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English as a second or foreign language

English as a second or foreign language is the use of English by speakers with different native languages. Language education for people learning English may be known as English as a second language, English as a foreign language, English as an additional language, or English for speakers of other languages; the aspect in which ESL is taught is referred to as Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Teaching English as a Second Language or Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. Technically, TEFL refers to English language teaching in a country where English is not the official language, TESL refers to teaching English to non-native English speakers in a native English speaking country and TESOL covers both. In practice however, each of these terms tends to be used more generically across the full field; the one you are more to hear depends on your location - with TEFL more used in the UK and TESL or TESOL in the US. The term "ESL" has been seen by some to indicate; the term can be a misnomer for some students who have learned several languages before learning English.

The terms "English language learners", more "English learners", have been used instead, the students' native languages and cultures are considered important. Methods of learning English are variable depending on the student's level of English proficiency and the manner and setting in which they are taught, which can range from required classes in school to self-directed study at home. In some programs, educational materials are provided in a mixture of English and the student's native language. In other programs, educational materials are always in English, but the vocabulary and context clues may be modified to be more understood by students with varying levels of comprehension. Adapting comprehension, insight oriented repetitions and recasts are some of the methods used in training. However, without proper cultural immersion the associated language habits and reference points of the host country are not transferred through these programs; as a further complication, the syntax of the language is based on Latin grammar hence it suffers inconsistencies.

The major engines that influence the language are the United States and the United Kingdom and they both have assimilated the language differently so they differ in expressions and usage. This is found to a great extent in pronunciation and vocabulary. Variants of English language exist in both of these countries; the English language has great reach and influence, English is taught all over the world. In countries where English is not a native language, there are two distinct models for teaching English: Educational programs for students who want to move to English-speaking countries, other programs for students who do not intend to move but who want to understand English content for the purposes of education, employment or conducting international business; the differences between these two models of English language education have grown larger over time, teachers focusing on each model have used different terminology, received different training, formed separate professional associations.

English is taught as a second language for recent immigrants to English-speaking countries, which faces separate challenges because the students in one class may speak many different native languages. The many acronyms and abbreviations used in the field of English teaching and learning may be confusing and the following technical definitions may have their currency contested upon various grounds; the precise usage, including the different use of the terms ESL and ESOL in different countries, is described below. These terms are most used in relation to teaching and learning English as a second language, but they may be used in relation to demographic information. English language teaching is a used teacher-centered term, as in the English language teaching divisions of large publishing houses, ELT training, etc. Teaching English as a second language, teaching English to speakers of other languages, teaching English as a foreign language are used. Other terms used in this field include English as an international language, English as a lingua franca, English for special purposes and English for specific purposes, English for academic purposes.

Those who are learning English are referred to as English language learners. The learners of English language are of two main groups; the first group includes the learners learning English as their second language i.e. the second language of their country and the second group includes those who learn English as a foreign language i.e. a language, not spoken in any parts of their county. EFL, English as a foreign language, indicates the teaching of English in a non–English-speaking region. Study can occur either in the student's home country, as part of the normal school curriculum or otherwise, or, for the more privileged minority, in an anglophone country that they visit as a sort of educational tourist immediately before or after graduating from university. TEFL is the teaching of English as a foreign language. EFL is learned either to pass exams as a necessary part of one's education, or for career progression while one works fo

Soldier with the Green Whiskers

The Soldier with the Green Whiskers is a character from the fictional Land of Oz who appears in the classic children's series of Oz books by American author L. Frank Baum and his successors, he is first introduced in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. His name is Omby Amby, but this was so obliquely stated that he became known as Wantowin Battles. In The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, the Soldier with the Green Whiskers is the head guard of the Royal Army of Oz, his job is to protect its residents. He gladly escorts the four main protagonists Dorothy, the Scarecrow, Tin Woodman and Cowardly Lion through the streets of the Emerald City upon their first visit, he leads them all to the royal palace of the Wizard of Oz, where he forces them to wipe their feet upon a plush green carpet before entering. When he blows upon his green whistle, a pretty maid dressed in green silk named Jellia Jamb appears to show the four guests to their private rooms while staying in Oz's palace; the Soldier with the Green Whiskers appears to be the tallest citizen in the city, is described as being "very tall" with a thick and long green beard that flows nearly to the ground.

After the Wizard's departure from Oz, he leaves the Scarecrow to rule the city in his stead. The Soldier with the Green Whiskers is the one who tells the King Scarecrow that Glinda the Good Witch might know of a way for Dorothy to get back to her homeland in Kansas; the four protagonists take his advice and travel to the land of the southern Quadlings to seek its ruler. In the second Oz book The Marvelous Land of Oz, it is revealed his appearance is for show; when attacked by General Jinjur's all female Army of Revolt, he admits that his gun, drawn containing flowers, is not kept loaded for fear of accidents. He tells her to "wait right here" while he shot that he has misplaced. After his ineffectual attempts to save the Emerald City from invasion, which the Scarecrow chastizes, he vows to disguise himself by shaving his beard. However, he lets it grow back once Princess Ozma has been established on the throne as Oz's true ruler. In Ozma of Oz, we are introduced to the Royal Army of Oz, consisting of twenty-six officers and one private.

This private, Omby Amby, proves to be the only brave soldier in the Army, so Princess Ozma promotes him to Captain-General and makes him her personal Body Guard. He has a fierce moustache, but is capable if gentle-natured, unlike the pompous officers, who come up with excuses not to fight and act cowardly when facing the Giant with the Hammer. Omby Amby gets inadvertently flung onto the arm of the Giant and must jump down onto the soft body of the Scarecrow, the officers more outwardly show their fear than the private. An officer mentions that they have a few other privates, but Omby Amby is the only one we see, he is cleaning the barracks. When the Wizard returns, he recognizes Omby Amby, who greets him accompanied by Jellia Jamb, but wonders what happened to his "green whiskers." Omby Amby admits to have shaven them off. As Omby Amby, he appears in The Road to Oz and is tour guide to Aunt Em and Uncle Henry in The Emerald City of Oz, it is he who informs them of the "Defensive Settlements of Oz" such as Rigmarole Town and Flutterbudget Center, where people are exiled for talking too much or worrying too much, respectively.

When next we see him, in The Patchwork Girl of Oz, he is again referred to as the Soldier with the Green Whiskers. He is referred to as the Emerald City Police Force; this may explain why Jack Snow described Oz's jailer, Tollydiggle, as his wife — in The Magical Mimics in Oz, Betsy Bobbin is shown giving Omby Amby flowers and asking them to give them to his wife, Tollydiggle. No indication of any such relationship is found in Baum's books. Indeed, Baum does state that the Soldier has a wife, but she is one with a "terrible temper" — at least according to Jinjur — something not in evidence in Tollydiggle. Two lines may indicate where this interpretation comes from — he addresses Tollydiggle as "my dear", that he says, "I know that well," when Tollydiggle says, "it is impossible for anyone to escape from this house." While he continued to appear in most Oz books, his next major appearance was not until The Wishing Horse of Oz, in which his beard turning red was the first indication of the magic of Skamperoo in his bid to conquer the Emerald City.

It is suspected to be the red magic of Jinnicky, but Gloma, the Witch of the Black Forest, assures Dorothy that it is green magic at work. With Ozma and many of her advisers, he is imprisoned at the bottom of Lake Lightning. In Ozoplaning with the Wizard of Oz, author Ruth Plumly Thompson constructed an elaborate family history for him under the name Wantowin Battles. In this book, Thompson portrays Wantowin as a pompous coward with bad aim. Jack Snow gave Wantowin, without a surname, his own entry in in Oz as a result. John R. Neill's editor picked up on the name and used it once in the rewritten portion of The Wonder City of Oz. Snow described him as Keeper of the Gates and Royal Army of Oz, omitted an entry from Who's Who in Oz of the Guardian of the Gates, not the same person, as they speak to each other in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, The Marvelous Land of Oz, The Patchwork Girl of Oz. In T

Ptelea trifoliata

Ptelea trifoliata known as common hoptree, wafer ash, stinking ash, skunk bush, is a species of flowering plant in the citrus family. It is native to North America, where it is found in Canada and the United States, it is tree, with alternate, trifoliate leaves. Ptelea trifoliata is a small tree, or a shrub of a few spreading stems, growing to around 6–8 m tall with a broad crown; the bark is reddish brown to gray brown, with short horizontal lenticels, becoming scaly, The plant has an unpleasant odor and bitter taste. Branchlets are dark reddish brown, covered with small excrescences; the twigs are slender to moderately stout, brown with deep U-shaped leaf scars, with short, light brown, fuzzy buds. It has thick fleshy roots, its leaves are compound with three leaflets, dotted with oil glands. The leaflets are sessile, ovate or oblong, 3–5 in long by 2–3 in broad, pointed at the base, entire or serrate, pointed at the apex, they are feather-veined, with primary veins. They come out of the bud conduplicate and downy.

When grown the leaves are dark green and shiny above and paler green beneath. In autumn they turn a rusty yellow; the petioles are 6.3 -- 7.6 cm long, with an enlarged base. Stipules are absent; the western and southwestern forms have smaller leaves, 5–11 cm, than the eastern forms 10–18 cm, an adaptation to the drier climates in the west. The flowers are small; the pedicels are downy. The 4 - or 5-part calyx is imbricate in bud; the corolla has four or five petals which are white, spreading and imbricate in bud. The five stamens alternate with the petals; the pistillate flowers bear rudimentary anthers. The filaments are more-or-less hairy; the anthers two-celled, with cells opening longitudinally. The ovaries are superior, abortive in the staminate flowers, two to three-celled; the style is 3-lobed, with two ovules per cell. Fertile and sterile flowers are produced together in terminal, compound cymes—the sterile being fewer and falling after the anther cells mature. Flowers are produced in June; some find the odor unpleasant but to others.

The fruit is a round wafer-like papery samara, 2–2.5 cm across, light brown, two-seeded. The fruit ripens in October, is held on the tree until high winds shake them loose in the early winter, its wood is yellow brown. The specific gravity is 0.8319. While Ptelea trifoliata is most treated as a single species with subspecies and/or varieties in different distribution ranges, some botanists treat the various hoptrees as a group of four or more related species: P. trifoliata subsp. Trifoliata — common hoptree or eastern hoptree. S. P. trifoliata subsp. Trifoliata var. trifoliata — eastern Canada &, central U. S. P. trifoliata subsp trifoliata var. mollis Torr. & A. Gray — eastern and central U. S. P. trifoliata subsp. Angustifolia V. L. Bailey — south-central U. S. P. trifoliata subsp. Angustifolia var. angustifolia M. E. Jones – narrowleaf hoptree. S. P. trifoliata subsp. Angustifolia var. persicifolia V. L. Bailey — south-central U. S. P. trifoliata subsp. Pallida V. L. Bailey – pallid hoptree, south-central and southwest U.

S. P. trifoliata subsp. Pallida var. pallida V. L. Bailey — southwest U. S. P. trifoliata subsp. Pallida var. cognata Kearney & Peebles — southwest U. S. P. trifoliata subsp. Pallida var. confinis V. L. Bailey — south-central and southwest U. S. P. trifoliata subsp. Pallida var. lutescens — southwest U. S. P. trifoliata subsp. Polyadenia V. L. Bailey – pallid hoptree, south-central and southwest U. S. P. trifoliata var. baldwinii D. B. Ward The specific epithet "trifoliata" refers to the three-parted compound leaf. Other common names for this shrub include stinking prairie bush, Carolina shrub-trefoil, tree-trefoil, swamp dogwood, ague bark, paleleaf hoptree, prairie-grub, prickaway-anise, quinine tree, sang-tree, water-ash, western hoptree and woolly hoptree. Ptelea trifoliata is native to North America, where its northern limits are in Ontario and Quebec, Canada, it is native through much of the eastern and southwestern United States, although it is absent from some areas of the Upper Midwest and is rare in much of New England.

Its southern limits are in Mexico. It has a wide-ranging natural habitat. In the Southeastern United States it is most found in rocky forests, in both moist and dry soil associated with calcareous or mafic substrates. In the Midwest, habitats include forests, prairies and sand dunes. In Arizona it is common in canyons. Larva of the giant swallowtail butterfly Papilio cresphontes feed on the leaves. Treehoppers of the genus Enchenopa infest the branches, laying white-frothy masses of eggs on the branch undersides. Several ant species tend to the treehoppers, including Camponotus pennsylvanicus, Formica montana, Formica subsericea. Several bee species have been documented visiting the flowers of wafer ash, including Agapostemon virescens, Andrena commoda, Andrena crataegi, Andrena cressonii, Apis mellifera, Bombus auricomus, Bombus bimaculatus, Bombus impatiens, Ceratina calcarata, Ceratina dupla, Ceratina mikmaqi, Lasioglossum imitatum. Numerous cultivars have been developed for orname

List of political parties in Sardinia

Several Political parties operate in Sardinia. No party has had the chance of gaining power alone and thus parties must work with each other to form coalition governments; the political parties are organized in two political coalitions at the regional level: one centred on the Democratic Party, the other around Forza Italia. Because of their ideological and political factionalism, the Sardinian nationalist parties have played a marginal role in the electoral scene. More than 15% in the 2014 regional election: Democratic Party Forward Italy Note: The Five Star Movement and Civic Choice, which in Sardinia obtained 29.7% and 6.0% of the vote in the Italian general election of February 2013, decided not to take part to the regional election. Neither did the New Centre-Right, a party launched in late 2013. Between 4% and 15% in the 2014 regional election: Union of Christian and Centre Democrats Sardinian Reformers Left Ecology Freedom Sardinian Action Party Between 1% and 4% in the 2014 regional election: United Brothers of Italy Project Republic of Sardinia Party of Sardinians Red Moors Sardinian Democratic Union Democratic Centre Communist Refoundation Party Party of Italian Communists Christian Popular Union Sardinia Free Zone Movement Italian Socialist Party Italy of Values Federation of the Greens Independence Republic of Sardinia The Base Sardinia To the Left for Independence United Independentist Front North League Sardinia Free Zone Movement Forward Together Sardinian Independentist Party Free Sardinia Sardinia Nation Sovereignty At least 1% in a regional, general or EP election in Sardinia: Sardinian Socialist Action Party Independentist Sardinian Party New Movement Democratic Federation Sardinia Project Sardinian Autonomist Populars Sardinia Tomorrow Sardinian nationalism List of political parties in Italy

Chester Harding (painter)

Chester Harding was an American portrait painter known for his paintings of prominent figures in the United States and England. Harding was born at Conway, Massachusetts on September 1, 1792, he was the fourth of twelve children born to his mother, Olive Harding, father, Abell Harding. He was brought up in the wilderness of New York state, he was a lad of robust physique, standing over 6 feet 3 inches, his family removed to Caledonia, New York, when he was fourteen years old, he was early thrown upon his own resources for support, his initial trade being that of a turner. In the War of 1812, he marched as a drummer with the militia to the St Lawrence, he became subsequently chair-maker, inn-keeper, house-painter, painting signs in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He worked at this latter occupation a year, when acquaintance with a traveling portrait painter led him to attempt that art. Having succeeded in producing a crude portrait of his wife, he devoted himself enthusiastically to the profession, he painted several other portraits at Pittsburgh, went to Paris, where he finished 100 portraits in six months at $25 each.

He made enough money to take him to the schools at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia. He established himself in St. Louis, went on the road as an itinerant portrait painter. In August 1823, he went to England and set up a studio in London, spent three years in studying and painting, he met with great success, painting royalty and the nobility, despite the lackings of an early education and social experience, he became a favorite in all circles. On his return to the United States in 1826, he settled in Boston residing in Beacon Hill, Massachusetts, in what became known as the Chester Harding House, a National Historic Landmark which now houses the Boston Bar Association, he stayed there until 1830. In 1845, after the death of his wife, he went to England again for a second nine-month visit. After his return, he resided in Springfield, spending his winters in St. Louis or in some of the southern cities. In 1828, he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Honorary Academician.

He wrote My Egotistography, printed. He painted portraits of many of the prominent women of his time. Among the people who sat for him were James Madison, James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, John Marshall, Nicholas Brown, Jr. Dudley Leavitt Pickman, Charles Carroll, William Wirt, Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, Washington Allston, Stephen Van Rensselaer, Samuel Rogers, Sir Archibald Allison, the Dukes of Norfolk and Sussex. Harding is the only known painter, his last work was a portrait of Gen. William T. Sherman, his portrait of Daniel Webster went to the Bar Association of New York, that of John Randolph to the Corcoran Gallery at Washington, D. C. On February 14, 1815, Harding was married to Caroline Matilda Woodruff near Caledonia in Livingston County, New York. Caroline was the daughter of James Woodruff. Together, they were the parents of nine children, including four sons, two each who fought on opposing sides in the Civil War: Mary Ophelia Harding, who married John Marshall Krum, the 11th Mayor of St. Louis, in 1839.

Margaret Eliot Harding, who married Rev. William Orne White in 1863. Chester Harding Jr. a Union Army Brevet Brigadier General. Horace A. Harding, who married Amanda Perin Moore, daughter of Sydenham Moore, U. S. Representative from Alabama. James P. Harding, a General in the Missouri State Guard and Major in the Confederate States Army, he married Christina Amelia Cordell in 1855. His wife died on August 1845 in Springfield, Massachusetts. Harding died in Boston on April 1, 1866, is buried in Springfield Cemetery in Springfield. Through his son Horace, he was the paternal grandfather of William P. G. Harding, the Chairman of the Federal Reserve and President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, Chester Harding, the Governor of the Panama Canal Zone from 1917 to 1921 who, late in life became a noted portrait painter. Harding's Gallery Chester Harding at Find a Grave WorldCat Worcester Art Museum. Biography of Harding. “Chester Harding,” The Atlantic Monthly, Vol. XIX, January, 1867, No, CXI, pp. 485–488 at cdl.library.cornell.edu.

Visited 20 December 2010

Belle Ayr Mine

The Belle Ayr mine is a coal mine located 18 miles southeast of Gillette, Wyoming in the United States in the coal-rich Powder River Basin. The mine is an open pit, "truck and shovel", mine producing a low-sulfur, sub-bituminous coal from the Wyodak-Anderson seam, used for domestic energy generation. Coal produced by the mine is shipped to its customers via railroad; the mine is owned and operated by Blackjewel LLC after being acquired from Contura energy in 2017. As of 2009, Belle Ayr had reserves of 406 mm tons of sub-bituminous coal and a maximum permitted production capacity of 45mm tons per year. Typical annual production has been in 26-28mm ton range for the last several years though; the average quality of the coal shipped from Belle Ayr is 8,550 BTU/lb, 0.33% Sulfur, 4.50% Ash, 1.90% Sodium. Train loading operations at the mine are done with a batch weigh bin system, coupled to a "weigh-in-motion" track scale system. Silo capacity at the mine's rail loop, which can accommodate up to 5 unit trains, is 46,000 tons.

In 2008, the mine produced just over 28.7 million short tons of coal, making it the 7th-most productive coal mine in the United States. The Belle Ayr Mine began operations in 1972 and is the oldest, non-captive mine in the Powder River Basin. Since mining operations began, the mine has shipped over 574 million tons of coal to its customers; the Belle Ayr mine has changed hands many times through sales. Previous owners include AMAX, Cyprus AMAX, RAG, Foundation Coal. In 2007, Belle Ayr was awarded a Director's Award from the Office of Surface Mining for its restoration work on Caballo Creek, which winds its way through the Belle Ayr Mine property. On July 1, 2019 CEO Jeffery Hoop announced that Blackjewel LLC, the operator of Belle Ayr had filed for bankruptcy and closed the mine. According to the Casper Star-Tribune, court documents show that Blackjewel owes $500 million in liabilities, including $6 million to employees; this was after Blackjewel was denied $20 million in financing by the United Bank of West Virginia