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England national football team

The England national football team represents England in men's international football and is governed by The Football Association, the governing body for football in England. It competes in the three major international tournaments. England, as a country of the United Kingdom, is not a member of the International Olympic Committee and therefore the national team does not compete at the Olympic Games. England is one of the two oldest national teams in football, alongside Scotland, whom they played in the world's first international football match in 1872. England's home ground is Wembley Stadium and their headquarters is at St George's Park, Burton upon Trent; the team's manager is Gareth Southgate. Since first entering the tournament in 1950, England has qualified for the FIFA World Cup 15 times, they won the 1966 World Cup, when they hosted the finals, finished fourth in 1990 and 2018. Since first entering in 1964, England have never won the UEFA European Championship, with their best performances being third-place finishes in 1968 and 1996, the latter as hosts.

The England national football team is the joint-oldest in the world. A representative match between England and Scotland was played on 5 March 1870, having been organised by the Football Association. A return fixture was organised by representatives of Scottish football teams on 30 November 1872; this match, played at Hamilton Crescent in Scotland, is viewed as the first official international football match, because the two teams were independently selected and operated, rather than being the work of a single football association. Over the next 40 years, England played with the other three Home Nations—Scotland and Ireland—in the British Home Championship. At first, England had no permanent home stadium, they joined FIFA in 1906 and played their first games against countries other than the Home Nations on a tour of Central Europe in 1908. Wembley Stadium was opened in 1923 and became their home ground; the relationship between England and FIFA became strained, this resulted in their departure from FIFA in 1928, before they rejoined in 1946.

As a result, they did not compete in a World Cup until 1950, in which they were beaten in a 1–0 defeat by the United States, failing to get past the first round in one of the most embarrassing defeats in the team's history. Their first defeat on home soil to a foreign team was a 2–0 loss to Ireland, on 21 September 1949 at Goodison Park. A 6–3 loss in 1953 to Hungary, was their second defeat by a foreign team at Wembley. In the return match in Budapest, Hungary won 7–1; this stands as England's largest defeat. After the game, a bewildered Syd Owen said, "it was like playing men from outer space". In the 1954 FIFA World Cup, England reached the quarter-finals for the first time, lost 4–2 to reigning champions Uruguay. Although Walter Winterbottom was appointed as England's first full-time manager in 1946, the team was still picked by a committee until Alf Ramsey took over in 1963; the 1966 FIFA World Cup was hosted in England and Ramsey guided England to victory with a 4–2 win against West Germany after extra time in the final, during which Geoff Hurst scored a hat-trick.

In UEFA Euro 1968, the team reached the semi-finals for the first time, being eliminated by Yugoslavia. England qualified for the 1970 FIFA World Cup in Mexico as reigning champions, reached the quarter-finals, where they were knocked out by West Germany. England had been 2–0 up, but were beaten 3–2 after extra time, they failed in qualification for the 1974 FIFA World Cup, leading to Ramsey's dismissal. Ramsey was succeeded by Don Revie between 1974 and 1977, but the team failed to qualify for UEFA Euro 1976 and the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Under Ron Greenwood, they managed to qualify for the 1982 FIFA World Cup in Spain. Bobby Robson managed England from 1982 to 1990. Although the team failed to qualify for UEFA Euro 1984, they reached the quarter-finals of the 1986 FIFA World Cup, losing 2–1 to Argentina in a game made famous by two goals by Maradona for contrasting reasons - the first being knocked in by hand, prompting the "Hand of God" label, the second being an outstanding individual goal, involving dribbling past several opponents.

England striker Gary Lineker finished as the tournament's top scorer with six goals. England went on to lose every match at UEFA Euro 1988, they next achieved their second best result in the 1990 FIFA World Cup by finishing fourth – losing again to West Germany in a semi-final finishing 1–1 after extra time 4–3 in England's first penalty shoot-out. Despite losing to Italy in the third place play-off, the members of the England team were given bronze medals identical to the Italians'. Due to the emotional nature of the defeat to West Germany, the team were welcomed home as heroes and thousands of people lined the streets for an open-top bus parade; the 1990s saw four England managers follow Robson, each in the role for a brief period. Graham Taylor was Robson's immediate successor. England failed to win any matches at UEFA Euro 1992, drawing with tournament winners Denmark and with France, before being eliminated by host nation Sweden; the team failed to qualify for the 1994 FIFA World Cup after losing a controversial game against the Netherlands in Rotterdam, which resulted in Taylor's resignation.

Between 1994 and 1996, Terry Venables managed the team. At UEFA Euro 1996, held in England, they equalled their best performance at a European Championship, reaching the semi-finals as they did in 1968, before exiting via a penalty shoot-out loss to Germany. En

Chandogya Upanishad

The Chandogya Upanishad is a Sanskrit text embedded in the Chandogya Brahmana of the Sama Veda of Hinduism. It is one of the oldest Upanishads, it lists as number 9 in the Muktika canon of 108 Upanishads. The Upanishad belongs to the Tandya school of the Samaveda. Like Brhadaranyaka Upanishad, the Chandogya Upanishad is an anthology of texts that must have pre-existed as separate texts, were edited into a larger text by one or more ancient Indian scholars; the precise chronology of Chandogya Upanishad is uncertain, it is variously dated to have been composed by the 8th to 6th century BCE in India. It is one of the largest Upanishadic compilations, has eight Prapathakas, each with many volumes, each volume contains many verses; the volumes are a motley collection of themes. As part of the poetic and chants-focussed Samaveda, the broad unifying theme of the Upanishad is the importance of speech, language and chants to man's quest for knowledge and salvation, to metaphysical premises and questions, as well as to rituals.

The Chandogya Upanishad is notable for its lilting metric structure, its mention of ancient cultural elements such as musical instruments, embedded philosophical premises that served as foundation for Vedanta school of Hinduism. It is one of the most cited texts in Bhasyas by scholars from the diverse schools of Hinduism. Adi Shankara, for example, cited Chandogya Upanishad 810 times in his Vedanta Sutra Bhasya, more than any other ancient text; the name of the Upanishad is derived from the word Chanda or chandas, which means "poetic meter, prosody". The name implies that the nature of the text relates to the patterns of structure, stress and intonation in language and chants; the text is sometimes known as Chandogyopanishad. Chandogya Upanishad was in all likelihood composed in the earlier part of 1st millennium BCE, is one of the oldest Upanishads; the exact century of the Upanishad composition is unknown and contested. The chronology of early Upanishads is difficult to resolve, states Stephen Phillips, because all opinions rest on scanty evidence, an analysis of archaism and repetitions across texts, driven by assumptions about evolution of ideas, on presumptions about which philosophy might have influenced which other Indian philosophies.

Patrick Olivelle states, "in spite of claims made by some, in reality, any dating of these documents that attempts a precision closer than a few centuries is as stable as a house of cards". The chronology and authorship of Chandogya Upanishad, along with Brihadaranyaka and Kaushitaki Upanishads, is further complicated because they are compiled anthologies of literature that must have existed as independent texts before they became part of these Upanishads. Scholars have offered different estimates ranging from 800 BCE to 600 BCE. According to a 1998 review by Olivelle, Chandogya was composed by 7th or 6th century BCE, give or take a century or so. Phillips states that Chandogya was completed after Brihadaranyaka, both in early part of the 1st millennium BCE; the text has eight Prapathakas, each with varying number of Khandas. Each Khanda has varying number of verses; the first chapter includes 13 volumes each with varying number of verses, the second chapter has 24 volumes, the third chapter contains 19 volumes, the fourth is composed of 17 volumes, the fifth has 24, the sixth chapter has 16 volumes, the seventh includes 26 volumes, the eight chapter is last with 15 volumes.

The Upanishad comprises the last eight chapters of a ten chapter Chandogya Brahmana text. The first chapter of the Brahmana is short and concerns ritual-related hymns to celebrate a marriage ceremony and the birth of a child; the second chapter of the Brahmana is short as well and its mantras are addressed to divine beings at life rituals. The last eight chapters are long, are called the Chandogya Upanishad. A notable structural feature of Chandogya Upanishad is that it contains many nearly identical passages and stories found in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, but in precise meter; the Chandogya Upanishad, like other Upanishads, was a living document. Every chapter shows evidence of insertion or interpolation at a age, because the structure, grammar and content is inconsistent with what precedes or follows the suspect content and section. Additionally, supplements were attached to various volumes in a different age. Klaus Witz structurally divides the Chandogya Upanishad into three natural groups; the first group comprises chapters I and II, which deal with the structure and rhythmic aspects of language and its expression with the syllable Om.

The second group consists of chapters III-V, with a collection of more than 20 Upasanas and Vidyas on premises about the universe, life and spirituality. The third group consists of chapters VI-VIII that deal with metaphysical questions such as the nature of reality and soul; the chant of Om, the essence of allThe Chandogya Upanishad opens with the recommendation that "let a man meditate on Om". It calls the syllable Om as udgitha, asserts that the significance of the syllable is thus: the essence of all beings is earth, the essence of earth is water, the essence of water are the plants, the essence of plants is man, the essence of man is speech, the essence of speech is the Rig Veda, the essence of the Rig Veda is the Sama Veda, the essence of Sama Veda is udgitha. Rik is speech, states the text, Sāman is breath.

Carbide & Carbon Building

The Carbide & Carbon Building is a 37-story, 503 feet landmark Art Deco skyscraper built in 1929, located on Michigan Avenue in Chicago. It was converted to a hotel in 2004; the building was designed by the Burnham Brothers as the regional office of Union Carbide and Carbon Co.. It was designated a Chicago Landmark on May 9, 1996; the building was transformed into the Hard Rock Cafe's Hard Rock Hotel Chicago from 2001-2004. The $106 million conversion was directed by Lucien Associates; the hotel began hosting guests on January 1, 2004 and after its bar and restaurant were completed, it celebrated its grand opening on April 21, 2004, The current hotel capacity is 383 guest rooms and 13 suites. The Hard Rock Hotel closed on December 1, 2017, reopened in 2018 as the St. Jane Chicago Hotel, named for Nobel Peace Prize-winner and noted Chicagoan social activist Jane Addams; the exterior of the building is covered in polished black granite, the tower is dark green terra cotta with gold leaf accents.

The use of stylized representations of leaves on the building's exterior was an intentional reference by the architects to the prehistoric origins of subterranean carbon deposits in the decay of ancient plants. The ground floor was designed to display the products of Union Carbide and Carbon's subsidiaries; the lobby features black Belgian Art Deco bronzework trim. The exterior base is black granite with black marble and bronze trim, whereas the central shaft is clad in dark green and gold terra cotta and the greenish cap is trimmed in gold leaf. According to popular myth of the era, Burnham Brothers designed the building to resemble a dark green champagne bottle with gold foil at the top. Beginning on November 16, 2007, the gold-leaf tower was permanently illuminated at night, which further encouraged this urban legend; the design of the building has been compared to architect Raymond Hood's American Radiator Building in New York City, which inspired this one. According to an article in the April 1930 issue of Western Architect, the high profile of the Carbide & Carbon Building project allowed the Burnham Brothers to secure a commission for the Cuneo Building, another proposed skyscraper of contrasting colors.

However, the Stock Market Crash of October 1929, followed by the Great Depression, forced cancellation of the Cuneo Building proposal along with many other architectural projects. Thus, the Carbide & Carbon Building was the practice's last major commission before the Great Depression ended, by which time the firm had become Burnham & Hammond. Burnham Brothers was the firm of Daniel H. Jr. and Hubert Burnham, sons of prominent Chicago architect Daniel Burnham, one of the two successor firms to his D. H. Burnham & Company. After Burnham senior died in 1912, D. H. Burnham & Co. became Graham, Burnham & Co. named after Burnham's main partner, Ernest Graham, Burnham's two sons. When the two brothers left in 1917 to start their own firm, the remaining members of Graham, Burnham & Co. formed Graham, Probst & White – the main successor firm, which carried on Daniel Burnham's remaining work and went on to become one of the major architectural firms in Chicago during the 1920s through the 1940s. The brothers at first confused matters by reviving the name D.

H. Burnham Co. which they maintained for 11 years until 1928, when the firm became Burnham Brothers. In 1933, the firm joined with C. Herrick Hammond to form Burnham & Hammond. For all its success over nine decades, GAP&W – which had its offices in Burnham's Railway Exchange Building, where D. H. Burnham & Co. had maintained its offices – had no successor firm. The largest architectural firm in Chicago today and one of the major architectural firms worldwide – the world-renowned Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, aka SOM, which has its headquarters in the Railway Exchange Building – is an offshoot of Burnham Brothers: Nathaniel A. Owings joined the practice in 1929 and left in 1934, Louis Skidmore joined in 1930 and left in 1936. Skidmore and Owings started their own firm in 1936, John Ogden Merrill joined them in 1939 to create SOM; the Carbide & Carbon Building is the best known of all the brothers' Chicago commissions. Their other building designs include the original State of Illinois Building at 160 N. LaSalle St. the Seneca Hotel at 200 E. Chestnut St. the Bankers Building, aka the Clark-Adams Building, the City-State Building, the Randolph-Wells Building, the Engineering Building at 205 W. Wacker Dr. all in Chicago.

Working under the temporarily revived D. H. Burnham Co. name, Burnham Brothers designed the 2,100-seat high school auditorium as part of the school's 1924 addition. The top of the Carbide & Carbon Building was the filming location for an opening shooting scene in the 2008 film Wanted, starring James McAvoy, Morgan Freeman and Angelina Jolie, it is the filming location for Bruce Wayne's building / Batgirl's lair, in Gotham City, as incorporated in the Arrowverse as part of Elseworlds, a 2018 crossover storyline among the shows, which introduced Batwoman. Chicago architecture Daniel Burnham Graham, Probst & White Chicago Landmarks: Carbide a