Engelberg is a village resort and a municipality in the canton of Obwalden in Switzerland. Besides the village of Engelberg, the municipality includes the settlements of Grafenort and Schwand; the municipality of Engelberg is an exclave of Obwalden, surrounded by the cantons of Bern and Uri. Engelberg is a major mountain resort in Central Switzerland. In the Middle Ages, Engelberg was known for the educational quality of its Benedictine monastery, Engelberg Abbey. From the 19th Century onwards Engelberg became internationally known as a mountain resort, but it is today visited as much for skiing as for its Alpine character. With its combination of modern snow and sports facilities and alpine location, Engelberg is popular today for both summer and winter tourism; the nearest large city is Lucerne. The official language of Engelberg is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. Engelberg is first mentioned as Engilperc in 1122, when the Abbey was first founded there, although the Alpine pasture of Trübsee was exploited collectively before this time.
From 1850, Engelberg became an international vacation resort. Many hotels were built by the families Cattani and Odermatt, pioneers of tourism. From 1872 to 1874, a new, wider road was built, the Stansstad-Engelberg electric railway was opened in 1898. Hiking and other mountain sports developed at the end of the 19th century and Engelberg first held a winter season in 1903-1904. A funicular railway connects Engelberg to Gerschni and, from there, the second cable car in Switzerland runs onwards to Ober Trübsee; the decade preceding the First World War was a period of boom conditions. The widening of the road and the extension of the railway to Lucerne opened up the tourism catchment area of the station and, in 1967, the higher section of the Titlis cable car was opened. Regular conferences in Engelberg came to supplement winter tourism. In 2000, the tertiary sector tourism, offered three quarters of the employment of Engelberg. Engelberg is situated within the Uri Alps mountain range. Engelberg is surrounded by major mountain summits, such as Titlis in the south above sea level), the Walenstöcke and Ruchstock to the north and Wissberg to the east, the Engelberger Rotstock and Wissigstock, Gross Gemsispil to the northeast, the upper valley of the Engelberger Aa leading to the Surenen Pass leading to the Urner Reusstal.
Engelberg has an area, of 74.87 km2. Of this area, about 27.1% is used for agricultural purposes, while 25.8% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 3.7% is settled and 43.5% is unproductive land. In the 2013/18 survey a total of 146 ha or about 1.9% of the total area was covered with buildings, an increase of 35 ha over the 1980/81 amount. Over the same time period, the amount of recreational space in the municipality increased by 34 ha and is now about 0.61% of the total area. Of the agricultural land, 685 ha is fields and grasslands and 1,424 ha consists of alpine grazing areas. Since 1980/81 the amount of agricultural land has decreased by 156 ha. Over the same time period the amount of forested land has increased by 103 ha. Rivers and lakes cover 78 ha in the municipality; the average altitude of Engelberg is 1,020 m. However the village is surrounded by the Alps, creating steep terrain; the highest point in the borders of the municipality is the Titlis. The Engelberg Valley is drained by a tributary of Lake Lucerne.
The valley is located southwards from the lake. The municipality of Engelberg is served by two stations on the Luzern–Stans–Engelberg line. Engelberg railway station is the terminus of the line. Grafenort station is to the north, one station away. Both stations are served by hourly InterRegio trains from the city of Lucerne. A free bus system provides daytime transport within the village, with a network of seven routes during the winter season and a single route during the summer season; the major tourist activities in the village and surrounding area are skiing and other snow sports in the winter season, hiking and mountain activities during the summer. In the village itself the main sights are the Benedictine monastery Engelberg Abbey which incorporates a cheese factory and demonstration shop, the Talmuseum showing the history of the area and Swiss rural life, a number of old chapels; the winter sports season lasts from December until April, although the high altitude glacier areas on the Titlis can sometimes be used from October until May.
Snow coverage is reliable, although in recent years artificial snow machines have been installed on some of the lower altitude runs in order to improve snow cover. Engelberg hosts a round of the ski jumping world cup at the Gross-Titlis-Schanze jump. In common with the rest of Switzerland, there is a village celebration for Swiss National Day on the 1st August, with parades and events throughout the day. On the last Saturday in September the Alpabzug takes place, when the cattle are brought from the mountain pastures back to their winter barns in the village and valley. There are thre
Saint Blaise Abbey, Black Forest
Saint Blaise Abbey was a Benedictine monastery in the village of St. Blasien in the Black Forest in Baden-Württemberg, Germany; the early history of the abbey is obscure. Its predecessor in the 9th century is supposed to have been a cell of Rheinau Abbey, known as cella alba, but the line of development between that and the confirmed existence of St Blasien's Abbey in the 11th century is unclear. At some point the new foundation would have had to become independent of Rheinau, in which process the shadowy Reginbert of Seldenbüren, traditionally named as the founder, may have played some role; the first definite abbot of St Blasien however was Werner I. On 8 June 1065 the abbey received a grant of immunity from Emperor Henry IV, although it had connections to the family of the anti-king Rudolf of Rheinfelden. Between 1070 and 1073 there seem to have been contacts between St. Blasien and the active Cluniac abbey of Fruttuaria in Italy, which led to St. Blasien following the Fruttuarian reforms, introducing lay-brothers or "conversi" and even the reformation of the abbey as a double monastery for both monks and nuns.
Bernold of Constance in his histories counts St Blasien alongside Hirsau Abbey as leading Swabian reform monasteries. Other religious houses reformed by, or founded as priories of, St Blasien were: Muri Abbey, Ochsenhausen Abbey, Göttweig Abbey, Stein am Rhein Abbey and Prüm Abbey, it had significant influence on the abbeys of Alpirsbach, Ettenheimmünster and Sulzburg, the priories of Weitenau, Bürgeln and Sitzenkirch. A list of prayer partnerships, drawn up about 1150, shows how extensive the connections were between St Blasien and other religious communities. During the course of the 12th century however the zeal of the monks cooled, as their attention became focussed on the acquisition and exploitation of their substantial estates, which by the 15th century extended across the whole of the Black Forest and included not only the abbey's priories named above, but the nunnery at Gutnau and the livings of Niederrotweil, Wettelbrunn, Hochemmingen, Efringen, Schönau, Plochingen and many others.
The original Vogtei of the Bishops of Basle was shaken off quite early: a charter of the Emperor Henry V dated 8 January 1125 confirms that the abbey possessed imperial protection and free election of their Vogt. The office afterwards became a possession of the Zähringer, after their extinction in 1218, was held at Imperial will and gift under the Emperor Frederick II. While this may well have preserved a certain bond with the Emperor, there seems to have been no question of St Blaise's having the status of a "Reichskloster". From the mid-13th century the Vögte were Habsburg which this drew St. Blasien into the Austrian sphere of influence; the ties to the Empire remained, however: the abbey was named between 1422 and 1521 in the lists of imperial territories and the Swabian Circle tried in vain in 1549 to claim St Blasien as an imperial abbey. The four imperial lordships which St Blaise's had acquired by the end of the 13th century — Blumegg, Bettmaringen and Berauer Berg — in fact formed the nucleus of the reichsunmittelbar lordship of Bonndorf, constituted in 1609, from which the Prince-Abbots derived their status in the Holy Roman Empire.
The abbey was dissolved in the course of secularisation in 1806 and the monastic premises were thereupon used as one of the earliest mechanised factories in Germany. The monks however, under the last Prince-Abbot Dr Berthold Rottler, found their way to St. Paul's Abbey in the Lavanttal in Austria, where they settled in 1809. From 1934, the remaining buildings have been occupied by the well-known Jesuit college, the Kolleg St. Blasien; the abbey church burnt down in 1768, was rebuilt as a Neoclassical round church by the architect Pierre Michel d'Ixnard, with an enormous dome 46 metres across and 63 metres high, during the years up to 1781 under the Prince-Abbot Martin Gerbert. It remains as the Dom St Blasius, or "St. Blaise Cathedral"; the effects of another catastrophic fire in 1874 were only remedied in the 1980s. Beringer von Hohenschwanden Ifo Siegfried Bernard Werner I Giselbert Otto I Rustenus Berthold I Gunther of Andlau Werner II of Küssaberg Theodebert of Bussnang Manegold of Hallwil Hermann I of Messkirch Otto II Hermann II Heinrich I Arnold I Arnold II Heinrich II of Stadion Berthold II Heinrich III Ulrich Petrus I of Thayingen Heinrich IV of Eschenz Konrad Johannes I Kreutz Johannes II Duttlinger Nikolaus Stocker Petrus II Bösch Christopher of Greuth Eberhard von Reischach Blasius I Wambach Georg of Horb Buob Johannes III Spielmann Gallus Haas Johannes IV Wagner Caspar I Müller von Schöneck Caspar II Thomae Martin I Meister Blasius II Münster Franz I Chullots Otto III Kübler Romanus Vogler Augustin S
Academia Engelberg Foundation
The Academia Engelberg Foundation is a Swiss foundation in Engelberg in the Canton of Obwalden that aims to impart and utilize knowledge. It promotes the dialogue on the scientific and ecological basic values of society; the Foundation is based in the Engelberg monastery. The Foundation's founding members are the Cantons of Uri, Obwalden, Nidwalden and Zug, the town of Engelberg and the Swiss Reinsurance Company; the Foundation is subject to federal oversight. The Foundation organizes or supports inter-disciplinary events such as the annual conference, follow-up events and projects with an international flair; the Academia Engelberg Foundation funds the events with contributions from the public sector, the business community and via the "Friends of Academia Engelberg. It is not a donation-based foundation, is non-profit, tax-exempt, its activities are inter-disciplinary and bring together participants from different countries and religions. Particular emphasis is placed between genders; every year, a multi-day congress on a subject from the natural and technical sciences and the humanities is organized in Engelberg.
Personalities from science, business and society as well as students are invited. The «Dialogue on Science» is not only designed to spark thematic discussions but to propose solutions. In preparation of the annual conference in Engelberg and post-doctoral students develop project studies, which are discussed in-depth at the conference. So far, the following annual topics have been addressed: 2002: «From Global Inequity towards a Humane World» 2003: «Pervasive Computing» 2004: «Will Climate Change The World» 2005: «Taboos on Decision-Making in the Healthcare System» 2006: «Rethinking our Energy Future» 2007: «Water – Private or Public Good?» 2008: «Growth – Constraint or Opportunity?» 2009: «Violence in Human Society» 2010: «Challenging Democracy» 2011: «Personalized Medicine» 2012: «Cities of the Future» 2013: «The Future of the Welfare State» 2014: «Food Security» 2015: «Future Economic Systems» 2016: «At the Limits»The "ENGELBERG DIALOGUES 2018" will take place from 14th October to 17th October.
The theme of the event is "Unlimited Migration?". Special and in-depth events are conducted on the individual annual topics. Thus, a follow-up event to the 2003 conference on the topic of «The Transparent Citizen» took place in April 2005. In November 2005, we conducted a meeting, "European Research Area and Beyond", in cooperation with the Swiss State Secretariat for Education and Research and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich as part of an international discussion forum on science policies. In August 2008, a follow-up event to the 2007 conference on the subject of «The Climate Change Challenge» was organized. In January, 2012, the seminar «The Environment and the Free Market», with a multitude of philosophical questions, was conducted in Vaduz; the results of the discussions held at the annual conference are turned into projects. With their realization by post-doctoral students and students in particular, awareness on the applicable subject is raised and a contribution is made to the elimination of global inequities.
From 2005 to 2008, the International Student Initiative for Action on Climate Change worked on the project «Stop Deforestation» in Latin America. A workshop in Egypt with members of the international organization Youth Encounter on Sustainability on the subject of water management was held in early November 2008 as a follow-up project to the 2007 conference. Website of the Academia Engelberg Foundation
Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry IV became King of the Germans in 1056. From 1084 until his forced abdication in 1105, he was referred to as the King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperor, he was the third emperor of the Salian dynasty and one of the most powerful and important figures of the 11th century. His reign was marked by the Investiture Controversy with the Papacy, he was excommunicated five times by three different popes. Civil wars over his throne took place in both Germany, he died soon after defeating his son's army near Visé, in Lorraine, France. In 1056 at Aachen, Henry IV was enthroned as the King of the Germans by Pope Victor II, while his mother, Agnes of Poitou, became regent. In 1062 the young king was kidnapped as a result of the Coup of Kaiserswerth, a conspiracy of German nobles led by Anno II, Archbishop of Cologne. Henry, at Kaiserwerth, was persuaded to board a boat on the Rhine. Agnes retired to a convent, the government was placed in the hands of Anno, his first action was to back Pope Alexander II against the antipope Honorius II, whom Agnes had recognized but subsequently left without support.
Anno's rule proved unpopular. The education and training of Henry were supervised by Anno, called his magister, while Adalbert of Hamburg, archbishop of Bremen, was styled Henry's patronus. Henry's education seems to have been neglected, his willful and headstrong nature developed under the conditions of these early years; the malleable Adalbert of Hamburg soon became the confidante of the ruthless Henry. During an absence of Anno from Germany, Henry managed to obtain control of his civil duties, leaving Anno with only an ecclesiastical role. Henry's entire reign was marked by apparent efforts to consolidate Imperial power. In reality, however, he worked to maintain the loyalty of the nobility and the support of the pope. In 1066, he expelled from the Crown Council Adalbert of Hamburg, who had profited from his position for personal enrichment. Henry adopted urgent military measures against the Slav pagans, who had invaded Germany and besieged Hamburg. In June 1066 Henry married Bertha of Savoy/Turin, daughter of Otto, Count of Savoy, to whom he had been betrothed in 1055.
In the same year, at the request of the Pope, he assembled an army to fight the Italo-Normans of southern Italy. Henry's troops had reached Augsburg when he received news that Godfrey of Tuscany, husband of the powerful Matilda of Canossa, marchioness of Tuscany, had attacked the Normans. Therefore, the expedition was halted. In 1068, driven by his impetuous character and his infidelities, Henry attempted to divorce Bertha, his peroration at a council in Mainz was rejected, however, by the Papal legate Pier Damiani, or Peter Damian, who hinted that any further insistence towards divorce would lead the new pope, Alexander II, to deny his coronation. Henry obeyed and his wife returned to Court. Henry believed that the Papal opposition was less about his marriage than about overthrowing lay power within the Empire, in favour of an ecclesiastical hierarchy. In the late 1060s, Henry demonstrated his determination to reduce any opposition and to enlarge the empire's boundaries, he led the margrave of a district east of Saxony.
Much more serious was Henry's struggle with Otto of duke of Bavaria. This prince, who occupied an influential position in Germany and was one of the protagonists of Henry's early kidnapping, was accused in 1070 by a certain Egino of being privy to a plot to murder the king, it was decided that a trial by combat should take place at Goslar, but when Otto's demand for safe conduct to and from the place of meeting was refused, he declined to appear. He was declared deposed in Bavaria, his Saxon estates were plundered. However, he obtained sufficient support to carry on a struggle with the king in Saxony and Thuringia until 1071, when he submitted at Halberstadt. Henry aroused the hostility of the Thuringians by supporting Siegfried, archbishop of Mainz, in his efforts to exact tithes from them. More formidable still was the enmity of the Saxons, who had several causes of complaint against the king—he was the son of one enemy, Henry III, the friend of another, Adalbert of Hamburg-Bremen; the momentum for a reform of the church had its clear beginning during the reign of Henry's father, in the short but effective pontificate of Leo IX, whom Henry III had nominated.
Since that time, the reforming initiative had been carried on by men like Cardinal Bishop Humbert of Moyenmoutier and St. Peter Damian. After the death of Cardinal Humbert, who had called for a return to the old canonical principles of free election of the papacy and the emancipation of the Church from the control of the secular power, the leadership of the reform movement passed to younger men, of whom the Tuscan monk Hildebrand, a follower of Humbert, stood foremost. Hildebrand ascended the papacy in 1073 as Gregory VII. While Henry adhered to Papal decrees in religious matters to secure the Church's support for his expeditions in Saxony and Thuringia, Gregory saw the opportunity to press the Church's agenda; the high tensions between the Empire and the Church culminated in the ecclesiastical councils of 1074-75, many of the measures passed attempted to undo substantial portions of Henry III's policies. Among other measures, the councils denied secular rulers the right to place members of the clergy in any ecclesiastical office.
The Benedictines the Order of Saint Benedict, are a monastic Catholic religious order of monks and nuns that follow the Rule of Saint Benedict. They are sometimes called the Black Monks, in reference to the colour of the members' religious habits. Despite being called an order, the Benedictines do not operate under a single hierarchy but are instead organised as a collection of independent monastic communities, with each community within the order maintaining its own autonomy. Unlike other religious orders, the Benedictines do not have a superior general or motherhouse with universal jurisdiction. Instead, the order is represented internationally by the Benedictine Confederation, an organisation, set up in 1893 to represent the order's shared interests; the monastery at Subiaco in Italy, established by Saint Benedict of Nursia c. 529, was the first of the dozen monasteries he founded. He founded the Abbey of Monte Cassino. There is no evidence, that he intended to found an order and the Rule of Saint Benedict presupposes the autonomy of each community.
When Monte Cassino was sacked by the Lombards about the year 580, the monks fled to Rome, it seems probable that this constituted an important factor in the diffusion of a knowledge of Benedictine monasticism. It was from the monastery of St. Andrew in Rome that Augustine, the prior, his forty companions set forth in 595 on their mission for the evangelization of England. At various stopping places during the journey, the monks left behind them traditions concerning their rule and form of life, also some copies of the Rule. Lérins Abbey, for instance, founded by Honoratus in 375 received its first knowledge of the Benedictine Rule from the visit of St. Augustine and his companions in 596. Gregory of Tours says that at Ainay Abbey, in the sixth century, the monks "followed the rules of Basil, Cassian and other fathers and using whatever seemed proper to the conditions of time and place", doubtless the same liberty was taken with the Benedictine Rule when it reached them. In Gaul and Switzerland, it supplemented the much stricter Irish or Celtic Rule introduced by Columbanus and others.
In many monasteries it entirely displaced the earlier codes. By the ninth century, the Benedictine had become the standard form of monastic life throughout the whole of Western Europe, excepting Scotland and Ireland, where the Celtic observance still prevailed for another century or two. Through the work of Benedict of Aniane, it became the rule of choice for monasteries throughout the Carolingian empire. Monastic scriptoria flourished from the ninth through the twelfth centuries. Sacred Scripture was always at the heart of every monastic scriptorium; as a general rule those of the monks who possessed skill as writers made this their chief, if not their sole active work. An anonymous writer of the ninth or tenth century speaks of six hours a day as the usual task of a scribe, which would absorb all the time available for active work in the day of a medieval monk. In the Middle Ages monasteries were founded by the nobility. Cluny Abbey was founded by William I, Duke of Aquitaine in 910; the abbey was noted for its strict adherence to the Rule of St. Benedict.
The abbot of Cluny was the superior of all the daughter houses, through appointed priors. One of the earliest reforms of Benedictine practice was that initiated in 980 by Romuald, who founded the Camaldolese community; the dominance of the Benedictine monastic way of life began to decline towards the end of the twelfth century, which saw the rise of the Franciscans and Dominicans. Benedictines took a fourth vow of "stability". Not being bound by location, the mendicants were better able to respond to an "urban" environment; this decline was further exacerbated by the practice of appointing a commendatory abbot, a lay person, appointed by a noble to oversee and to protect the goods of the monastery. Oftentimes, this resulted in the appropriation of the assets of monasteries at the expense of the community which they were intended to support; the English Benedictine Congregation is the oldest of the nineteen Benedictine congregations. Augustine of Canterbury and his monks established the first English Benedictine monastery at Canterbury soon after their arrival in 597.
Other foundations followed. Through the influence of Wilfrid, Benedict Biscop, Dunstan, the Benedictine Rule spread with extraordinary rapidity, in the North it was adopted in most of the monasteries, founded by the Celtic missionaries from Iona. Many of the episcopal sees of England were founded and governed by the Benedictines, no fewer than nine of the old cathedrals were served by the black monks of the priories attached to them. Monasteries served as places of refuge for the weak and homeless; the monks studied the healing properties of plants and minerals to alleviate the sufferings of the sick. Germany was evangelized by English Benedictines. Willibrord and Boniface preached there in the seventh and eighth centuries and founded several abbeys. In the English Reformation, all monasteries were dissolved and their lands confiscated by the Crown, forcing their Catholic members to flee into exile on the Continent. During the 19th century they were able to return to England, including to Selby Abbey in Yorkshire, one of the few great monastic churches to survive the Dissolution.
St. Mildred's Priory, on the Isle of Thanet, was built in 1027 on the site of an abbey founded in 670 by the daughter of the first Christian King of Kent; the priory is home to a community of Benedictine nuns. Five of
JPEG is a used method of lossy compression for digital images for those images produced by digital photography. The degree of compression can be adjusted, allowing a selectable tradeoff between storage size and image quality. JPEG achieves 10:1 compression with little perceptible loss in image quality. JPEG compression is used in a number of image file formats. JPEG/Exif is the most common image format used by digital cameras and other photographic image capture devices; these format variations are not distinguished, are called JPEG. The term "JPEG" is an initialism/acronym for the Joint Photographic Experts Group, which created the standard; the MIME media type for JPEG is image/jpeg, except in older Internet Explorer versions, which provides a MIME type of image/pjpeg when uploading JPEG images. JPEG files have a filename extension of.jpg or.jpeg. JPEG/JFIF supports a maximum image size of 65,535×65,535 pixels, hence up to 4 gigapixels for an aspect ratio of 1:1. "JPEG" stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group, the name of the committee that created the JPEG standard and other still picture coding standards.
The "Joint" stood for ISO TC97 WG8 and CCITT SGVIII. In 1987, ISO TC 97 became ISO/IEC JTC1 and, in 1992, CCITT became ITU-T. On the JTC1 side, JPEG is one of two sub-groups of ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 29, Working Group 1 – titled as Coding of still pictures. On the ITU-T side, ITU-T SG16 is the respective body; the original JPEG Group was organized in 1986, issuing the first JPEG standard in 1992, approved in September 1992 as ITU-T Recommendation T.81 and, in 1994, as ISO/IEC 10918-1. The JPEG standard specifies the codec, which defines how an image is compressed into a stream of bytes and decompressed back into an image, but not the file format used to contain that stream; the Exif and JFIF standards define the used file formats for interchange of JPEG-compressed images. JPEG standards are formally named as Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images. ISO/IEC 10918 consists of the following parts: Ecma International TR/98 specifies the JPEG File Interchange Format.
The JPEG compression algorithm operates at its best on photographs and paintings of realistic scenes with smooth variations of tone and color. For web usage, where reducing the amount of data used for an image is important for responsive presentation, JPEG's compression benefits make JPEG popular. JPEG/Exif is the most common format saved by digital cameras. However, JPEG is not well suited for line drawings and other textual or iconic graphics, where the sharp contrasts between adjacent pixels can cause noticeable artifacts; such images are better saved in a lossless graphics format such as TIFF, GIF, PNG, or a raw image format. The JPEG standard includes a lossless coding mode; as the typical use of JPEG is a lossy compression method, which reduces the image fidelity, it is inappropriate for exact reproduction of imaging data. JPEG is not well suited to files that will undergo multiple edits, as some image quality is lost each time the image is recompressed if the image is cropped or shifted, or if encoding parameters are changed – see digital generation loss for details.
To prevent image information loss during sequential and repetitive editing, the first edit can be saved in a lossless format, subsequently edited in that format finally published as JPEG for distribution. JPEG uses a lossy form of compression based on the discrete cosine transform; this mathematical operation converts each frame/field of the video source from the spatial domain into the frequency domain. A perceptual model based loosely on the human psychovisual system discards high-frequency information, i.e. sharp transitions in intensity, color hue. In the transform domain, the process of reducing information is called quantization. In simpler terms, quantization is a method for optimally reducing a large number scale into a smaller one, the transform-domain is a convenient representation of the image because the high-frequency coefficients, which contribute less to the overall picture than other coefficients, are characteristically small-values with high compressibility; the quantized coefficients are sequenced and losslessly packed into the output bitstream.
Nearly all software implementations of JPEG permit user control over the compression ratio, allowing the user to trade off picture-quality for smaller file size. In embedded applications, the parameters are fixed for the application; the compression method is lossy, meaning that some original image information is lost and cannot be restored affecting image quality. There is an optional lossless mode defined in the JPEG standard. However, this mode is not supported in products. There is an interlaced progressive JPEG format, in which data is compressed in multiple passes of progressively higher detail; this is ideal for large images that will be displayed while downloading over a slow connection, allowing a reasonable preview after receiving only a portion of the data. However, support for progressive JPEGs is not universal; when progressive JPEGs are received by programs that do not support them (such
William Wordsworth was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads. Wordsworth's magnum opus is considered to be The Prelude, a semi-autobiographical poem of his early years that he revised and expanded a number of times, it was posthumously titled and published, before which it was known as "the poem to Coleridge". Wordsworth was Britain's poet laureate from 1843 until his death from pleurisy on 23 April 1850; the second of five children born to John Wordsworth and Ann Cookson, William Wordsworth was born on 7 April 1770 in what is now named Wordsworth House in Cockermouth, part of the scenic region in northwestern England known as the Lake District. William's sister, the poet and diarist Dorothy Wordsworth, to whom he was close all his life, was born the following year, the two were baptised together, they had three other siblings: the eldest, who became a lawyer. Wordsworth's father was a legal representative of James Lowther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale and, through his connections, lived in a large mansion in the small town.
He was away from home on business, so the young William and his siblings had little involvement with him and remained distant from him until his death in 1783. However, he did encourage William in his reading, in particular set him to commit large portions of verse to memory, including works by Milton and Spenser. William was allowed to use his father's library. William spent time at his mother's parents' house in Penrith, where he was exposed to the moors, but did not get along with his grandparents or his uncle, who lived there, his hostile interactions with them distressed him to the point of contemplating suicide. Wordsworth was taught to read by his mother and attended, first, a tiny school of low quality in Cockermouth a school in Penrith for the children of upper-class families, where he was taught by Ann Birkett, who insisted on instilling in her students traditions that included pursuing both scholarly and local activities the festivals around Easter, May Day and Shrove Tuesday. Wordsworth was taught the Spectator, but little else.
It was at the school in Penrith that he met the Hutchinsons, including Mary, who became his wife. After the death of Wordsworth's mother, in 1778, his father sent him to Hawkshead Grammar School in Lancashire and sent Dorothy to live with relatives in Yorkshire, she and William did not meet again for another nine years. Wordsworth made his debut as a writer in 1787; that same year he began attending Cambridge. He received his BA degree in 1791, he returned to Hawkshead for the first two summers of his time at Cambridge, spent holidays on walking tours, visiting places famous for the beauty of their landscape. In 1790 he went on a walking tour of Europe, during which he toured the Alps extensively, visited nearby areas of France and Italy. In November 1791, Wordsworth visited Revolutionary France and became enchanted with the Republican movement, he fell in love with a French woman, Annette Vallon, who in 1792 gave birth to their daughter Caroline. Financial problems and Britain's tense relations with France forced him to return to England alone the following year.
The circumstances of his return and his subsequent behaviour raised doubts as to his declared wish to marry Annette, but he supported her and his daughter as best he could in life. The Reign of Terror left Wordsworth disillusioned with the French Revolution and the outbreak of armed hostilities between Britain and France prevented him from seeing Annette and his daughter for some years. With the Peace of Amiens again allowing travel to France, in 1802 Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy visited Annette and Caroline in Calais; the purpose of the visit was to prepare Annette for the fact of his forthcoming marriage to Mary Hutchinson. Afterwards he wrote the sonnet "It is a beauteous evening and free," recalling a seaside walk with the 9-year-old Caroline, whom he had never seen before that visit. Mary was anxious. Upon Caroline's marriage, in 1816, Wordsworth settled £30 a year on her, payments which continued until 1835, when they were replaced by a capital settlement; the year 1793 saw the first publication of poems by Wordsworth, in the collections An Evening Walk and Descriptive Sketches.
In 1795 he received a legacy of 900 pounds from Raisley Calvert and became able to pursue a career as a poet. It was in 1795 that he met Samuel Taylor Coleridge in Somerset; the two poets developed a close friendship. In 1797, Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy moved to Alfoxton House, just a few miles away from Coleridge's home in Nether Stowey. Together Wordsworth and Coleridge produced Lyrical Ballads, an important work in the English Romantic movement; the volume gave Coleridge's name as author. One of Wordsworth's most famous poems, "Tintern Abbey", was published in this collection, along with Coleridge's "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner"; the second edition, published in 1800, had only Wordsworth listed as the author, included a preface to the poems. It was augmented in the next edition, pub