English Heritage

English Heritage is a charity that manages over 400 historic monuments and places. These include medieval castles, Roman forts and country houses; the charity states that it uses these properties to ‘bring the story of England to life for over 10 million people each year’. Within its portfolio are Stonehenge, Dover Castle, Tintagel Castle and the best preserved parts of Hadrian's Wall. English Heritage manages the London Blue Plaque scheme, which links influential historical figures to particular buildings; when formed in 1983, English Heritage was the operating name of an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government titled the Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England, that ran the national system of heritage protection and managed a range of historic properties. It was created to combine the roles of existing bodies that had emerged from a long period of state involvement in heritage protection. In 1999 the organisation merged with the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England and the National Monuments Record, bringing together resources for the identification and survey of England's historic environment.

On 1 April 2015, English Heritage was divided into two parts: Historic England, which inherited the statutory and protection functions of the old organisation, the new English Heritage Trust, a charity that would operate the historic properties, which took on the English Heritage operating name and logo. The British government gave the new charity an £80 million grant to help establish it as an independent trust, although the historic properties remained in the ownership of the state. Over the centuries, what is now called'Heritage' has been the responsibility of a series of state departments. There was the'Kings Works' after the Norman Conquest. Responsibility subsequently transferred to the Ministry of Public Building and Works to the Department of the Environment and now the Department for Digital, Culture and Sport; the state's legal responsibility for the historic environment goes back to the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882. Central government subsequently developed several systems of heritage protection for different types of'assets', introducing listing for buildings after WW2 and conservation areas in the 1960s.

In 1983 Secretary of State for the Environment Michael Heseltine gave national responsibility for the historic environment to a semi‑autonomous agency to operate under ministerial guidelines and to government policy. The Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission was formed under the terms of the National Heritage Act 1983 on 1 April 1984; the 1983 Act dissolved the bodies that had provided independent advice – the Ancient Monuments Board for England and the Historic Buildings Council for England and incorporated these functions in the new body. Soon after, the commission gained the operating name of English Heritage by its first Chairman, Lord Montagu of Beaulieu. A national register of historic parks and gardens, was set up in 1984, a register for historic battlefields was created in March 1995.'Registration' is a material consideration in the planning process. In April 1999 English Heritage merged with the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England and the National Monuments Record, bringing together resources for the identification and survey of England's historic environment.

By adoption this included responsibility for the national record of archaeological sites from the Ordnance Survey. These, together with other nationally important external acquisitions, meant that English Heritage was one of the largest publicly accessible archives in the UK: 2.53 million records are available online, including more than 426,000 images. In 2010–2011 it recorded 4.3 million unique online user sessions and over 110,000 people visited NMR exhibitions held around the country in 2009/10. In 2012 the section responsible for archive collections was renamed the English Heritage Archive; as a result of the National Heritage Act 2002, English Heritage acquired administrative responsibility for historic wrecks and submerged landscapes within 12 miles of the English coast. The administration of the listed building system was transferred from DCMS to English Heritage in 2006. However, actual listing decisions still remained the responsibility of the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport, required by the Planning Act 1990 to approve a list of buildings of special architectural or historic interest.

Following the Public Bodies Reform in 2010, English Heritage was confirmed as the government's statutory adviser on the historic environment, the largest source of non-lottery grant funding for heritage assets. It was retained on grounds of "performing a technical function which should remain independent from Government"; however the department suffered from budget cuts during the recession of the 2010s resulting in a repairs deficit of £100 million. In June 2013 the British Government announced plans to provide an £80 million grant to enable English Heritage to become a self-financing charity; the national portfolio of historic properties remain in public ownership, but the new English Heritage will be licensed to manage t

Esek Hopkins House

The Esek Hopkins House is an historic home on 97 Admiral Street on the north side of Providence, Rhode Island, United States. The oldest portion of the house is a 2½-story gable-roof block, three bays wide, with an entry in the rightmost bay. To the right of this section is a 1½-story gambrel-roofed addition, dating to the early 19th century. A single-story gable-roof ell extends from the rear of the main block. Dating to 1754, the house was the home of Esek Hopkins, the first commander-in-chief of the Continental Navy during the American Revolutionary War. After Hopkins died, his daughters inherited the property, it remained in the family for the next century. Descendant Elizabeth West Gould died in 1907, the property was donated to the City of Providence in accordance with her wishes in 1908, with the stipulation that it be converted into a museum. Accounts of the time recounted; the house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. Over the years, various plans were put forward over the years to convert the house into a museum.

They all failed for lack of resources. Most in 2011 the Providence Parks department put forward a plan to convert the house into a part-time museum; the building has suffered from inadequate maintenance by the city's parks department, was placed on the Providence Preservation Society's "Most Endangered Properties" list in 1995, 2011 and again in 2015. National Register of Historic Places listings in Providence, Rhode Island "Old Providence: A Collection of Facts and Traditions relating to Various Buildings and Sites of Historic Interest in Providence"

Georges Fontenis

Georges Fontenis was a school teacher who worked in Tours. He is more remembered on account of his political involvement during the 1950s and 1960s. A libertarian communist and trades unionist, he was a leading figure in the anarchist movement. Described by one authority as "the son and grandson of militant socialists", Georges Louis Albert Fontenis was born into a working-class family in Paris and grew up in the city's suburbs; as a young teenager he devoured his father's revolutionary socialist and trades union journals and newspapers and other Trotskyite and pacifist literature. He became involved with the libertarian movement during the strikes of June 1936; when he was 17 he joined the Anarchist Union, "discovered" Bakunin and Kropotkin, started selling Le Libertaire on street corners. France was invaded by Germany during May/June 1940. Political and trades union activity was banned, with the result that various political organisations, including the Trades Union Confederation itself, "went underground", becoming progressively incorporated into the wider French Resistance movement.

Fontenis joined the "clandestine CGT" participating in local syndicalist groups. By this time he was working as a primary school teacher in the north-eastern part of Paris, he was involved after the war with Marcel Pennetier and Maurice Dommanget in a relaunch of another sort of school, the École émancipée, a revolutionary syndicalist grouping of like-minded activists. After the teachers' strike in the Seine department in November–December 1947 Georges Fontenis joined the National Labour Confederation, but returned to the more mainstream National teachers' union in which he continued to press the militant agenda of École émancipée. After he was arrested by the security services and his sentencing in 1957, part of a broader crack-down on the anarchist movement, he was reinstated into the teaching profession in 1958 and enrolled at the École normale supérieure de Saint-Cloud, a large primary school in the western part of Paris, he became a primary schools inspector in a rural zone between 1962 and 1967 and in September 1967, a teacher of Psychopedagogy at the teachers' training academy in Tours.

After the war ended Georges Fontenis was one of the founders of the Anarchist Federation. Others included Robert Joulin, Henri Bouyé, Maurice Joyeux, Suzy Chevet, Renée Lamberet, Georges Vincey and Paul Lapeyre, Maurice Laisant, Maurice Fayolle, Giliana Berneri, Solange Dumont, Roger Caron, Henri Oriol et Paul Chery. Over the next few years his life was aligned with that of the libertarian movement till 1957; that was the year in which he was arrested by the security services because of his support for Algerian separatists. In 1946 he was elected secretary general of the Anarchist Federation. For many in the movement his was a new face which made it easier for him to find consensus because he was not a member of any existing faction. In reality, Anarcho-communist and Individualist anarchist tendencies did not sit comfortably with the federation's priorities; the individualist anarchists, led by the Lapeyre brothers and Jean-René Saulière, organised a "letter-writing lobby". As Maurice Joyeux put it, "It was not a structured group intended to exclude those who thought differently from them from the Anarchist Federation, but a network of letter-writing across the country which led to an identical set of results.

Which is to say they pre-primed the congress in respect of the proposals they set out, outside the congress meeting". In 1948 George Fontenis teamed up with a group of exiled CNT and FAI militants to attempt the assassination of General Franco; the plan involved purchasing an aircraft, which could not be done by a Spanish passport holder. Fontenis provided his name and nationality for the purchase of a small aeroplane, intended to be used to bomb a pleasure boat occupied by the "Causillo" in San Sebastián Bay; the attempt failed. In February 1951 Fontenis was arrested in connection with the affair, but soon released because alleged links to the plotters could not be demonstrated. At the start of 1950 a group of militants around Serge Ninn and Georges Fontenis set about establishing a communist libertarian group - described by Maurice Joyeux as a "clandestine party inside the Anarchist Federation", by another commenter as "a kind of secret ginger group" - which they called the Organisation of Battle Planning, as a tribute to Camillo Berneri and his 1936 book "Pensée et bataille".

OPB members decided to keep their organisation's existence secret. In May/June 1952, at the Anarchist Federation congress at Bordeaux, they moved to expel the Lapeyre brothers, Maurice Joyeux and Maurice Fayolle; the bitterness engendered and Georges Fontenis' centrality to the acrimonious affair meant that for many years afterwards he would be singled out for demonisation in the speeches and writings of traditionally more mainstream anarchists. At the congress in Paris in May 1953 the libertarian communist faction prevailed; the congress adopted the "Declaration of Principles" project which asserted the libertarian communist objectives of the organisation. Unable to agree on a new name for the relaunched organisation at the time, it was only after a members' referendum in December 1953 that the French "Anarchist Federation" became the "Libertarian Communist Federation", with 11 of the 16 regional groups under the direction of the OPB; the Individualist anarchists and some of the communist libertarians re