Nicolaas van Eyck
Nicolaas van Eyck I or Nicolaas van Eijck, was a Flemish painter of landscapes and battle scenes and portraits. Nicolaas van Eyck was born in Antwerp as the son of the tailor Nicolaas van Eyck and he became a pupil in Antwerp of the important genre and history painter Theodoor Rombouts under whom he started to study in 1632. He was a captain of a local schutterij and this may be a reason why he painted military scenes and he was friends with the flower painter Jan Philip van Thielen, who had been a pupil of Rombouts. Van Eyck was godfather to at least one of van Thielens nine children and he was the teacher of Pieter Hofman. His sons Nicolaas II and Jan Carel van Eyck became painters, Jan Carel was a student of Jan Erasmus Quellinus and spent time in Italy. Nicolaas van Eyck is principally known for his landscapes with soldiers and he painted a number of compositions representing scenes of urban warfare and rebellion. An example is a Scene of a rebellion depicting a rebellion in a city and it depicts a group of armed men are firing into an unarmed, unperturbed crowd.
The front row of the crowd being shot at consists of three men who have their back turned towards the shooters, van Eyck painted tronie-like portraits such as the Portrait of a drinking man. He further painted the Equestrian Portrait of a Young Gentleman with his Squire in front of a Peristyle, media related to Nicolaas van Eyck at Wikimedia Commons
Mechelen is a city and municipality in the province of Antwerp, Belgium. The municipality comprises the city of Mechelen proper, some quarters at its outskirts, the hamlets of Nekkerspoel and Battel, as well as the villages of Walem, Leest and Muizen. The Dyle flows through the city, hence it is referred to as the Dijlestad. Mechelen lies on the urban and industrial axis Brussels–Antwerp, about 25 km from each city. Mechelen is one of Flanders prominent cities of art, with Antwerp, Brussels, Ghent. The area of Mechelen was settled on the banks of the river during the Gallo-Roman period as evidenced by several Roman ruins, around 1200 started the building of the cathedral that is dedicated to the saint. Antwerp lost profitable stapelrechten for wool and salt to Mechelen in 1303 when John II, Duke of Brabant and this started a rivalry between these cities that would last well into the 20th century. In the 15th century, the city came under the rule of the Dukes of Burgundy, in 1473 Charles the Bold moved several political bodies to the city, and Mechelen served as the seat of the Superior Court until the French Revolution.
In 1490, a postal service between Mechelen and Innsbruck was established. During the 16th century the political influence decreased dramatically, due to many governmental institutions being moved to Brussels. In 1961, Brussels was added to the title, resulting in the current Archdiocese of Mechelen-Brussels, Mechelen retained further relevance as the Great Council of Mechelen remained the supreme court of the territory until the French Revolutionary Wars. In 1572, during the Eighty Years War, the city was burned and sacked by the Spanish, after this pillaging, the city was rebuilt. It was during this time that the tradition of making, still seen today. The city entered the age in the 19th century. In 1835, the first railway on the European continent linked Brussels with Mechelen and this led to a development of metalworking industries, among others the central railway workshops which are still located in the town today. During the Second World War, the extensive Mechlinian railway structure had caused the Nazi occupation forces to choose Mechelen for their infamous transit camp, over 25,000 Jews and Roma were sent by rail to the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp from Mechelen.
The site of the camp now houses the Jewish Museum of Deportation. Several famous meetings on the Christian religion are connected to the name of the city, one in 1909 is thought to have inaugurated the Liturgical Movement
Siege of Mons (1572)
In the spring of 1572, after the capture of Valenciennes by a Protestant force under Louis of Nassau, the Dutch commander continued with his offensive and took Mons by surprise on 24 May. On 23 May Louis of Nassau arrived at Mons with 1,000 infantry and 500 cavalry, Louis took control of the city, and a few days later, was reinforced by about 4,500 infantry and cavalry under the command of the Count of Montgomery. On 23 June Fadriques forces arrived at Mons and laid siege to the city, Louis sent a message to Genlis, urging that he should join to the army of his brother, William of Orange, but Genlis ignored the message, and advanced against the Spaniards. On 19 July Genlis and his forces encamped near Mons, in a circular plane, Don Fadrique, aware his arrival, advanced towards him with 4,000 infantry,1,500 cavalry, and 3,000 armed villagers for the occasion. Genlis sent a detachment to reconnoitre, but after seeing the advance of the Spanish forces, Don Frederic de Toledo is coming upon us, they cried.
The Spanish cavalry of Philip of Noircarmes, without delay, charged against the French army, followed by infantry, the attack caused panic among the French Huguenots, and then, the Spanish infantry shattered the French army. The Spanish victory was complete, and the army of Genlis was entirely routed, about 2,000 French soldiers were killed or wounded, and 700 captured, including 70 nobles and officers. The leader of the French army, Adrien de Hangest, was captured, the Captain Francisco de Bobadilla was honored with carrying the news of the victory to the King Philip II, for the proven value during the battle. Meantime, the Prince of Orange with his new army continued to advance towards Mons, on 23 July, after the capture of Roermond, his troops mutinied. On 27 August, with guarantees of payment of some cities in Holland, crossed the Meuse, advancing over Diest, Termonde and Nivelles. On 11 August Gaspard de Coligny, with the approval of the King Charles IX, had written to the Prince, the result was St.
Bartholomews Day massacre on 23 August. In early September, Don Fernando, Duke of Alba, arrived at Mons with reinforcements, on 10 September arrived near Mons, and Alba, knowing the Oranges arrival, positioned his troops for a possible attack. After the failed attack, the Prince retreated to the village of Harmignies, in this raid 600 rebels were killed, for only 60 Spaniards. Hundred of horses were captured, and a part of the tents. During the action, William of Orange himself was in profound slumber, and was saved by the barking of his Spaniel dog, with a heavy heart, William wrote to his brother Louis of his forlorn condition and inability to relieve Mons. The Prince retreated with his army to Nivelles and Mechelen, marching to the Rhine, thereafter he made his way almost alone to Holland, the only province which still remained true to him. After the defeat of the army of French Huguenots under Adrien de Hangest, even the French Huguenots under his command mutinied as a consequence for the support of the King of France to the massacre of St.
Bartholomew. On 19 September Louis of Nassau surrendered Mons to the Duke of Alba, Louis of Nassau would be received by the Duke of Alba, the Duke of Medinaceli and Don Fadrique
Battle of Empel
In Spain the battle is still remembered as it is believed that the army was saved due to intervention of Mary of the Immaculate Conception. After the campaign of 1585, the Governor of Spanish Netherlands and commander of the Spanish troops Alexander Farnese, the troops of Karl von Mansfeld occupied the area around s-Hertogenbosch. But all farmers had left the island, taking their livestock with them, to make the situation of the hungry Spanish troops even worse, Dutch commander Philip of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein arrived with a strong land force and 100 ships. The Dutch leader offered a surrender to the Spaniards but the response was resolute. Ya hablaremos de capitulación después de muertos. », Philip of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein breached the dikes of Bommelwaard, forcing the Spanish back over the Rhine to Empel. There they were unable to reach s-Hertogenbosch, because the terrain was flooded and guarded by the fleet of Hohenlohe, the island was attacked as well by artillery fire coming from a fort, at the other side of the river.
The situation for the Spanish looked desperate, a Spanish soldier who was digging a trench around the church commented this is more likely to be my grave than a trench. As he dug, he found a painting representing Mary of the Immaculate Conception, bobadilla interpreted the discovery as a sign from God, and had the painting put on the Spanish flag for worship. That night, an unusual and completely intensely cold wind that chilled the waters of the River Meuse broke, the Dutch ships had to be withdrawn to prevent them being stuck in the ice. This made it possible for the remaining Spanish troops to escape to the safety of s-Hertogenbosch, admiral Hohenlohe-Neuenstein went on to say, It seems that God is Spanish to work for me so great miracle. That same day, Mary of the Immaculate Conception was proclaimed patroness of the Spanish Tercios of Flanders, article on the site of the Army Museum of The Netherlands
Kingdom of England
In the early 11th century the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, united by Æthelstan, became part of the North Sea Empire of Cnut the Great, a personal union between England and Norway. The completion of the conquest of Wales by Edward I in 1284 put Wales under the control of the English crown, from the accession of James I in 1603, the Stuart dynasty ruled England in personal union with Scotland and Ireland. Under the Stuarts, the kingdom plunged into war, which culminated in the execution of Charles I in 1649. The monarchy returned in 1660, but the Civil War had established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without the consent of Parliament and this concept became legally established as part of the Glorious Revolution of 1688. From this time the kingdom of England, as well as its state the United Kingdom. On 1 May 1707, under the terms of the Acts of Union 1707, the Anglo-Saxons referred to themselves as the Engle or the Angelcynn, originally names of the Angles. They called their land Engla land, meaning land of the English, by Æthelweard Latinized Anglia, from an original Anglia vetus, the name Engla land became England by haplology during the Middle English period.
The Latin name was Anglia or Anglorum terra, the Old French, by the 14th century, England was used in reference to the entire island of Great Britain. The standard title for all monarchs from Æthelstan until the time of King John was Rex Anglorum, Canute the Great, a Dane, was the first king to call himself King of England. In the Norman period Rex Anglorum remained standard, with use of Rex Anglie. The Empress Matilda styled herself Domina Anglorum, from the time of King John onwards all other titles were eschewed in favour of Rex or Regina Anglie. In 1604 James VI and I, who had inherited the English throne the previous year, the English and Scottish parliaments, did not recognise this title until the Acts of Union of 1707. The kingdom of England emerged from the unification of the early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdoms known as the Heptarchy, East Anglia, Northumbria, Essex, Sussex. The Viking invasions of the 9th century upset the balance of power between the English kingdoms, and native Anglo-Saxon life in general, the English lands were unified in the 10th century in a reconquest completed by King Æthelstan in 927 CE.
During the Heptarchy, the most powerful king among the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms might become acknowledged as Bretwalda, the decline of Mercia allowed Wessex to become more powerful. It absorbed the kingdoms of Kent and Sussex in 825, the kings of Wessex became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during the 9th century. In 827, Northumbria submitted to Egbert of Wessex at Dore, in 886, Alfred the Great retook London, which he apparently regarded as a turning point in his reign. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says that all of the English people not subject to the Danes submitted themselves to King Alfred, asser added that Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, restored the city of London splendidly
The southern provinces initially joined in the revolt, but submitted to Spain. The religious clash of cultures built up gradually but inexorably into outbursts of violence against the repression of the Habsburg Crown. These tensions led to the formation of the independent Dutch Republic, the first leader was William of Orange, followed by several of his descendants and relations. This revolt was one of the first successful secessions in Europe, and led to one of the first European republics of the modern era, King Philip was initially successful in suppressing the rebellion. In 1572, the rebels captured Brielle and the rebellion resurged, the northern provinces became independent, first in 1581 de facto, and in 1648 de jure. The Southern Netherlands remained under Spanish rule, the continuous heavy-handed rule by the Habsburgs in the south caused many of its financial and cultural elite to flee north, contributing to the success of the Dutch Republic. The Dutch imposed a blockade on the southern provinces which prevented Baltic grain relieving famine in the southern towns.
The first phase of the conflict can be considered to be the Dutch War of Independence, the focus of the latter phase was to gain official recognition of the already de facto independence of the United Provinces. This phase coincided with the rise of the Dutch Republic as a major power, in a series of marriages and conquests, a succession of Dukes of Burgundy expanded their original territory by adding to it a series of fiefdoms, including the Seventeen Provinces. Although Burgundy itself had been lost to France in 1477, the Burgundian Netherlands were still intact when Charles V was born in Ghent in 1500 and he was raised in the Netherlands and spoke fluent Dutch, French and some German. In 1506, he became lord of the Burgundian states, among which were the Netherlands, subsequently, in 1516, he inherited several titles, including the combined kingdoms of Aragon, and Castile and León which had become a worldwide empire with the Spanish colonization of the Americas. In 1519, he became ruler of the Habsburg empire, although Friesland and Guelders offered prolonged resistance, virtually all of the Netherlands had been incorporated into the Habsburg domains by the early 1540s.
Flanders had long been a wealthy region, and had been coveted by the French kings for a long time. The other Netherlands had grown into wealthy and entrepreneurial regions within the empire, Charles Vs empire became a worldwide empire with large American and European territories. The latter were, distributed throughout Europe and defense of these were hampered by the disparity of the territories and huge length of the empires borders. This large realm was almost continuously at war with its neighbors in its European heartlands, most notably against France in the Italian Wars, further wars were fought against Protestant princes in Germany. The Netherlands paid heavy taxes to fund these wars, but perceived them as unnecessary and sometimes downright harmful, during the 16th century, Protestantism rapidly gained ground in northern Europe. Dutch Protestants, after initial repression, were tolerated by local authorities, by the 1560s, the Protestant community had become a significant influence in the Netherlands, although it clearly formed a minority then
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and the North Sea. It is a small, densely populated country which covers an area of 30,528 square kilometres and has a population of about 11 million people. Additionally, there is a group of German-speakers who live in the East Cantons located around the High Fens area. Historically, the Netherlands and Luxembourg were known as the Low Countries, the region was called Belgica in Latin, after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, Belgium is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. It is divided into three regions and three communities, that exist next to each other and its two largest regions are the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north and the French-speaking southern region of Wallonia. The Brussels-Capital Region is a bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. A German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia, Belgiums linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments.
Upon its independence, declared in 1830, Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Belgium is a member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD and WTO. Its capital, hosts several of the EUs official seats as well as the headquarters of major international organizations such as NATO. Belgium is a part of the Schengen Area, Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy and is categorized as very high in the Human Development Index. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings, a gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 14th and 15th centuries, the Eighty Years War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands.
The latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and this was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. The reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, although the franchise was initially restricted, universal suffrage for men was introduced after the general strike of 1893 and for women in 1949. The main political parties of the 19th century were the Catholic Party, French was originally the single official language adopted by the nobility and the bourgeoisie
Siege of Leiden
In the end the siege failed when the city was successfully relieved in October 1574. In the war that had broken out, Dutch rebels took up arms against the king of Spain, whose family had inherited the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands. Most of the counties of Holland and Zeeland were occupied by rebels in 1572, who sought to end the harsh rule of the Spanish Duke of Alba, governor-general of the Netherlands. This territory had a high density of cities, which were protected by huge defense works and by the low-lying boglands. The Duke of Alba tried to break resistance using brute force and he used Amsterdam as a base, as this was the only city in the country of Holland that had remained loyal to the Spanish government. Albas cruel treatment of the populations of Naarden and Haarlem was notorious, the rebels learned that no mercy was shown there and were determined to hold out as long as possible. The county of Holland was split in two when Haarlem was conquered by the Spanish after a costly seven-month siege, Alba attempted to conquer Alkmaar in the north, but the city withstood the Spanish attack.
Alba sent his officer Francisco de Valdez to attack the rebel territory. In the meantime, due to his failure to quell the rebellion as quickly as he had intended, Alba submitted his resignation, the less harsh and more politic Luis de Zúñiga y Requesens replaced him as governor-general. The city of Leiden had plenty of food stored for the siege when it started in October 1573, the siege was very difficult for the Spanish, because the soil was too loose to dig holes, and the city defense works were hard to break. Defending Leiden was a Dutch States rebel army which consisted of English, the leader of the Dutch rebels, William the Silent, Prince of Orange, tried to relieve Leiden by sending an army into the Netherlands under the command of his brother, Louis of Nassau. Valdez halted the siege in April 1574 to face the invading troops, but Sancho dAvila reached them first and defeated the army of Orange in the Battle of Mookerheyde. During the brief respite from the siege, Orange had counselled the citizens of Leiden to restock their city with supplies, and take in a larger rebel garrison to help defend the town.
They disregarded his advice however, with the result that when Valdez army returned to continue the siege on May 26,1574, the city considered surrendering, because there was almost no chance of relief and supplies were dwindling. The rebel army was defeated and the territory was very small compared to the huge Spanish empire. The Prince of Orange, was determined to relieve the city, therefore, he sent a carrier pigeon into the city pleading for it to hold out for three months. But the damage to the countryside would be enormous. However, in the end, the Prince prevailed and the dikes were broken on August 3
Sack of Antwerp
The Sack of Antwerp, often known as the Spanish Fury at Antwerp, was an episode of the Eighty Years War. The savagery of the led the provinces of the Low Countries to unite against the Spanish crown. The devastation caused Antwerps decline as the city in the region. The principal cause of the sack was the delay in payment due to the soldiers by Philip II and it was common procedure with the soldiery at that time, and their procedure was invariable. Without breaking their celebrated discipline, they would choose a new leader, or Eletto, from their number, in this instance the Spanish soldiers decided to find for themselves their belated pay, by looting Antwerp. The idea to sack Antwerp came from the Spanish commander of the Citadel of Antwerp and he tried to convince the commander of the German troops in the city, Count Otto IV van Eberstein, son of William IV of Eberstein, to deliver the city to the Spanish. But Eberstein warned Governor Compagny of Antwerp, and together they improvised defenses against the Spanish, on 3 November, Governor Compagny let a force of 6,000 Walloon troops under the Marquis of Havré into the city.
This was a risk, because these troops were not very trustworthy, some 10,000 civilians helped to raise improvised defenses against the Citadel. DAvila had prepared his attack and contacted other Spanish mutinous troops in Aalst, Lier and Maastricht, on November 4 at 11,00, the Spanish attacked. The civilian defenses were useless against the battle-hardened Spaniards, who swarmed into the city, as had been feared, the Walloons did not fight, but fled, or even participated in the looting. The Germans and civilians tried to resist, but were no match for the Spaniards, Eberstein drowned in the Schelde when he tried to escape. Some 7,000 lives and a deal of property were lost. The cruelty and destruction of three days of pillage became known as the Spanish Fury. This shocking event stiffened many in the Netherlands, even many Catholics, against the Spanish Habsburg monarchy and this effectively destroyed every accomplishment the Spanish had made in the past 10 years, since the start of the Dutch Revolt.
Furthermore, it brought about the ruin of the Antwerp Cloth Market, English traders, not wishing to risk visiting a town that now resembled a war zone, sought out new commercial links. By 1582, all English trade to Antwerp had ceased, the sack led to Antwerps decline from the economic and cultural center of the Netherlands and paved the way for Amsterdams rise. This event added to Spains Black Legend, list of massacres in Belgium French Fury Sack of Rome, the unpaid Imperial troops loot Rome. Spanish Fury was the nickname of the Spanish football team in the 20th century, the Baldwin Project University of Leiden