, Hala Finley, June Carryl, with Robert Patrick and Juliette Lewis. The project has long compelled Pettyfer’s interest. Nearly a decade ago, when the film was announced as an Adrian Lyne production, the actor auditioned for the role of Harley.
“Unfortunately, it didn’t work out,” says Pettyfer, 18 or 19 at the time. But Pettyfer never lost hope for the movie; as his professional ambitions evolved, the possibility of making it a reality emerged with the formation of Upturn Productions, LLC. “Pettyfer and his producing partner Craig Robinson setup Upturn Productions in 2015 with the intent of securing literary works that could be made into film or television. Their first project secured was based on the life of Colombian drug lord, Griselda Blanco, which they developed with LBI Entertainment’s Julie Yorn and Patrick Walmsley, secured a co-production with Jennifer Lopez and her producing partner Elaine Goldsmith-Thomas at Nuyorican Productions; the feature film project was picked up by HBO with Terence Winter attached to write and executive produce with Jennifer Lopez. Upturn went on to secure its next co-production with producer Michael Ohoven, who had controlled the rights to Back Roads for over ten years. After numerous attempts to secure a top tier director for the film in 2016, with Pettyfer as the lead, Robinson went back to his financiers of the film and convinced them to give Pettyfer an opportunity to direct Back Roads as his first film.
Pettyfer and Robinson hadn’t taken on the project with the expectation of Pettyfer directing, it was more to control the content Upturn wanted to produce with Pettyfer as a lead. “I always approached it as an actor,” he says. “As an actor, it’s a rich piece of material. Never in my right mind would I think that I would get the opportunity to direct a film, ever. So me coming back to it, I knew it was an important piece of material to talk about, we as actors are always looking for a challenge, so to me I was coming back to get the project made.” Every producer knows the challenge of pulling together funds for an independent feature film, let alone funding a film for a first-time director, self-directing in a starring role. Yet, Robinson secured Pettyfer’s directorial foothold on several grounds. Firstly, the financiers were willing to agree to the condition of reducing their risk and budget, which equated to a limited twenty-three day shooting schedule. Secondly, they stipulated that Pettyfer would be bolstered in his endeavor by a support network of Upturn and Infinity’s team of professionals, including producer Michael Ohoven and writer/producer Ashley Mansour.
Working with cinematographer Jarin Blaschke, Pettyfer made use of locations in the southern Louisiana town of St. Francisville to stand in for a rural Pennsylvania that feels like a closed-off shadow world. “You don’t know the era or where you are,” Pettyfer says. “I kind of set it in the early ‘90s.” Only one clock is witnessed, no cell phones. “There’s only a pay phone, you begin feeling more and more closed in. In the beginning, there are opening shots of landscape, but it becomes darker and more confined.” Given the story’s lurid undertow, Pettyfer was mindful of overplaying the material, encouraging the film’s audience to key in on its psychological complexity and feel compassion for characters whose inner and outer lives have been twisted up by tragic circumstances dangerously larger than themselves. “The key behind the film I wanted to make was a much more subtle film and, my take from the beginning,” Pettyfer says. “I wanted it to be an exploration of emotion and an exploration of family drama, rather than an exploration into this kind of sexual dark romanc
CD16 known as FcγRIII, is a cluster of differentiation molecule found on the surface of natural killer cells, neutrophils and macrophages. CD16 has been identified as Fc receptors FcγRIIIa and FcγRIIIb, which participate in signal transduction; the most well-researched membrane receptor implicated in triggering lysis by NK cells, CD16 is a molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily involved in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. It can be used to isolate populations of specific immune cells through fluorescent-activated cell sorting or magnetic-activated cell sorting, using antibodies directed towards CD16. CD16 is the type III Fcγ receptor. In humans, it exists in two different forms: FcγRIIIa and FcγRIIIb, which have 96% sequence similarity in the extracellular immunoglobulin binding regions. While FcγRIIIa is expressed on mast cells and natural killer cells as a transmembrane receptor, FcγRIIIb is only expressed on neutrophils. In addition, FcγRIIIb is the only Fc receptor anchored to the cell membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol linker, plays a significant role in triggering calcium mobilization and neutrophil degranulation.
FcγRIIIa and FcγRIIIb together are able to activate degranulation and oxidative burst, which allows neutrophils to clear opsonized pathogens. These receptors bind to the Fc portion of IgG antibodies, which activates antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in human NK cells. CD16 is required for ADCC processes carried out by human monocytes. In humans, monocytes expressing CD16 have a variety of ADCC capabilities in the presence of specific antibodies, can kill primary leukemic cells, cancer cell lines, cells infected with hepatitis B virus. In addition, CD16 is able to mediate the direct killing of some virally infected and cancer cells without antibodies. After binding to ligands such as the conserved section of IgG antibodies, CD16 on human NK cells induce gene transcription of surface activation molecules such as IL-2-R and inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-gamma and TNF; this CD16-induced expression of cytokine mRNA in NK cells is mediated by the nuclear factor of activated T cells, a cyclosporin A -sensitive factor that regulates the transcription of various cytokines.
The upregulated expression of specific cytokine genes occurs via a CsA-sensitive and calcium-dependent mechanism. The crystal structures of FcεRIα, FcγRIIa, FcγRIIb and FcγRIII have been experimentally determined; these structures revealed a conserved immunoglobulin-like structure. In addition, the structures demonstrated a common feature in all known Ig superfamily Fc receptors: the acute hinge angle between the N- and C-terminal Ig domains; the structure of CD16 consists of two immunoglobulin-like domains, with an interdomain hinge angle of around 50°. The receptor's Fc binding region carries a net positive charge, which complements the negatively-charged receptor binding regions on Fc. CD16 plays a significant role in early activation of natural killer cells following vaccination. In addition, CD16 downregulation represents a possible way to moderate NK cell responses and maintain immune homeostasis in both T cell and antibody-dependent signaling pathways. In a normal, healthy individual, cross-linking of CD16 by immune complexes induces antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in NK cells.
However, this pathway can be targeted in cancerous or diseased cells by immunotherapy. After influenza vaccination, CD16 downregulation was associated with significant upregulation of influenza-specific plasma antibodies, positively correlated with degranulation of NK cells. CD16 is used as an additional marker to reliably identify different subsets of human immune cells. Several other CD molecules, such as CD11b and CD33, are traditionally used as markers for human myeloid-derived suppressor cells. However, since these markers are expressed on NK cells and all other cells derived from myelocytes, other markers are required, such as CD14 and CD15. Neutrophils are found to be CD15high, whereas monocytes are CD14high and CD15low. While these two markers are sufficient to differentiate between neutrophils and monocytes, eosinophils have a similar CD15 expression to neutrophils. Therefore, CD16 is used as a further marker to identify neutrophils: mature neutrophils are CD16high, while eosinophils and monocytes are both CD16low.
CD16 allows for distinction between these two types of granulocytes. Additionally, CD16 expression varies between the different stages of neutrophil development: neutrophil progenitors that have differentiation capacity are CD16low, with increasing expression of CD16 in metamyelocytes and mature neutrophils, respectively. With its expression on neutrophils, CD16 represents a possible target in cancer immunotherapy. Margetuximab, an Fc-optimized monoclonal antibody that recognizes the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expressed on tumor cells in breast and other solid tumor cancers, targets CD16A in preference to CD16B. In addition, CD16 could play a role in antibody-targeting cancer therapies. FcγRIV, a murine homologue of CD16A has been shown to be involved in antibody-mediated depletion of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells in monoclonal antibody mediated immunotherapy. Bispecific antibody fragments, such as anti-CD19/CD16, allow the targeting of immunotherapeutic drugs to the cancer cell.
Anti-CD19/CD16 diabodies have been shown to enhance the natural killer cell response to B-cell lymphomas. Furthermore, targeting extrinsic factors such as FasL or TRAIL to the tumor cell surface triggers death receptors, inducing apoptosis by both autocrine and paracrine processes. CD16+Anti