Bristol Cars is a dormant manufacturer of hand-built luxury cars headquartered at Mychett Place, England. Bristol Cars Limited is a newly formed company, incorporated in 2011 after the original company fell into administration that same year and was dissolved by a court appointed administrator, after changing its name to BCL 2011 Ltd. After the Second World War, the car division of the Bristol Aeroplane Company was formed becoming Bristol Cars Limited. Bristol has only one sales showroom, on Kensington High Street in London; the company maintains an enthusiastic and loyal clientele. Bristol has always been a low-volume manufacturer; the company suspended manufacturing in March 2011, when administrators were appointed, 22 staff were made redundant at the factory in Filton and subsequently the company was dissolved. In April 2011, a new company was formed by the administrator to sell the original assets to Kamkorp. Since 2011, the company has been restoring and selling all models of the marque while a new model was being developed.
The company had revealed a desire to return to automotive production in 2018 with an all-new model, called the "Bullet" dubbed "Project Pinnacle". The car was first revealed to the public on 26 July 2016, homologation was set to have begun some time in 2018; the British aircraft industry suffered a dramatic loss of orders and great financial difficulties following the Armistice of 1918. To provide immediate employment for its considerable workforce, the Bristol Aeroplane Company undertook the manufacture of a light car, the construction of car bodies for Armstrong Siddeley and bus bodies for their sister company, Bristol Tramways. On the outbreak of World War II, Sir George Stanley White, managing director of the Bristol Aeroplane Company from 1911–1954, was determined not to suffer the same difficulties a second time; the company now employed 70,000 and he knew he must plan for the time when the voracious wartime demand for Bristol aircraft and aircraft engines would end. The company began working with AFN Ltd, makers of Frazer Nash cars and British importer of BMWs before the war, on plans for a joint venture in automotive manufacture.
As early as 1941, a number of papers were written or commissioned by George S. M. White, Sir Stanley's son, proposing a post-war car manufacturing division, it was decided to purchase an existing manufacturer for this purpose. Alvis, Aston Martin, Lagonda, ERA and Lea-Francis were considered. A chance discussion took place in May 1945, between D. A. Aldington, a director of Frazer Nash serving as an inspector for the wartime Ministry of Aircraft Production, Eric Storey, an assistant of George White at the Bristol Aeroplane Company, it led to the immediate take-over of Frazer Nash by the Aeroplane Company. Aldington and his two brothers had marketed the Frazer Nash BMW before the war, proposed to build an updated version after demobilisation; this seemed the perfect match for the aeroplane company's own ambitions to manufacture a high quality sports car. With the support of the War Reparations Board, H. J. Aldington travelled to Munich and purchased the rights to manufacture three BMW models and the 328 engine.
By July 1945, BAC had created a car division and bought a controlling stake in AFN. A factory was established near Bristol. George White and Reginald Verdon-Smith of the Aeroplane Company joined the new Frazer Nash Board, but in January 1947, soon after the first cars had been produced, differences between the Aldingtons and Bristol led to the resale of Frazer Nash; the Bristol Car Division became an independent entity. Bristol Cars was sold after its parent joined with other British aircraft companies in 1960 to create the British Aircraft Corporation, which became part of British Aerospace; the car division merged with Bristol Siddeley Engines, was marked for closure, but was bought in September 1960 by George S. M. White the chairman and effective founder. White retained the direction of the company, but sold a forty per cent shareholding to Tony Crook, a leading Bristol agent. Crook became sole distributor. In September 1969, only a month before the unveiling of the new Bristol 411 at the Earl's Court Motor Show, Sir George White suffered a serious accident in his Bristol 410.
The car was only superficially damaged. As time passed it became clear that he would never regain his health sufficiently to return to full-time work. To safeguard the future of his workforce, he decided in 1973 to sell his majority shareholding to Crook; as the ties with the White family were severed, British Aerospace requested the company to move its factory from Filton Aerodrome and it found new premises in nearby Patchway. The showroom on Kensington High Street became the head office, with Crook shuttling between the two in Bristol's light aircraft. Under Crook's direction the company produced at least six types, the names of which were borrowed from Bristol's distinguished aeronautical past: the Beaufighter, Blenheim and Brigand. In February 1997, Crook aged 77, sold a fifty per cent holding in Bristol Cars to Toby Silverton, with an option to take full control within four years. Silverton son-in-law of Joe Lewis of the Tavistock Group and son of Arthur Silverton of Overfinch, joined the board with his father.
Crook and Toby Silverton produced the Speedster, Bullet and 411 Series 6, though 2002 saw the transfer of Bristol Cars into the ownership of Silverton and the Tavistock Group, with Silverton in the chair and Crook remaining as m
Hyatt Roller Bearing Company
Hyatt Roller Bearing Company was a manufacturer of roller bearings from 1892 to 1916, when it was acquired by General Motors. It continued as a distinct division of GM for many years; the company struggled at first entered a phase of profitable growth under the leadership of Alfred P. Sloan; the innovative design of Hyatt's roller bearings made them more efficient than others. They were used in early automobiles by various manufacturers, in industrial vehicles and equipment. John Wesley Hyatt was a printer by trade and a prolific inventor who secured over 250 patents, the first issued in 1861 for a knife grinder, his chemical experiments led to the invention of celluloid. In 1888 he lacked adequate bearings, his solution was a roller bearing where the rollers were made from coiled strips of steel, he patented his invention. The helical-shaped rollers made from flat spring steel were more flexible than solid-cylinder rollers, did not heat up and lock due to friction, lasted longer. Hyatt introduced refinements, with the bearings assembled within a closed cage.
Seeing broad potential for the invention, he founded the Hyatt Roller Bearing Company in 1892. The company was based in Newark, New Jersey, but soon moved to Harrison, New Jersey. In 1895 the company sold about $2,000 of bearings each month; that year Hyatt hired the 20-year-old Alfred P. Sloan as a draftsman. Sloan had obtained a degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he had been struggling to find a job, was recommended to Hyatt by John E. Searles, president of the American Sugar Refining Company, a friend of his father and a major investor in Hyatt. Sloan wrote Well, I am bound to admit the first sight of my opportunity was disappointing... Not far from a city dump on a weed-grown, marshy plain was an old weather-worn building, like an overgrown barn. In its indefinite yard there was a small mound of coal and a great mound of reddish-gray cinders and ashes. Once the factory had been painted brown. Only one word describes it: "dirty." Smoke from the dump carried an acric odor. Across the wall nearest the railroad track there was lettered in black this legend: HYATT ROLLER BEARING COMPANY.
Although the company was mismanaged and financially insecure, Sloan saw that the spirally-wound flexible roller bearing product had real potential. At that time machine parts did not have precise dimensions, so the flexibility of the Hyatt bearing was a valuable quality. However, Sloan left Hyatt in 1897 to take a better-paying job with which he could afford to marry his fiancée, Irene Jackson, he joined another start-up company named Hygienic Refrigerator, trying to develop an electric refrigerator. Hyatt bearings for automobiles were first produced in 1896 for use in the Haynes-Apperson car of Elwood Haynes. In 1899 John Searles, the largest investor in Hyatt, decided to cut his losses. Sloan's father joined forces with another investor to buy out Searles for $5,000, they gave Sloan the job of turning the company around, with a six-month deadline. Sloan became general manager in charge of production; the company bookkeeper, Pete Steenstrup, was made sales manager. Under the new discipline imposed by Sloan and Steenstrup the company made a profit of $12,000 in the first six months, more than exceeding expectations.
In the summer of 1900 the company received a breakthrough order of 120 bearings for the rear axles of 30 automobiles from the Olds Motor Works of Ransom E. Olds; the Olds Motor Works had plans to build over 1,000 vehicles in 1901, would use Hyatt bearings if the test vehicles were successful. Sloan was appointed president of Hyatt in 1901, oversaw rapid and profitable growth of the company. Sloan and his family invested over $50,000 in the company. Hyatt became a large, modern industrial operation. Sloan was awarded patents for shafting hangers and hanger boxes, for improvements to these inventions. Sloan learned an important lesson early in his tenure from Henry M. Leland, general manager of Cadillac an independent company. Leland refused to accept the first shipment of Hyatt's bearings since they were not accurate to within 0.001 inches. Given the importance of the contract for immediate revenue and for Hyatt's reputation as a quality supplier, Sloan at once travelled to Detroit to discuss the problem.
At first Sloan defended his products, but listened as Leland forcibly explained the importance of uniform precision in automobile parts. He said "Mr. Sloan, Cadillacs are made to run, not just to sell." Sloan now asked for Leland's advice. He said, "I was determined to be as fanatical as he in obtaining precision in our work. An different standard had been established for Hyatt Roller Bearings."Soon Hyatt bearings were used in axles and transmissions by a number of manufacturers. Hyatt supplied bearings to the Covert Motor Vehicle Company, founded by B. V. Covert, who co-founded the Harrison Radiator Company. Sloan would bring Harrison Radiator into the United Motors Company. Hyatt supplied bearings to the Lincoln Steel and Forge Company for use with the axles of coal mine car frames, Lincoln's successful main product. Henry Ford became a major customer. By 1916 the Ford Motor Company had half the market for new automobiles, selling 577,036 vehicles that year. Hyatt became a critical supplier of bearings to component manufacturers who supplied General Motors.
James D. Mooney to become head of General Motors Overseas, was hired by Hyatt and worked there before enrolling in the army in 1917 during World War I. In 1916 General Motors purchased Hyatt for
Delaine Buses is a bus operator based in Bourne, England. In 1890 William Smith began a horse drawn passenger service. After a taxi operation commenced in 1910, a 14-seat Ford Model T bus was purchased in 1919 and services commenced to Grantham and Stamford. In May 1941 the business was incorporated; as at October 2013 Delaine Buses operated eight bus routes. From the 1930s to the 1990s, the majority of vehicles in the Delaine fleet were of Bedford or Leyland manufacture. Since 1995 Delaine has standardised on Volvos with East Lancs body, followed by switching over to Wrights in 2009 after East Lancs has merged with Optare; as of September 2014 the fleet consisted of 26 buses. A heritage fleet is maintained. List of bus operators of the United Kingdom Moore, Peter. Delaine - 120 Years of Service. Venture Publications. ISBN 978-1905304387. Media related to Delaine Buses at Wikimedia Commons Company website Showbus gallery
De Dion tube
A de Dion tube is an automobile suspension technology. It is a sophisticated form of non-independent suspension and is a considerable improvement over the swing axle, Hotchkiss drive, or live axle; because it plays no part in transmitting power to the drive wheels, it is sometimes called a "dead axle". De Dion suspension uses universal joint at both the wheel hubs and differential, uses a solid tubular beam to hold the opposite wheels in parallel. Unlike an anti-roll bar, a de Dion tube is not directly connected to the chassis nor is it intended to flex. In suspension geometry it is a beam axle suspension; the de Dion tube was named after Comte Jules-Albert de Dion, founder of French automobile manufacturer De Dion-Bouton. The tube, was invented around 1894 by co-founder Charles Trépardoux for use on the company's steam tricycles. Advantages: Reduced unsprung weight compared to the Hotchkiss drive, since the differential and half-shafts are connected to the chassis. Unlike most independent suspension there are no camber changes on axle loading and unloading.
Fixing the camber of both wheels at 0° assists in obtaining good traction from wide tires and tends to reduce wheel hop under high power operations compared to an independent suspension. The choice of shock absorbers and springs is made easier; the two wheels may be individually aligned, allowing for independent track alignment. Disadvantages: A pair of CV or universal joints is required for each wheel, adding complexity and weight. If coil springs are used a lateral location link is required, plus additional torque links on each side or a combination of lower trailing links and an upper transverse wishbone. None of these additional links are required if leaf springs are used, but ride can be compromised due to the leaves having to do double duty as both locating links and springs; the torque links are not required if the setup uses inboard brakes, like in the Pegaso 1502, Rover P6, all Iso cars and Alfa Romeo type 116, as the wheels do not transmit torque to the suspension. Sympathetic camber changes on opposite wheels are seen on single-wheel suspension compression, just as in a Hotchkiss drive or live axle.
This is not important for operation on improved surfaces but is more critical for rough road or off-road use. Alfa Romeo is the most famous adopter of this technology, using it on the Alfa Romeo Alfetta, GT, GTV, GTV6, Alfa 6, 90, 75/Milano, SZ/RZ. Other production vehicles using this suspension include the Lancia Aurelia and Flaminia and second generation Prince Gloria, the original Mazda Cosmo, Volvo 300-series, Rover P6, Dodge Caravan & Grand Caravan, DAF 46, DAF 66, all Iso cars and early Bizzarrini 5300 GT Stradas, some of the largest Opels, such as the Opel Diplomat "B" of 1969, all Aston Martins from 1967 to 1989, Ferrari 375 and 250TR, first generation Maserati Quattroporte, Bugatti Type 251, Mercedes-Benz W125 and W154 as well as Auto Union Type D; the Smart Fortwo and Smart Roadster micro-compact cars produced by Daimler AG, Mitsubishi i kei car produced by Mitsubishi Motors and the Caterham 7, are the only cars in production that utilize this arrangement, as well as the products of some kit car companies.
A recent vehicle to use this suspension coupled with leaf springs was the Ford Ranger EV. Note the black Z shaped Watt's linkage mounted to the top of the silver De Dion tube in the photo above; the American built MV-1 van by VPG uses this suspension in the rear with leaf springs and is just starting production in spring 2010. 4WD variants of the Honda Fit use a De Dion style suspension in lieu of a torsion bar. Most models of the Kawasaki MULE line of utility vehicles feature a leaf sprung DeDion rear suspension with a distinctively curved tube axle that clears the rear subframe to provide 50mm of wheel travel. Benefits include simplicity, compactness and a low liftover height for the cargo bed. Walter Snow Fighter plow trucks produced by the Walter Truck Company of Long Island, New York throughout the mid 20th century used DeDion axles with portal gear hubs for both the front and the rear suspension, allowing the use of large differentials for durability without increasing unsprung weight or reducing ground clearance.
Forged steel axles were used instead of tubes. G. N. Georgano. Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886-1930. London: Grange-Universal.. Setright, L. J. K. "De Dion axle: The First Step to Independence", in Ward, executive editor. World of Automobiles, Volume 5, pp. 515–516. London: Orbis, 1974
Lincolnshire is a county in eastern England, with a long coastline on the North Sea to the east. It borders Norfolk to the south east, Cambridgeshire to the south, Rutland to the south west and Nottinghamshire to the west, South Yorkshire to the north west, the East Riding of Yorkshire to the north, it borders Northamptonshire in the south for just 20 yards, England's shortest county boundary. The county town is the city of Lincoln; the ceremonial county of Lincolnshire is composed of the non-metropolitan county of Lincolnshire and the area covered by the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. Part of the ceremonial county is in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, most is in the East Midlands region; the county is the second-largest of the English ceremonial counties and one, predominantly agricultural in land use. The county is fourth-largest of the two-tier counties, as the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire are not included.
The county has several geographical sub-regions, including the rolling chalk hills of the Lincolnshire Wolds. In the southeast are the Lincolnshire Fens, the Carrs, the industrial Humber Estuary and North Sea coast around Grimsby and Scunthorpe, in the southwest of the county, the Kesteven Uplands, comprising rolling limestone hills in the district of South Kesteven. During the Pre-Roman times most of Lincolnshire was inhabited by the Brythonic Corieltauvi people; the Iceni covered the area around modern day Grimsby. The language of the area at that time would have been the precursor to modern Welsh; the name Lincoln derives from the old Welsh ‘Lindo’ meaning Lake. Modern-day Lincolnshire is derived from the merging of the territory of the Brythonic Kingdom of Lindsey with that controlled by the Danelaw borough of Stamford. For some time the entire county was called "Lindsey", it is recorded as such in the 11th-century Domesday Book; the name Lindsey was applied to the northern core, around Lincoln.
This emerged as one of the three Parts of Lincolnshire, along with the Parts of Holland in the south east, the Parts of Kesteven in the south west, which each had separate Quarter Sessions as their county administrations. In 1888 when county councils were set up, Lindsey and Kesteven each received separate ones; these survived until 1974, when Holland and most of Lindsey were unified into Lincolnshire. The northern part of Lindsey, including Scunthorpe Municipal Borough and Grimsby County Borough, was incorporated into the newly formed non-metropolitan county of Humberside, along with most of the East Riding of Yorkshire. A local government reform in 1996 abolished Humberside; the land south of the Humber Estuary was allocated to the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. These two areas became part of Lincolnshire for ceremonial purposes, such as the Lord-Lieutenancy, but are not covered by the Lincolnshire police; the remaining districts of Lincolnshire are Boston, East Lindsey, North Kesteven, South Holland, South Kesteven, West Lindsey.
They are part of the East Midlands region. The area was shaken by the 27 February 2008 Lincolnshire earthquake, reaching between 4.7 and 5.3 on the Richter magnitude scale. Lincolnshire is home to Woolsthorpe Manor and home of Sir Isaac Newton, he attended Grantham. Its library has preserved his signature, carved into a window sill. Bedrock in Lincolnshire features Cretaceous chalk. For much of prehistory, Lincolnshire was under tropical seas, most fossils found in the county are marine invertebrates. Marine vertebrates have been found including ichthyosaurus and plesiosaur; the highest point in Lincolnshire is Wolds Top, at Normanby le Wold. Some parts of the Fens may be below sea level; the nearest mountains are in Derbyshire. The biggest rivers in Lincolnshire are the Trent, running northwards from Staffordshire up the western edge of the county to the Humber estuary, the Witham, which begins in Lincolnshire at South Witham and runs for 132 kilometres through the middle of the county emptying into the North Sea at The Wash.
The Humber estuary, on Lincolnshire's northern border, is fed by the River Ouse. The Wash is the mouth of the Welland, the Nene and the Great Ouse. Lincolnshire's geography is varied, but consists of several distinct areas: Lincolnshire Wolds - area of rolling hills in the north east of the county designated an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty The Fens - dominating the south east quarter of the county The Marshes - running along the coast of the county The Lincoln Edge/Cliff - limestone escarpment running north-south along the western half of the countyLincolnshire's most well-known nature reserves include Gibraltar Point National Nature Reserve, Whisby Nature Park Local Nature Reserve, Donna Nook National Nature Reserve, RSPB Frampton Marsh and the Humberhead Peatlands National Nature Reserve. Although the Lincolnshire countryside is intensively farmed, there are many biodiverse wetland areas, as well as rare limewood forests. Much of the county was once wet. From bones, we can tell that animal species found in Lincolnshire include wooly mammoth, wooly rhinoceros, wild horse, wild boar and beaver.
Species which have returned to Lincolnshire after extirpation include little egret, Eurasian spoonbill, European otter and red kite. This is a chart
Major Sir Malcolm Campbell was a British racing motorist and motoring journalist. He gained the world speed record on land and on water at various times during the 1920s and 1930s using vehicles called Blue Bird, including a 1921 Grand Prix Sunbeam, his son, Donald Campbell, carried on the family tradition by holding both land speed and water speed records. Campbell was born in Chislehurst, Kent. on 11 March 1885, the only son of William Campbell, a Hatton Garden diamond seller. He attended the independent Uppingham School. In Germany, learning the diamond trade, he gained an interest in races. Returning to Britain, he worked for two years at Lloyd's of London for no pay for another year at £1 a week. Between 1906 and 1908, he won all three London to Lands End Trials motorcycle races. In 1910 he began racing cars at Brooklands, he christened his car Blue Bird, painting it blue, after seeing the play The Blue Bird by Maurice Maeterlinck at the Haymarket Theatre. Campbell divorced two years later.
Campbell married Dorothy Evelyn Whittall in 1920 and their son Donald was born in 1921, their daughter, Jean, in 1923. They divorced in 1940. Campbell married Betty Nicory in 1945 in Chelsea. At the outbreak of World War I, Campbell enlisted as a motorcycle dispatch rider and fought at the Battle of Mons in August 1914. Shortly afterwards he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 5th Battalion, Queen's Own, a Territorial Force unit, on 2 September 1914, he was soon drafted into the Royal Flying Corps, where he served as a ferry pilot, as his instructors believed he was too clumsy to make the grade as a fighter pilot. During the late 1930s he commanded the provost company of the 56th Division of the Territorial Army. From 1940 to 1942 he commanded the military police contingent of the Coats Mission tasked with evacuating King George VI, Queen Elizabeth and their immediate family from London in the event of German invasion. On 23 January 1943 he was transferred from the Corps of Military Police to the General List.
On 16 December 1945, having attained the age limit of 60, Campbell relinquished his commission and was granted the honorary rank of major. Campbell competed in Grand Prix motor racing, winning the 1927 and 1928 Grand Prix de Boulogne in France driving a Bugatti T37A. Campbell broke the land speed record for the first time in 1924 at 146.16 mph at Pendine Sands near Carmarthen Bay in a 350HP V12 Sunbeam, now on display at the National Motor Museum, Beaulieu. He broke nine land speed records between 1924 and 1935, with three at Pendine Sands and five at Daytona Beach, his first two records were driving a racing car built by Sunbeam. On 4 February 1927 Campbell set the land speed record at Pendine Sands, covering the Flying Kilometre at 174.883 mph and the Flying Mile in 174.224 mph, in the Napier-Campbell Blue Bird. He set his final land speed record at the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah on 3 September 1935, was the first person to drive an automobile over 300 mph, averaging 301.337 mph in two passes.
Campbell flotation-tested Blue Bird on Tilgate Lake, in Tilgate Park, Crawley. He set the water speed record four times, his highest speed being 141.740 mph in the Blue Bird K4. He set the record on 19 August 1939 on Coniston Water, England. Campbell stood for Parliament without success at the 1935 general election in Deptford for the Conservative Party, despite his links to the British Union of Fascists, he once adorned his car with a Fascist pennant of the London Volunteer Transport Service, though there has been no photographic evidence to support this claim. Campbell died after a series of strokes in 1948 in Reigate, aged 63 years, he was one of the few land speed record holders of his era to die of natural causes, as so many had died in crashes. His versatile racing on different vehicles made him internationally famous. In recognition of his service during World War I, Campbell was appointed a Member of the Military Division of the Order of the British Empire on 3 June 1919. In 1931 on his return from Daytona where he set a land speed record of 245.736 mph, he was given a civic welcome and a Mansion House banquet in London, was knighted at Buckingham Palace by King George V on 21 February 1931.
He was awarded the Segrave Trophy in 1933 and 1939. He was inducted into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame in 1990, he was inducted into the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America in 1994. In 2010 an English Heritage blue plaque commemorating Campbell and his son was installed at Canbury School, Kingston Hill, Kingston upon Thames, where Donald was born in March 1921 and the Campbell family lived until late 1922. Www. SirMalcolmCampbell.com Newspaper articles and pic of 1935 land speed record www.racingcampbells.com – dedicated to the memory of Campbell and his son Donald Biography Malcolm Campbell at Find a Grave Leather Cap and Goggles at A History of Central Florida Podcast Newspaper clippings about Malcolm Campbell in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics