The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the late 15th century to the early 17th century. It is associated with the pan-European Renaissance, regarded as beginning in Italy in the late 14th century; as in most of the rest of northern Europe, England saw little of these developments until more than a century later. The beginning of the English Renaissance is taken, as a convenience, to be 1485, when the Battle of Bosworth Field ended the Wars of the Roses and inaugurated the Tudor Dynasty. Renaissance style and ideas, were slow to penetrate England, the Elizabethan era in the second half of the 16th century is regarded as the height of the English Renaissance; the English Renaissance is different from the Italian Renaissance in several ways. The dominant art forms of the English Renaissance were music. Visual arts in the English Renaissance were much less significant than in the Italian Renaissance; the English period began far than the Italian, moving into Mannerism and the Baroque by the 1550s or earlier.
In contrast, the English Renaissance can only be said to begin, shakily, in the 1520s, it continued until 1620. England had a strong tradition of literature in the English vernacular, which increased as English use of the printing press became common during the mid 16th century; this tradition of literature written in English vernacular began with the Protestant Reformation's call to let people interpret the Bible for themselves instead of accepting the Catholic Church's interpretation. Discussions on how to translate the Bible so that it could be understood by laymen but still do justice to God's word became contentious, with people arguing how much license could be taken to impart the correct meaning without sacrificing its eloquence; the desire to let people read the Bible for themselves led William Tyndale to publish his own translation in 1526. This would become a predecessor to the King James Version of the Bible, his works influence on the vernacular contributed more to English than Shakespeare.
Another early proponent of literature in the vernacular was Roger Ascham, tutor to Princess Elizabeth during her teenage years, is now called the "father of English prose." He proposed that speech was the greatest gift to man from God and to speak or write poorly was an affront. By the time of Elizabethan literature, a vigorous literary culture in both drama and poetry included poets such as Edmund Spenser, whose verse epic The Faerie Queene had a strong influence on English literature but was overshadowed by the lyrics of William Shakespeare, Thomas Wyatt and others; the works of these playwrights and poets circulated in manuscript form for some time before they were published, above all the plays of English Renaissance theatre were the outstanding legacy of the period. The works of this period are affected by Henry VIII's declaration of independence from the Catholic Church and technological advances in sailing and cartography, which are reflected in the nonreligious themes and various shipwreck adventures of Shakespeare.
The English theatre scene, which performed both for the court and nobility in private performances and a wide public in the theatres, was the most crowded in Europe, with a host of other playwrights as well as the giant figures of Christopher Marlowe, William Shakespeare and Ben Jonson. Elizabeth herself was a product of Renaissance humanism trained by Roger Ascham, wrote occasional poems such as "On Monsieur's Departure" at critical moments of her life. Philosophers and intellectuals included Francis Bacon. All the 16th century Tudor monarchs were educated, as was much of the nobility, Italian literature had a considerable following, providing the sources for many of Shakespeare's plays. English thought advanced towards modern science with the Baconian Method, a forerunner of the Scientific Method; the language of the Book of Common Prayer, first published in 1549, at the end of the period the Authorised Version of the Bible had enduring impacts on the English consciousness. England was slow to produce visual arts in Renaissance styles, the artists of the Tudor court were imported foreigners until after the end of the Renaissance.
The English Reformation produced a huge programme of iconoclasm that destroyed all medieval religious art, all but ended the skill of painting in England. The significant English invention was the portrait miniature, which took the techniques of the dying art of the illuminated manuscript and transferred them to small portraits worn in lockets. Though the form was developed in England by foreign artists Flemish like Lucas Horenbout, the somewhat undistinguished founder of the tradition, by the late 16th century natives such as Nicolas Hilliard and Isaac Oliver produced the finest work as the best producers of larger portraits in oil were still foreigners; the portrait miniature had spread all over Europe by the 18th century. The portraiture of Elizabeth I was controlled, developed into an elaborate and wholly un-realist iconic style, that has succeeded in creating enduring images. English Renaissance music kept in touch with continental developments far more than visual art, managed to survive the Reformation successfully, though William Byrd and other major figures were Catholic.
An ultrasonic motor is a type of electric motor powered by the ultrasonic vibration of a component, the stator, placed against another component, the rotor or slider depending on the scheme of operation. Ultrasonic motors differ from piezoelectric actuators in several ways, though both use some form of piezoelectric material, most lead zirconate titanate and lithium niobate or other single-crystal materials; the most obvious difference is the use of resonance to amplify the vibration of the stator in contact with the rotor in ultrasonic motors. Ultrasonic motors offer arbitrarily large rotation or sliding distances, while piezoelectric actuators are limited by the static strain that may be induced in the piezoelectric element. One common application of ultrasonic motors is in camera lenses where they are used to move lens elements as part of the auto-focus system. Ultrasonic motors replace the noisier and slower micro-motor in this application. Dry friction is used in contact, the ultrasonic vibration induced in the stator is used both to impart motion to the rotor and to modulate the frictional forces present at the interface.
The friction modulation allows bulk motion of the rotor. Two different ways are available to control the friction along the stator-rotor contact interface, traveling-wave vibration and standing-wave vibration; some of the earliest versions of practical motors in the 1970s, by Sashida, for example, used standing-wave vibration in combination with fins placed at an angle to the contact surface to form a motor, albeit one that rotated in a single direction. Designs by Sashida and researchers at Matsushita, ALPS, Canon made use of traveling-wave vibration to obtain bi-directional motion, found that this arrangement offered better efficiency and less contact interface wear. An exceptionally high-torque'hybrid transducer' ultrasonic motor uses circumferentially-poled and axially-poled piezoelectric elements together to combine axial and torsional vibration along the contact interface, representing a driving technique that lies somewhere between the standing and traveling-wave driving methods. A key observation in the study of ultrasonic motors is that the peak vibration that may be induced in structures occurs at a constant vibration velocity regardless of frequency.
The vibration velocity is the time derivative of the vibration displacement in a structure, is not related to the speed of the wave propagation within a structure. Many engineering materials suitable for vibration permit a peak vibration velocity of around 1 m/s. At low frequencies — 50 Hz, say — a vibration velocity of 1 m/s in a woofer would give displacements of about 10 mm, visible; as the frequency is increased, the displacement decreases, the acceleration increases. As the vibration becomes inaudible at 20 kHz or so, the vibration displacements are in the tens of micrometers, motors have been built that operate using 50 MHz surface acoustic wave that have vibrations of only a few nanometers in magnitude; such devices require care in construction to meet the necessary precision to make use of these motions within the stator. More there are two types of motors and non-contact, the latter of, rare and requires a working fluid to transmit the ultrasonic vibrations of the stator toward the rotor.
Most versions use air, such as some of the earliest versions by Hu Junhui. Research in this area continues in near-field acoustic levitation for this sort of application. Canon was one of the pioneers of the ultrasonic motor, made the "USM" famous in the late 1980s by incorporating it into its autofocus lenses for the Canon EF lens mount. Numerous patents on ultrasonic motors have been filed by Canon, its chief lensmaking rival Nikon, other industrial concerns since the early 1980s. Canon has not only included an ultrasonic motor in their DSLR lenses, but in the Canon PowerShot SX1 IS bridge camera; the ultrasonic motor is now used in many consumer and office electronics requiring precision rotations over long periods of time. The technology has been applied to photographic lenses by a variety of companies under different names: Canon – USM, UltraSonic Motor Minolta, Konica Minolta, Sony – SSM, Super Sonic wave Motor Nikon – SWM, Silent Wave Motor Olympus – SWD, Supersonic Wave Drive Panasonic – XSM, Extra Silent Motor Pentax – SDM, Supersonic Dynamic Motor Sigma – HSM, Hyper Sonic Motor Sony - DDSSM, Direct Drive Super Sonic wave Motor Tamron - USD, Ultrasonic Silent Drive.
- Direct Drive, MRI Compatible Ultrasonic Motor Piezoelectric motor Linear actuator Stepper motor Ultrasonic homogenizer GeneralCertificate of authorship #217509 "Electric Engine", Lavrinenko V. Necrasov M. application #1006424 from 10 May 1965. US Patent #4.019.073, 1975. US Patent #4.453.103, 1982. US Patent #4.400.641, 1982. Piezoelectric motors. Lavrinenko V. Kartashev I. Vishnevskyi V. "Energiya" 1980. V. Snitka, V. Mizariene and D. Zukauskas The status of ultrasonic motors in the former Soviet Union, Volume 34, Issues 2–5, June 1996, Pages 247-250 Principles of construction of piezoelectric motors. V. Lavrinenko, ISBN 978-3-659-51406-7, "Lambert", 2015, 236p. Ultrasonic Actuators and Sensors page, from NASA JPL Design and performances of high torque ultrasonic motor for application of automobile Design of miniature ultrasonic motors Ultrasonic Lens Motor Micro/Nano Phy
Donald N. Bastian is a retired Bishop of The Free Methodist Church USA, he served from 1974 to 1990 as one of five bishops, with primary oversight of Free Methodist churches in Canada. In 1990 he was elected the first bishop of the newly formed General Conference in Canada when three long-standing annual conferences were granted the right to form such a conference. Prior to his service as a bishop of the church he served three Free Methodist congregations—Lexington, during his seminary years, New Westminster, B. C. and the Greenville College church in Greenville, totalling 21 years. Bastian has authored several books, including: Belonging, the long-used and often-updated membership training book of the Free Methodist Church. Bastian has written hundreds of articles, appearing in Light and Life, the magazine of the Free Methodist Church, as well as in Christianity Today, The Lutheran, The Upper Room. Bastian earned his B. A. from Greenville College and the B. D. from Asbury Theological Seminary and has been awarded four honorary doctorates.
Beginning in the late 1980s, Bastian and President Neil Hightower of the Canadian Nazarene College worked with Canadian denominational leaders to establish a chair in Wesleyan studies at Tyndale Seminary, Canada's largest Protestant seminary. The chair was inaugurated in 1993 and named the Donald N. and Kathleen G. Bastian Chair of Wesley Studies. In 2016 Greenville University established the Donald N. and Kathleen G. Bastian School of Theology and Ministry, as well as the Donald N. Bastian Chair of Pastoral Theology and Christian Ministry. Bastian, born in Estevan, Saskatchewan, is married to the former Kathleen Swallow and the two of them have four children, they live in Ontario. Biography